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action allege amendment American amount applied areas ask the court assessed average basis Board California cities Civil Rights claim classification Commission compelling concluded Constitution costs County decision defendants denied determine discrimination disparities distribution economic effect Equal Educational Opportunity equal protection clause expenditures fails families Federal filed financing system formula function funds further Government grant higher housing Illinois importance inequities interest involved Justice legislative legislature less limit Michigan Minnesota minority municipal needs parents percent persons Plaintiffs Plaintiffs ask poor problems programs property tax public education public schools pupil quality of education racial raise reasonable receive regarded relatively Report reside result school districts school finance Serrano social spend standard State's statute substantially Supp supra note Supreme Court tax rate taxpayers Texas United violate wealth
Side 18 - We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. Therefore, we hold that the plaintiffs and others similarly situated for whom the actions have been brought are, by reason of the segregation complained of, deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.
Side 18 - Today education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. Compulsory school attendance laws and the great expenditures for education both demonstrate our recognition of the importance of education to our democratic society. It is required in the performance of our most basic public responsibilities even service in the armed forces. It is the very foundation of good citizenship.
Side 28 - Nor need we enquire whether similar considerations enter into the review of statutes directed at particular religious ... or national ... or racial minorities . . . whether prejudice against discrete and insular minorities may be a special condition, which tends seriously to curtail the operation of those political processes ordinarily to be relied upon to protect minorities, and which may call for a correspondingly more searching judicial inquiry.
Side 74 - equal protection of the laws" is a more explicit safeguard of prohibited unfairness than "due process of law," and, therefore, we do not imply that the two are always interchangeable phrases. But, as this Court has recognized, discrimination may be so unjustifiable as to be violative of due process.
Side 70 - In the area of economics and social welfare, a State does not violate the Equal Protection Clause merely because the classifications made by its laws are imperfect.
Side 17 - Court relied in large part on "those qualities which are incapable of objective measurement but which make for greatness in a law school." In McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, supra, the Court, in requiring that a Negro admitted to a white graduate school be treated like all other students, again resorted to intangible considerations: ". . . his ability to study, to engage in discussions and exchange views with other students, and, in general, to learn his profession.
Side 12 - Promote, then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened.
Side 25 - The right of a State to regulate, for example, a public utility may well include, so far as the due process test is concerned, power to impose all of the restrictions which a legislature may have a 'rational basis' for adopting. But freedoms of speech and of press, of assembly, and of worship may not be infringed on such slender grounds. They are susceptible of restriction only to prevent grave and immediate danger to interests which the State may lawfully protect.