K. at his B's 6 sq. K. on his Qo's eq.
Q: at her B.'s 6 sq.

White can now mate in two moves, but if he places his King on his own sixth square, Black is stalemated as before. The proper move, therefore, is to place the Queen on her Knight's seventh, when the Black King must move to his own square, and accept mate, by White playing his Queen to King's seventh. As the pieces stand in the above position, Black, with the move, is stalemated. This will show the young player how careful he ought to be in advancing his Queen, for the very power of this piece renders the tyro liable to stalemate his adversary by a single false move.

It is not necessary that instances of this nature should be multiplied, the careful student of Chess being once aware of the principle to be adopted and the error to be avoided. The Queen can always checkmate an unsupported King, from any part of the board, in from five to twelve moves. Place the pieces in the following order, and try POSITION IV.

K. at his sq.

K. at his Qo's third.
Q. at her B.'s sq.

The Queen can of herself force the adverse King to the side of the board ; but as a certain quantity of work is generally more easily performed by two persons than by one, so it will be


found easier to mate with the assistance of the
King. Thus :-

1 Q. to K. Kti's 5 1 K. to his 3
2 K. to his 2

2 K. to Q. 3
3 K. to bis 3

3 K. to his 3 4 K. to his 4

4 K. to Qo's 3 5 Q. to K. Kti's 6

K. moves 6 K. advances

6 K. moves 7 Q. mates It will be seen that one check, or at most two checks, will win the victory. Avoid useless checks is an axiom in Chess that should never be forgotten.

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CHECKMATE WITH THE ROOK. The power of the Rook at the end of the game is almost equal to that of the Queen. It is necessary, in order to compel mate with the Rook, that the Kings should stand opposite each other with only an open square between, or that the attacked King should be in a corner square with the other King distant only a Knight's move. Next to the Queen, the Rook is the most important piece on the board. In the early part of the game he has few opportunities for action, but towards the end, when the pieces get changed off and the board becomes clear, especially after the removal of the Queens, the Rook is almost irresistible as an attacking piece. With young players it is common to exchange Rooks early in the game. This is a mistake, for we should never forget that it is easier to win with a King and Rook than with a King and two Bishops, or even

with a King, Bishop, and Knight; while it is impossible to win with two Knights without the assistance of a Pawn. Do not be too anxious to bring your Rooks too early into play ; but after you have castled, then let the Rooks support each other, and defend your King on his own rank.

Doubled Rooks—that is, one Rook placed before the other-are very powerful, and, in fact, more than equal to a Queen. It is good play to post a Rook on your adversary's second rank, as it prevents the advance of his King. But while you are thus careful of your own Rooks, endeavour by all means to prevent your opponent from doubling his. This you may do, either by pushing on a Pawn or posting a Knight or Bishop on the diagonal the second Rook would occupy. It is generally better play to defend your Rooks than to exchange, should your adversary offer to do 80 ; without, indeed, you see an evident advantage in the change. It is a very powerful reason for bringing your pieces early into play that the Rooks are comparatively useless at home, and cannot be advantageously worked except in a tolerably clear field.

To checkmate with a Rook is very easy, when opposed to a King alone. All you have to do is to advance your Rook, so as to confine the King to as small a portion of the board as possible, and then to push forward your own King, till the two monarchs stand directly opposite each other. This may be accomplished from any part of the board in about nine moves. With two Rooks against one, the readiest way to effect mate is to force an exchange, and then work on with the single Rook. It is almost needless that I should illustrate this by examples ; but, by way of exercise, I give the following position, which was discovered by the celebrated Stamma:White.

K. on his Qo's 8 K. on his Qi's 3
R. on Q. Ri's 7

R. on K. R's 5 R. on Q. B.'s 5 Here it will be seen that Black, with the move, can mate immediately; and even without the move, it would seem that he must at least draw the game, because Wbite cannot at the same time prevent the mate and protect the Rook next the adverse King. But let us see. By playing thus, White, with the move, wins the game :White.

1 R. to K. Ri's 5

1 R. takes R.
2 R. to Q. R's 6 (ch.) 2 K. moves
3 R. to Q. R.'s 5 (ch.) 3 K. moves

4 R. takes R.- and wins. If Black declines to take the offered Rook, White wins equally the same, because he is then enabled to give check at his next move.

Rook against Rook is a drawn game.
Rook against Knight usually wins.

It is generally admitted by first-rate players, now-a-days, that Rook and Bishop against a single Rook is a drawn game.

Rook and Pawn against Rook ought to win.

Rook and Pawn against a Bishop ought to win.

Rook ought to draw the game against Rook and Knight.


It will have been observed by those who have • noticed Mr. Morphy's style of play, that he

generally confines his attack to one side of the board. "This he accomplishes by a judicious use of his Bishops and Knights. Young players very frequently change away these Pieces in the early part of the game, which is injudicious. The Bishop is generally considered as of rather more value than the Knight; but towards the end of the game the Knight is a very powerful piece. In the centre of the board the Bishop attacks and defends thirteen squares, towards the side eight or nine, and in a side square only seven. The King's Bishop is considered the most powerful at the beginning of the game, because it can check the King on his own square, or after he has castled. It is sometimes good play to give check with the Bishop, if by so doing you oblige the King to move, and thus prevent him from castling. Two Bishops can checkmate, but two Knights cannot, without the assistance of a Pawn.

A Knight is generally considered to be worth three, and in some situations four pawns. In the centre of the board he attacks eight squares, but as he moves towards the side his power sensibly decreases. He cannot be taken by any Piece he attacks except the opposite Knight, and his attack cannot be counteracted by interposing any other Piece. He is a dangerous opponent, because he makes his attack without putting himself en prise, and can give check and fork another Piece at the same move. A curious

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