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trumpet, was completed in the conquests second and third angels are Calvin and of the Ottomans. "The seventh relates to Zuingle, and the other early reformers events which are yet to happen. The The remainder of the chapter, our author seven thunders mentioned after the sound. apprehends, will be soon accomplished, ing of the sixth trumpet, are the seven but not before the Ottoman empire has crusades. The little book which the apostle fallen, the encroachments in Italy have was ordered to eat, contains what hap- extended to the capital of the ecclesiastipened in the west; while the transactions cal state, and the seat of the papacy has alluded to in the fifth and sixth trumpets been removed to Jerusalem.. were taking place in the east: and the With the explication of the fifteenth two witnesses are the Jewish and Gen. and sisteenth chapters, the commentary tile Christians who rejected the corrupt ends. The last of these, contains the doctrines and practices of the Romish seven vials or bowls. The first of which, church. The woman and her child Mr. W. supposes, signifies the continu. mentioned in the twelfth chapter, is the ance of papal errors after the reformachurch and Constantine; and the dragon tion; the second the prevalence of foreign is pagan Rome. The thirteenth and war, and particularly naval; the third seventeenth chapters are considered as that of civil war; the fourth, oppression parts of the same description, and as re- in the part of the rulers of the world, lating to the restoration of the power of and suffering and impiety in their sube ancient Rome in the papal tyranny. jects; the fifib, affliction, vice, and ignoThe beast with the two horns, denotes rance, in the papal state ; the sixth, the the monastic orders arising in the east gradual decay, and final removal of in a time of prosperity and peace, di- the Ottoman empire, and the success of vided, at first, into two classes, the papal and atheistical propagandists ; Cænobites and the Anchorets; and, in and the seventh, a complete revolution after times, into the Dominicans and over the whole globe, now shortly to Franciscans; conspicuous above all the happen, and to prove the grand conrest. The name forming the number of summation of all things, preceded by the beast, is, with bishop Newton, said great disturbances, and symptoms of to be either 71917, or A&TEIVOS.

In the divine wrath, and the appearance of developing this part of the prophecy, a mighty host pouring down on men by the corruptions and abuses of the Romish a divine commission. church are exposed with an unsparing Such are the leading features of the hand; and the detail of these, which commentary before us; how far this occupies more than two hundred pages, explication of a book which has been, is well adapted to excite the most ar. for so many centuries, the fertile source dent gratitude for the blessing of the of fanciful conjecture and contradictory reformation; an event which Mr. Whit- hypothesis, is sanctioned by reason, or aker considers as being predicted in the by the testimony of history, we shalt fourteenth chapter. Luther is the angel leave our readers to determine. flying in the midst of heaven; and the Art. X. Brief Commentaries upon such Parts of the Revelation and other Prophecies, es

iminediately refer to the present Times, &c. containing a Summary of the Revelation ; the prophet e Histories of the Beast of the bottomless Pit; the Beast of the Earth; the grand Corfederacy', or Babylon the Great; the Man of Sin; the little Horn; and Anticlirist. By JOSEPH GALLOWAY, Esq. furimerly of Philadelphia, in America: Author of Letters to a Nobleman, and other Tracts on the late American War. 8vo. pp. 475.

THIS bold interpreter of prophecy is now ruling the French nation with the one of the class of those, who forsaking most absolute despotism, and resolving the gocd old protestant principles upon to overwhelm the world with atheism, which the syn bols of the apocalypse anarchy and ruin.The beast of the earth liare hitherto been most generally ex can be nothing but “ the French repab. paired, can see in then nothing but the lic, surpassing all other states, hitherto prefiguration of “ Modern Atheistical known in the world, in the extension and france." The beast of the bottomless extremity of impiety, depravity and mispit " is obviously, that political and athe- chief to mankind.” 'If we look for Paul's istical monsier, the revolutionary power man of seri, o where shall we find him

