they will yield to the influence of any a degree which exceeds all computaarguments? On such minds, not even tion.” p. 19. the demonstrations by which every page This argument is first applied to the of Dr. Paley's work is distinguished, eye, with great ingenuity and success. will be sufficient to produce a conviction All the various parts of that organ are of the truth. But the thoughtless theist examined with great accuracy, and its will here be taught to reflect with fre. wonderful contrivances exhibited in a quency and with admiration upon the very striking manner. Sturmius, we are great first cause of all things; his faith told, held, that the examination of the in one great and good Being will be eye was a cure for atheism; and no one confirmed and invigorated, and the effi- who attentively reads this chapter will cacy of that faith will be more constantly doubt that if atheism can be cured, this exerted, and more eminently beneficial. remedy is sufficient. To give our readers The work is divided into twenty-seven some idea of the nature of this arguchapters, of which the first five are de- ment (if indeed there be any who have voted to the statement and application not already fully examined it) we shall of the argument. The statement is place before them two passages from formed from the supposable case of a many equally.forcible and curious: person finding a watch in a place remote from the habitation of man; from ob

“ The resemblance between the two cases serving the mechanism of which, he is is still more accurate, and obtains in more led inevitably to the inference, that points than we have yet represented, or than by whatever means it was conveyed into aware of. In dioptric telescopes there is an

we are, on the first view of the subject, that situation, it must have had a maker,

imperfection of this nature. Pencils of light, who comprehended its construction, and in passing through class lenses, are separatdesigned its use. It is not necessary to ed into different colours, thereby tinging this conclusion, that he should have seen the object, especially the edges of it, as if it a watch made, find that watch perfect, were viewed through a prism. To corre :: or be able to understand all its parts. this inconvenience had been long a desidi

To be told of accidental configuration, mind of a sagacious optician, to inquire how a principle of order, of the laws of me- this matter was managed in the ea; in tallic nature, or of his own ignorance, which there was exaetly the same difficulty could have no power to drive him from to contend with, as in ihe telescope. His this conclusion. Supposing again that observation taught him, that, in the eye, in the course of its movement, it be the evil was cured by combining together found to produce another watch, similar lenses, composed of different substances, to itself, and to contain a system of or. i. c. of substances which possessed different ganization, separately adapted to that refracting powers. Our artist borrowed from

thence his hint; and produced a correction purpose, the effect upon the observer would certainly be to increase his ad- from

different materials, ihe effects of the

of the defect, by imitating in glasses made miration of the contrivance, and of the different humours through which the rays skill of the contriver; and though he of light pass before they reach the bottom of might be led to think it probable that the eye.' Could this be in the eye without the watch he had found did not come im. purpose, which suggested to the optician mediately from the hand of the artificer, the only effectual means of attaining that he would be still more firmly convinced purpose? that intelligence was concerned in its

“ In considering vision as achieved by the production, and that a watch must have means of an image formed at the bottom of been formed with the means of propa. upon the smallness, yet correctness, of the

eye, we can never reflect without wonder gating its species, and that the artificer picture, the subtility of the touc., the finewho formed it must in justice be con ness of the lines. A landscape o five or six sidered as the former of all that had re square leagues is brought into a space of sulted from the contrivance. To sup- half an inch diameter; yet the multitude of pose that no art or skill had been exerted objects which it contains, are all p, served ; in the business, is Atheism : “ for every

are all discriminated in their magnitudes, indication of contrivance, every mani. positions, figures, colours. The prospect festation of design, which existed in the from Hampstead Hill is complessed into the watch, exists in the works of nature, represented. A staye-coach travelling at its

compass of a sixpence, yet circumstantially with the difference on the side of nature ordinary speed, for half an hour, passes in of being greater and more, and that in the eye, onl, over one-twelfth of an inch,



yet is this change of place in the image dis- author proceeds, in the three succeeding tinctly perceived throughout its whole pro- chapters, to select such examples as are gress; for it is only by means of that perc most striking and best understood, or çeption, that the motion of the coach itself that are capable of explanation without is made sensible to the eye. If any thing can abate our admiration of the smallness plates or figures, or technical language. of the visual tablet, compared with the ex

