Black. 10 Q.'s B. takes P. 10 P. takes Kt. 11 R. takes P.

11 Q.’s B. to Kt.'s 3. 12 P. to Qi's 5

12 Q.'s B. to K. Kt.'s 5. 13 P. takes Q.’s B.'s P. 13 B. takes R. 14 P. takes Kt.'s P. 14 Q. takes K.'s P. 15 P.takes R.(becom. a Q.)15 Q. takes Q. 16 B.takes K.'s B.'s P.(ch.) 16 K. to B.'s sq. 17 B. takes Kt.

17 R. takes B. 18 B. takes Q.'s P. (ch.) 18 K. to K.'s sq. 19 Q. to K.'s 6 (ch.) 19 K. to Q.'s sq. 20 Q. to K.'s 7 (ch.) 20 K. to Qo's Bi's sq. 21 Q. to Q.’s B.'s 7 (mate)

The following are the principal débuts adopted by Staunton, Morphy, and the most celebrated players. These again are largely subdivided.

1. The King's Gambit, and its varieties, in which the King's Bishop's Pawn is advanced two squares by the first player at his second move.

2. The King's Bishop's Opening, by which name we distinguish all those games in which the first player brings out his King's Bishop at his second move.

3. The King's Knight's Opening, which gives the name to all games in which the first player advances his King's Knight at the second move.

4. The Queen's Gambit, in which the Queen's Bishop's Pawn is advanced two squares by the first player at his second move.

5. The Gambits of the King's Knight, in which the Knight is sacrificed by the first player for the sake of obtaining a good position ; and

6. Irregular Openings, in which division may be included all the openings not founded on one or the other of the above modes of play.

Having already said something about the King's Gambit, we will proceed to a brief consideration of

THE KING'S BISHOP'S OPENING. For the sake of uniformity, we will suppose the White always plays first, though the attack and defence are of course the same whichever side begins. The game then commences thus : White.

Black. 1 P. to K. 4

1 P. to K. 4 The advance of King's Pawn two squares is the very best mode of opening the game for both players, because it allows Queen and King's Bishop to be brought into play. The second move of the White is

2 K. B. to Q. B. 4 2 K. B. to Q. B. 4 which Black answers by a like move, acknowledged to be the best defence. In this position of the game, the Bishops attack the adverse King's Bishop's Pawn, his weakest point, and each player is able to castle as soon as he has moved his Knight. As the next move, White sometimes plays Queen's Pawn one square: this is bad, because it confines the King's Bishop. The best move is Queen's Bishop's Pawn one square, thus :

3 P. to Q. B. 3 3 K. Kt. to B. 3 This last move of the Black defends his King's

Bishop's Pawn from White Queen's attack; and
the White's move of the Queen's Bishop's Pawn
affords another outlet for her Queen. The Black
might have moved his Queen to the King's 2nd,
his Queen's Pawn one, or Queen's Pawn two
squares, with equal advantage. But White now

4 P. to Q. 4 . 4 P. takes P.

5 P. takes P., and attacks the Bishop. White has now two Pawns in the centre of the board. It would be dangerous for Black to take King's Pawn, as White might advance his Queen to King's Bishop's 3rd, and threaten mate. Black, therefore, either retires his Bishop or gives check with it. Suppose he inoves

5 B. to Q. Kt. 3 White replies by

6 Q. Kt. to B. 3, and 6 Castles White now defends his King's Pawn, and prevents Black from advancing his Queen's Pawn two squares. If, instead of castling, Black should take King's Pawn, it is not well for White to change Knights directly, as that would allow Black to advance Queen's Pawn two squares. The next best move for the White, supposing his game to have proceeded thus far, is

7 K. Kt. to K. 2 7 P. to Q. B. 3. White now is enabled to castle, and Black may be tempted to take King's Pawn. From this point White has the best of the game. He moves 8 K. B. to Q. 3, to avoid changing K. P. for Q. P.,

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and then, whatever Black does in reply, White has a very strong position. But we must consider for a moment how this advantage has been gained. Instead of retiring his Bishop at the fifth move, Black should have given check, when White must have covered with his Knight, or Bishop, and Black would have gained by the exchange, or obliged his opponent to lose his Queen's Knight's Pawn. It was probably weak play for Black to bring out his Knight at his third move, instead of moving as suggested. Suppose Black had adopted the other mode of play. We go back to his fifth move :White.


5 K. B. to Q. Kt. 5 (ch.) White interposes his Knight or Bishop, suppose6 Q. B. to Q.

2 6 B. takes B. (ch.) 7 Q. takes B. White now Castles, and the game is even.

KING'S KNIGHT'S OPENING. We now come to the consideration of other defences to the King's Knight's attack. One of the worst modes of defending the King's Pawn is King's Bishop's Pawn one square. Just try it:White.

Black. 1 P. to K. 4

1 P. to K. 4 2 K. Kt. to B.

3 2 P. to K. B. 3 3 Kt. takes P. . 3 P. takes Kt. It would now appear that you have lost a Knight

for a Pawn; but let us pursue the game, and see how the matter stands. White now playsWhite.

Black. 4. Q. to K. R.5 (ch.) Black's only answer is to move his King, or to interpose his King's Knight's Pawn. If he does the first, White's Queen takes the Pawn, gives check, and wins; if he moves

4 K. Kt. P. one sq., then Queen takes Pawn, gives check, and takes the King's Rook:

5 Q. takes P. (ch.) 5 Q. B. or Kt.
6 Q. takes R.

interposes. White has now a Rook and Pawn for a Knight, and decidedly the best of the game.

Now let us go back to Black's second move, and suppose he defends his King's Pawn by a counter-attack thus :

1 P. to K. 4 . 1 P. to K. 4

2 K. Kt. to B. 3 2 Q. Kt. to B. 3 Here the game is even, and White moves out his Bishop

3. K. B. to Q. B. 4, and then White has the advantage.

We thus see that the true answer to the King's Knight's attack is Queen's Knight to Queen's Bishop's 3rd. Another variation of Black's defence is as follows :

1 P. to K. 4. 1 P. to K. 4
2 K. Kt. to B 3 2 Q. to K. B. 3
3 K. B. to Q. B. 4 3 Q. to K. Kt.3.

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