We cannot look for it among the pre- the earth,” a great body in the naturalworld, sent powers of Europe without seeing possessing divers faculties and qualities. the republic of France, in all her conduct, Now that which comes up out of, or springs not only acting up to it in its fullest ex- from a thing, either in the vegetable or anitent, but excelling, and without shame mal world, partakes of the faculties and

qualities, and of course bears the resemblance or remorse, glorying in this very cha- of the thing itself, out of which it came up, racter, and shewing herself the only and or from which it arose : as a tree, for inesact prototype of the man of sin." And stance, partakes of the nature and qualities what else can Daniel's little horn signify? of the seed of the tree from which it came “Where shall we find a power which so up; or an elephant, or a man, of the eleperfectly answers the little horn; a power phant or man from which he sprung. To so worthless, so wicked and abandoned, justify, therefore, the interpretation here, so lost to all that is virtuous and good, be foretold by the word earth, must resem:

we must prove that the power intended to 0 arowedly impious in principle, and of ble, in its abilities and qualities, those of course so little in the sight of God, that particular body. as the revolutionary power of France?"

Now the carth is one great, distinct, inde And what can the antichrist of Johr: penden! body in the natural world, and so is mean, if not that power which has “pro- a proper symbol for one grcat, distinct, inselyted a whole nation, computed at dependent nation in the moral and political twenty-five millions of souls, to its system world. The earth is a revolutionary body, of atheism?”

performing revolutions not only upon its own Our readers may perhaps conclude axis, but round the sun. It must therefor from this specimen, that the whole work for a revolutionary power or nation, which

he allowed, that the earth is a proper type is one regular system of unmixed and has undergone sundry political revolutions. unqualified abuse of a neighbouring The earth again is a revolutionary body, people; but we can assure them, that which performs its revolutions, without the the author is not destitute of reasoning aid of any other natural body; and therefore powers, and that he exhibits consider- it is an apposite figure, to denote a revoluable skill in the explication of enigmatic tionary nation, which performs its revocal language. To prove this, we shall lutions, without the assistance of any other present to them a passage from which political body. The earth is also the great they will doubtless conceive a very high of sin and misery, are acquired; such as opinion of his supereminent talents as arsenic, and all other deadly poisons; sulan unraveller of mysteries. Speaking phur and saltpetre; also the principal inof the beast of the earth, he says: gredients of that destroying composition,

gunpowder ; together with iron, steel, and “ We have seen, that, in prophetic dia- Hint, which complete the system of modern lect, the word " sea" is made use of, to de- destruction. Moreover, gold and silver, note the manner of the rise of wicked civil those common means of human corruption, societies. A meaning not less comprehen- excess and intemperance, are thence exsite and important, we may conclude, is țracied.“ Effodiuntur opes, irritamenta ma. here a fixed to the word “ earth.Now a lorum." “ Riches, which lead to all manlittle knowledge of the nature of that body ner of evil, are dug out of the earth." By will shew, that the word is here made use of the use of these metals, mankind are drawn to point out two great features of the power into all manner of sin, intemperance, and typified by this other beast, viz. that it disease, by which a greater number of the should arise out of one great kingdom or species is cut off before their time, in the Balion, and be a revolutionary power; and career of sensuality and sin, than by all other that it should surpass in depravity of morals, mcans whatever.' Hence it is, that wa ia impiety and mischief, all other civil so- beast coming up out of the earth” is an accieties, which had ever existed before it in curate figure for a revolutionary power, the the world.

most wantonly destructive and consum" To justify this interpretation of the two mately sinful.” meanings of the word eurih, it is necessary to remind the reader, that he is upon hicro If the reader be captivated by this Hyphic ground, and that the apoealypse is incomparable passage, he has only to written in a dialect, the types and figurative expressions of which are taken from the purchase the book, and he will at once forras, faculties, and qualities of things in be put into possession of nearly five hun. the natural world. Here then the prophet tells dred pages of reasoning equally ingeEs, that he saw this “beast come up out of nious, conclusive and resistless.

