castle early in the game, or he will have to move his King : par exemple, in the regular GIUOCO PIANO of the Italians :White.

Black. 1 P. to K. 4

1 P. to K. 4 2 K. Kt. to B. 3 2 Q. Kt. to B. 3 3 K. B. to Q. B. 4 3 K. B. to Q. B. 4 4 P. to Q. B. 3 4 K. Kt. to B. 3 5 P. to Q. 4

5 P. takes P. 6 P. to K. 5

6 K. Kt. to K. 5 (weak) 7 K. B. to Q. 5 This is the best move for the White, as it forks the two Knights. If Black now takes Pawn with Pawn, White must exchange Pawns, and then Black can either give check with the Bishop, or take King's Bishop's Pawn with his Knight, and fork the Queen and Rook. Therefore from this point, Black has the best of the game. But if, instead of taking the Pawn, Black moves

7 Kt. takes K. B. P. The White King must take the Knight or lose his Rook. He takes the Knight

8 K. takes Kt. ; Then Black take Pawn with Pawn, and discovers check with his Bishop. White King has now three squares to which to retreat. His safest place is, perhaps, King's Knight's third square. Well, then, the deduction I draw from this examination is, that the best answer to the King's Knight's attack is Queen's Knight to Bishop's third ; in fact, the Giuoco PIANO, to be followed,

on White advancing Queen's Bishop's Pawn one square, by King's Knight to Bishop's third, or Queen to King's second. In fine, the regular result of this opening is a safe and even game.

THE EVANS' GAMBIT. Oneof the most popular variations of the Giuoco Piano is known by the above name, it having been invented a few years since by Captain W. D. Evans, of the Royal Navy. It is as follows:White.

1 P. to K. 4

1 P. to K. 4
2 K. Kt. to B. 3 2 Q. Kt. to B. 3
3 K. B. to Q. B. 4 3 K. B. to Q. B. 4

4 P. to Q. Kt. 4. This last more of the White constitutes the Gambit. The sacrifice of this Pawn-the least valuable on the board-is believed to result in advantage to the player. Indeed, on the first introduction of this Gambit, it was thought to be irresistible. What now has Black to do? If he retires his Bishop, White has the advantage; for he can either support the Gambit Pawn or attack the Knight. If Black takes the Pawn, he allows his Bishop to be drawn off the diagonal by which he attacks White's weakest point-his King's Bishop's Pawn—and opens two important diagonals for White's Queen's Bishop, besides enabling the first player to castle in safety. If, on the other hand, Black takes the Pawn with his Knight, you attack him with Queen's Bishop's Pawn, and he must retire to his former place (as best), and you have a strong attack. But if, when Knight takes Pawn, you should take Black's King's Pawn with your Knight, you lose the game by your adversary moving his Queen to King's Bishop's third. The best move for Black is, notwithstanding present disadvantage,White.


4 B. takes P. and the game then proceeds with evident advan. tage to the White :

5 P. to Q. B. 3 5 B. to Q. B. 4 (best) White usually castles as his next move, but some writers recommend the advance of Queen's Pawn two squares, attacking the Bishop ; but it is questionable whether this is the strongest attack. I prefer to castle.

6 Castles If, now, the Black Bishop moves to Queen's third White answers by Queen's Pawn two squares. But suppose the Black Bishop to move

6 K. Kt. to B. 3 then White moves

7 Kt. to K. Kt. 5 and Black

7 Castles ; and White has the better game.

But if Black, at his fifth move, retires his Bishop to Rook's fourth, White castles, and immediately afterwards advances Queen's Pawn two squares, and has a strong position.

A good defence for the Black is the fol. lowing:

Moves from 1 to 5 as before.


5 B. to R. 4 6 Castles

6 K. Kt. to B. 3 7 P. to Q. 4.

7 P. to Q.3 8 Q. to R. Kt. 3 8 Castles ; and White has still the best game.

Moves from 1 to 5 as before.

5 B. to Q. R. 4
6 Castles

6 P. to Q. 3 7 P. to Q. 4

7 P. takes P. 8 P. takes P. 8 Q. Kt. 3 (best) White's best play is

9 Q. B. to Q. Kt. 2 9 K. Kt. to B. 3
10 P. to K. 5 (best) 10 P. takes P. (best)

11 Q. B. to R. 3 11 Q. B. to K. 3 which fully answers White's attack, and gives Black the best of the game.

The very best way of illustrating this interesting opening is to play an actual game, and show the youthful student the reasons of the moves. The five first moves being the same as before


Black. 6 Castles

6 P. to Q. 31 7 P. to Q. 4

7 P. takes P. 8 P. takes P.

8 B. to Q. Kt. 3 9 Q. B. to Q. Kt. 2 9 Q. B. pins the Kt.2 10 K. B. pins Q.K.3 10 P. to R. 3 11 B. to Q. R. 44 11 P. to Q. 4 12 P. takes P.

12 Q. takes P. 13 Q. Kt. to B. 3 13 B. takes K. Kt. 14 Kt. takes Q. 14 B. takes Q. 15 Kt. takes Q. B. 15 P. takes Kt. 16 Q. R. takes B. 16 K. B. P. one 17 Q. P. advances 17 Doubled P. one 18 P. takes Kt. 18 P. takes B. 19 P. takes P.

19 R. to Kt. sq. 20 K. R. chs.

20 K. to B. 2 21 Q. R. chs.

21 K. to Kt. 3 22 Q. B. to R. 3 and White Wins easily.

It will be seen that Black's sixth move was weak, resulting in a rapid exchange of pieces, and eventual loss of the game.

QUEEN'S BISHOP'S PAWN'S OPENING. He who would make himself thoroughly master of the noble game of Chess, must examine every possible style of play. This opening was pronounced unsound by the great Philidor, but more

Instead of K. Kt. to B. 3. 2 Weak play. K. Kt. to B. 3, as in the former game, would have been better.

3 Might have played Q. to K. Kt. 3, which Black would have answered by Q. Kt. to R. 4, and eventually have secured a better game.

4 If White moves Queen's Pawn one square, K. to K. B. square.

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