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AN account of Dr. Swift has been already collected, with great diligence and acuteness, by Dr. Hawkesworth, according to a scheme which I laid before him in the intimacy of our friendship. I cannot therefore be expected to say much of a life, concerning which I had long since communicated my thoughts to a man capable of dignifying his narration with so much elegance of language and force of sentiment.
JONATHAN SWIFT was, according to an account said to be written by himself, * the son of Jonathan Swift, an attorney, and was born at Dublin on St. Andrew's day, 1667 ; according to his own report, as delivered by Pope to Spence, he was born at Leicester, the son of a clergyman, who was minister of the parish in Herefordshire. During his life the place of his birth was undetermined. He was contented to be called an Irishman by the Irish ; but would occasionally call himself an Englishman. The question may, without much regret, be left in the obscurity in which he delighted to involve it.
Whatever was his birth, his education was Irish. He was sent at the age of six to the school of Kilkenny, and in his fifteenth year, 1682, was admitted into the university of Dublin.
In his academical studies he was either not diligent or not happy. It must disappoint every reader's expectation, that, when at the usual time he claimed the bachelorship of arts, he was found by the examiners too conspicuously deficient for regular admission, and obtained his degree at last by special favour ; a term used in that university to denote want of merit.
* Mr. Sheridan, in his life of Swift, observes, that this account was really written by the dean, and now exists in his own hand writing in the library of Dublin college. R. † Spence's Anecdotes, vol. II. p. 273.
Of this disgrace it may be easily supposed that he was much ashamed, and shame had its proper effect in producing reformation. He resolved from that time to study eight hours a day, and continued his industry for seven years, with what improvement is sufficiently known. This part of his story well deserves to be remembered ; it may afford useful admonition and powerful encouragement to many men, whose abilities have been made for a time useless by their passions or pleasures, and who, having lost one part of life in idleness, are tempted to throw away the remainder in despair.
In this course of daily application he continued three years longer at Dublin ; and in this time, if the observation and memory of an old companion may be trusted, he drew the first sketch of his Tale of a Tub."
When he was about one and twenty, 1688, being by the death of Godwin Swift, his uncle, who had supported him, left without subsistence, he went to consult his mother, who then lived at Leicester, about the future course of his life ; and by her direction, solicited the advice and patronage of sir William Temple, who had married one of Mrs. Swift's relations, and whose father, sir John Temple, master of the rolls in Ireland, had lived in great familiarity of friendship with Godwin Swift, by whom Jonathan had been to that time maintained.
Temple received with sufficient kindness the nephew of his father's friend, with whom he was, when they conversed together, so much pleased that he detained him two years in his house. Here he became known to king William, who sometimes visited Temple when he was disabled by the gout, and, being attended by Swift in the garden, showed him how to cut asparagus in the Dutch way.
King William's notions were all military ; and he expressed his kindness to Swift by offering to make him a captain of horse.
When Temple removed to Moor park, he took Swift with him ; and when he was consulted by the earl of Portland about the expedience of complying with a bill then depending for making parliaments triennial, against which king William was strongly prejudiced, after having in vain tried to show the earl that the proposal involved nothing dangerous to royal power, he sent Swift for the same purpose to the king. Swift, who probably
was proud of his employment, and went with all the confidence of a young man, found his arguments, and his art of displaying them, made totally ineffectual by the predetermination of the king; and used to mention this disappointment as his first antidote against vanity.
Before he left Ireland he contracted a disorder, as he thought, by eating too much fruit. The original of diseases is commonly obscure. Almost every boy eats as much fruit as he can get, without any great inconvenience. The disease of Swift was giddiness with deafness, which attacked him from time to time, began very early, pursued him through life, and at last sent him to the grave, deprived of reason.
Being much oppressed at Moor park by this grievous malady, he was advised to try his native air, and went to Ireland; but, finding no benefit, returned to sir William, at whose house he continued his studies, and is known to have read, among other books, “ Cyprian” and “Irenæus.” He thought exercise of great necessity, and used to run half a mile up and down a hill every two hours.
It is easy to imagine that the mode in which his first degree was conferred, left him no great fondness for the university of Dublin, and therefore he resolved to become a master of arts at Oxford. In the testimonial which he produced, the words of disgrace were onnitted ; and he took his master's degree, July 5, 1692, with such reception and regard as fully contented him.