Art. XI. Prophetice de Septuaginta Hebdomadis apud Danielem explicatio : quam Reve

rendo admodum in Christo Parti Beilbrio Episc. cæteroque clero Lond. concione ad eos habitá in sede D. Alphægii, 124 Maii, A. D. 1801. Propositam, corum hortati in lucem edit. JOHANNES MOORE, LL.B. Collegii de Sion Preses, Adjiciuntur ad calcem notæ, &c. 8vo. pp. 82.

THIS learned author conceives, that siders as prophetic of the shortening of the the difficulties which have embarrassed days before the desolation of the Jewish capital those commentators who have endea- for the elect's sake, promised by Jesus to voured to elucidate the well-known pro- his disciples, Matt. xxiv.; and the phrase .phecy of the seventy weeks by Daniel, “ for the overspreading of the abomihave arisen chiefly from their paying too nations he shall make it desolate :" as it much regard to the niceties of chrono- stands in the English version, he renders, logy, and too little, to the precise mean “ et in aula Templi visentur abominanda ing of the terms which the prophet has eversoris.employed. It is his first object there These are the principal variations from fore to discover the events to which the common rendering and interprethe words of the prophecy are applica- tation of this obscure passage; and these ble. The phrases, “to make reconci- are justified by many judicious and learnliation for iniquity, and to bring in ever- ed notes. lasting righteousness;" he refers to the Though the author considers a mideath of Christ: and “ to anoint the nute attention to chronology as unnecesmost holy," to the glory which Christ sary, and even unfavourable to the exreceived after his ascension. The “ seal- planation of this passage, yet he endeaing up the vision and prophecy” men vours to reconcile the prediction with tioned in the same verse, he considers as the subsequent course of events. But relating to the publication of the apoca- in doing this, he strikes out into a new lypse by John. "The last work of divine path. The commencement of the seauthority; and the “ finishing the trans- venty prophetic weeks, he dates from gression and the making an end of sins,” the twentieth year of the reign of Arhe interprets as denoting the consum- taxerxes Mnemon. If these weeks be mation of the wickedness of the Jewish divided into three portions: the first people, in the period that elapsed be- portion, comprehending sixty-two weeks, tween the death of the Messiah, and his will extend to the 14th year of Tiberius; coming as a prince, to the destruction the next, including six weeks and a smali of his enemies. The author also trans- part of the seventh, will terminate in the poses the division of the weeks, placing destruction of Jerusalem; and the third the seven after the sixty-two weeks; and portion will be accomplished in the what in the common versionis translated: third year of the reign of Domitian. the street shall be built again, and the wall, Such is the outline of a very able even in troublous times : he renders, the commentary upon an important passage street and the wall, and the tower serving for of scripture. We recommend this work oppression (Turris, sc. Antonia, Tyran- to the serious attention of every one nidi ministrans) shall be destroyed. The who is interested in theological inquicocenant confirmed with

ries. Art. XII. Oriental Customs : cr an Illustration of the Sacred Scriptures, by an explanatory

Application of the Customs anıl Manners of the Eastern Nations, and especially the Jesus, : therein alluded to. Together with Observations on many difficult and obscure Texts,

collected from the most celebruled Travellers, "and the most eminent Critics. By Sa MY EL BURDER, 8vo. pp. 400.

OF this judicious and useful compi- considerable natural talents, acquired learndation, we cannot convey to our read- ing, and true religion. While they iners a better idea, than in the author's dulged a ļaudable curiosity in collecting inown words:

formation on general suhjects, they did not A spirit of inquiry and research seems neiect sacred literature. to have animated those persons, who during the geography, natural history, religious ce the two last ce ituries explored the regions remonies, and miscellaneous enstoms of the of the Last. Viary of thein Wete inen of Bible and the eastern nations bave been

inany's he

con

By their industry

Botápared and explained, and that essen- which have been made by travellers and tially to the advantage of the former. But critics, lje interspersed in separate and exwith regard to these writers it must be ob- pensire publications, a compendious selection served, that many excellent things of the of thein appeared very desirable, and is here kind here adverted to are only incidentally accomplished.” mentioned. Some observations which they have made, are capable of an application

We select the following as a specimen which did not present itself to their minds; of the additional remarks: so that in addition to a number of passages which they have professedly explained, se

No. 50. Levit. ii. 13. With all thine offerlect portions of their works may be brought ings thou shalt offer salt. Salt amongst the into the same service. To collect these ancients was the emblem of friendship and scattered fragments, and make a proper use fidelity, and therefore was used in all their of them, is certainly a laborious work: it sacrifices and covenants. Bruce mentions a has, however, been ‘ably executed by the kind of salt so hard, that it is used as money, late Mr. Harmer; his observations on divers and passes from hand to hand, no more passages of scripture, are well known and injured than a stone would be. A covenant highly esteemed It must be acknowledged of salt seems to refer to the making of an to his praise, that he led the way in this agreement wherein salt was used as a token department of literature, and has contributed of confirmation. Baron du Toit, speaking as much as any one man to disseminate the of one who was desirous of his acquaintance, true knowledge of many parts of holy writ. says, upon his departure," he promised in But his work is too copious for general uti- a short time to retum. I had already atlity: it will never fail to be read by the tended him half way down the staircase, scholar; but it cannot be expected that the ge- when stopping, and turning briskly to one perality of christians can derive much benefit of my domestics, bring me directly, said he, from that, which from its extent is almost in- some bread and salt, "What he requested, accessible to many persons. It must also be ad- was brought; when, taking a little salt bemitted that some of the subjects which are tween his fingers, and putting it with a mysu there discussed, may be dispersed with, as not

terious air on a bit of bread, he eat it with being of much interest or importance. The

a devout gravity, assuring me, that I might style is sometimes prolix, and difficult of now rely on him.” (part i. p. 214.) Among conception, and the arrangement is certainly other exploits which are recorded of Jacoub capable of improvement. On the whole, ben Laith, he is said to have broken into the book would be more valuable if it were a palace, and having collected a very large more select in its subjects, and compressed booty, which he was on the point of carryin its language. This object long appeared ing away, he found his foot kicked someso important, that I determined io execute thing which made hiin stumble; putting it an abridgment of these observations for my to his mouth, the better to distinguish it, own private use; but upon further reflection his tongue soon informed him it was a lump and advice, I was induced to undertake the of salt; upon this, according to the moracompilation of a volume to include the sub- lity, or rather superstition of the country, stance of the best writers of this class. The where the people consider salt as a symbol production now offered to the public, is the and pledge of hospitality, he was so touched Fruit of the resolution just mentioned. I that he left all his booty, retiring without have endeavoured to select from Mr. Har taking away any thing with him. mer's Observations whatever appeared im

“ (D'llerbelot, Bibl. Orient. p. 466. This portant and interesting. This has not in use of salt is also evident, from llomer: deed been done in the form of a regular abridge mient; but after extracting such materials as

Then near the altar of the darting king, af peared suitable, I have inserted them in

Disposed in rank, their hecatomb they those places, where, according to the pas

bring; sages prefixed to each of the articles, they

With water purify their hands, and take cught to stand. This method I apprehend

The sacred off'ring of the salted cake.

Il. i: 584. to he new, and not before attempted, but I kope will prove both agreeable and useful.

And again : As it is the avowed intentiop of each article

Above the coals the smoking fragment to explain some passage, it is proper that it should be inseried ar length, and in a man

And sprinkles sacred salt from lifted urr.s.