While he lived with Temple, he used to pay his mother at Leicester a yearly visit. He travelled on foot, unless some violence of the weather drove him into a waggon ; and at night he would go to a penny lodging, where he purchased clean sheets for six pence. This practice lord Orrery imputes to his innate love of grossness and vulgarity ; some may ascribe it to his desire of surveying human life through all its varieties ; and others, perhaps with equal probability, to a passion which seems to have been deeply fixed in his heart, the love of a shilling.
In time he began to think that his attendance at Moor park deserved some other recompense than the pleasure, however mingled with improvement, of Temple's conversation ; and grew so impatient, that, 1694, he went away in discontent,
Temple, conscious of having given reason for complaint, is said to have made him deputy master of the rolls in Ireland ; which, according to his kinsman's account, was an office which he knew him not able to discharge. Swift therefore resolved to enter into the church, in which he had at first no higher hopes than of the chaplainship to the factory at Lisbon ; but being recommended to lord Capel, he obtained the prebend of Kilroot in Connor, of about a hundred pounds a year.
But the infirmities of Temple made a companion like Swift so necessary, that he invited him back, with a promise to procure him English preferment in exchange for the prebend, which he desired him to resign. With this request Swift quickly complied, having perhaps equally repented their separation, and they lived on together with mutual satisfaction ; and, in the four years that passed between his return and Temple's death, it is probable that he wrote the “ Tale of a Tub," and the “ Battle of the Books."
Swift began early to think, or to hope, that he was a poet, and wrote Pindaric odes to Temple, to the king, and to the Athenian society, a knot of obscure men,* who published a periodical pamphlet of answers to questions, sent, or supposed to be sent, by letters. I have been told that Dryden, having perused these verses, said, “ Cousin Swift, you will never be a poet;" and that this denunciation was the motive of Swift's perpetual malevolence to Dryden.
In 1699 Temple died, and left a legacy with his manuscripts to Swift, for whom he had obtained from king William, a promise of the first prebend that should be vacant at Westminster or Canterbury.
That this promise might not be forgotten, Swift dedicated to the king the posthumous works with which he was intrusted ; but neither the dedication, nor tenderness for the man whom he once had treated with confidence and fondness, revived in king William the remembrance of his promise. Swift awhile attended the court; but soon found his solicitations hopeless.
He was then invited by the earl of Berkeley to accompany him into Ireland, as his private secretary ; but, after having done the
* The publisher of this collection was John Dunton. R.
business till their arrival at Dublin, he then found that one Bush had persuaded the earl that a clergyman was not
proper secretary, and had obtained the office for himself. In a man like Swift, such circumvention and inconstancy must have excited violent indignation.
But he had yet more to suffer. Lord Berkeley had the disposal of the deanery of Derry, and Swift expected to obtain it ; but by the secretary's influence, supposed to have been secured by a bribe, it was bestowed on somebody else ; and Swift was dismissed
e with the livings of Laracor and Rathbeggin in the diocese of Meath, which together did not equal half the value of the deanery.
At Laracor he increased the parochial duty by reading prayers on Wednesdays and Fridays, and performed all the offices of his profession with great decency and exactness.
Soon after his settlement at Laracor, he invited to Ireland the unfortunate Stella, a young woman whose name was Johnson, the daughter of the steward of sir William Temple, who, in consideration of her father's virtues, left her a thousand pounds. With her came Mrs. Dingley, whose whole fortune was twenty seven pounds a year for her life. With these ladies he passed his hours of relaxation, and to them he opened his bosom ; but they nerer resided in the same house, nor did he see either without a witness. They lived at the parsonage, when Swift was away; and, when he returned, removed to a lodging, or to the house of a neighbouring clergyman.
Swift was not one of those minds which amaze the world with early pregnancy ; his first work, except his few poetical essays, was the “ Dissentions in Athens and Rome," published, 1701, in his thirty fourth year. After its appearance, paying a visit to some bishop, he heard mention made of the new pamphlet that Burnet had written, replete with political knowledge, When he seemed to doubt Burnet's right to the work, he was told by the bishop, that he was a young man;" and, still persisting to doubt, that he was a very positive young man.”
Three years afterward, 1704, was published “ The Tale of a Tub;" of this book charity may be persuaded to think that it might be written by a man of a peculiar character without ill intention ; but it is certainly of dangerous example. That Swift was its author, though it be universally believed, was never owned by himself, nor very well proved by any evidence; but no other