Il. ix. 201. Det so conspicuous, as at once to attract the attention of the reader. To the materials collected from Vr. Harmer, have been added able opinion which we understand pic

Notwithstanding the more favour. Sunt very important remarks froin Shaw, Pococke, Russel, Bruce, and other eini- vails concerning the fidelity of that nolient writers. It is admitted, that many of toricus traveller Mr. Bruce, our faith in these things have repeatedly passed through him we confess is so weak, that we were the press; but as the valuable observations sorry to find Mr. Burder so frequently

13

turns,

appealing to his authority; and we were sinian banquet on the flesh of a living not a little surprised, at our very en cow. The quotation from Mr. Antes trance upon this work, to meet with the affords no corroboration of this dis well-known marvellous tale of the Abys. disgusting and improbable relation.

Art. XIII. Ar. Essay on the Method of illustrating Scripture from the Relations of

Modern Travellers in Palestine and the neighbouring Countries. By John FOSTER, A. B. Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, 8vo. Pp. 47.

THIS Essay is “ published, in pur- ' wait upon the Lord our God, until that he suance of the will of the late Mr. Norris, have mercy on us.' Modern travellers as having gained the annual prize insti- inform us, that eastern servants pay tuted by him in the University of Cam- the minutest attention to the commands bridge." The motto prefixed to it by of their masters. A motion of the the author, “ Vix ea nostra doco,' is ne. hand, or a glance of the eye, which cessarily descriptive of one essential would be almost imperceptible to a part of its character; a copious refer- stranger, they instantly understand and ence to the remarks of other writers. obey. The psalmist probably bor. Assuming it as a general principle, rowed his beautiful image from this founded on established facts, that oriental general custom, and meant, in differ. laws, customs and manners have under- ent words, that he would watch, and gone no material alteration from time improve by the visitations of Provi. immemorial, Mr. Foster takes a cursory dence, with the same earnestness, as view of the books of scripture, and se- servants used to attend to the signs of lects some of the passages which most their masters. Mr. Harmer conceives, obviously require the aid of that method that the idea is taken from the eagerness, of illustration which results from an ac- with which a guilty servant watches that quaintance with the works of modern motion of his superior's hand, which is travellers. - The following extract will to terminate his chastisement; but he afford a good specimen of the author's seems to have adopted only a particular manner, and at the same time serve to part of a general allusion.” p. 26. correct Mr. Harmer's explication of a This essay is interesting, no less from remarkable text. Psalm cxxiii. 2. “ As the manner in which it is conducted, the eyes of servants look unto the hands of than from the subject it proposes to iltheir masters, and as the cyes of a maiden lustrate, and appears to us well entitled unto the hand of her mistress; so our eyes to the honour it has received.

EVIDENCES OF NATURAL AND REVEALED RELIGION.

Art. XIV. Natural Theology, or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity,

collected from the Appearances of Natwe. By William PALEY, D. D. 8vo. pp. 586.

“ IT is one thing," observes the existence and perfections of a supreme learned and justly celebrated author, Being, and who yet never worship him, “ to assent to a moral proposition, ano and seldom even think of him, is, we ther and a very different thing to have fear, large and extended; but we want properly imbibed its influence.". Upon more proof than has hitherto been given this principle will be founded the most to convince us that there are many who permanent value, and the most exten- calmly resign all faith in the existence of sive utility of the present admirable divine intelligence, and who cordially work. We have indeed, of late, heard believe that the universe is the production much of atheism; and the diffusion of of chance. If however we should be that gloomy system has been frequently unhappily mistaken ; if, contrary to our and with confidence asserted. Of this, opinion, there should be many whose we must acknowledge our doubts. That minds are so strangely constituted, or there are and even have been many whose judgment has been so fatally practical atheists, we well know; but warped, that they are not able to trace, the number of speculative atheists, we in the things which are made, the eternal are fully persuaded, is small. The class power and godhead of him who made of those who profess to believe in the them; what hope can we indulge that

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