These examples are taken from the tent, of vision, it is a reflection, which the bones, the museles, and the vessels of view of nature leads us, every hour, to make, the human frame. From the bones are viz. that, in the hands of the Creator, great selected the vertebræ of the neck; the and little are nothing."

construction of which is most evidently After a satisfactory reply to an ob- artificial; the fore-arm, or, the arm bejection, which the author thinks

tween the elbow and the wrist, which

may possibly be raised from the use of such consists of two bones, moved by means a complicated apparatus as the

of a most curious, yet simple contriwhen it must have been in the power of vance the spine or back bone, which the Deity to have given the animal the considered in its articulations, its ligafaculty of vision at once; we are led to ments, and its perforation ; with the the consideration of the ear. Of this corresponding advantages which the we know less, yet sufficient to prove a

body derives from it, for action, for ise adapation to a useful purpose. It strength, and for that which is essential is there clearly shewn, that the gene- with the brain, cannot fail to excite'the

to every part, a secure communieation ration of the animal, will by no means account for the contrivance of these or

highest admiration--the reciprocal engans; that every observation that had largement and contraction of the chest, been made concerning the watch, at depending upon a very beautiful conthe opening of the argument, applies, trivance, the palella or knee-pan, in its with strict propriety, to animals, to

form and office, unlike any other bone plants, and to all the organized parts of of the body, serving for protection, the works of nature; and that all the and mechanical advantage, and the hypotheses that can be maintained to shuller-blade. Next to the configuration account for the phænomena of orga- curious structure of the joints, the con

of the bones, come to be considered the nized matter, which exclude the

agency of intelligence, are vain and absurd.

trivance to suffer the vessels to pass them The sixth chapter is entitled, The in security, the gristle, the cartilages, argument cumulative, and is designed and the regular supply of mucilage, by I shew, that, “ if other parts of nature

which they are rendered capable of such were inaccessible to our inquiries, or even

long and constailt wear. if other parts of nature presented nothing

The care exhibited to preserve the to our examination but disorder and important vessels of the human frame, confusion, the validity of one such ex

is thus strikingly shewn: ample in the eye would remain the same.

“ The joints, cr rather the ends of the The object of the seventh chapter is bones which form them, display also, in

To teach three things: first, that it is their configuration, another use. The mistake to suppose, that, in reasoning nerves, blood vessels, and tendons, which from the appearances of nature, the imper

are necessary to the life, or for the motion, fortion of our knowledge proportionably of the limbs, must, it is evident, in iheir a lects the certainty of our conclusion; for

way from the trunk of the body to the place in many cases it does not affect it at all: se

of their destination, travel over the moveable condly, that the different parts of the animal joints; and it is no less evident, that, in frime may be classed and distributed, ac

this part of their course, they will have, cording to the degree of exactness with

froni sudden motions and from abrupt which we can compare them with works of danges of curvature, to encounter the danart: thirdly, that the mechanical parts of our

ger of cornpression, attrition, or laceration. krame, or, those in which this comparison

To guard tibres so tender against conseis most complete, although constituting, quences so injuricus, their path is in these probably, the coarsest portions of nature's parts protented withi peculiar care: and that workmanship, are the properest to be al

bv a provision is the figure of the bones lerged as proofs and specimens of d sign."

themselves. The nerves which supply the

forearm, especially the inferior cubital. From this class, therefore, of re neres, are at the elbow conducted, by a ehanical parts of the human frame, the kind of covered way, between the condiya

or rather under the inner extuberances of the certain gentleman, who, as to the rest, was bone, which composes the upper part of the in pretty good health, but only wanted the arm. At the knee the extremity of the use of these two little muscles that serve to thigh-bone is divided by a sinus or cleft, into lift up the eye-lids, and so had almost lost two heads or protuberances; and these heads the use of his sight, being forced, as long on the back part stand out beyond the cy- as this defect lasted, to shove up his eye-lids linder of the bone. Through the hallow, every moment with his own hands !" In which lies between the hind parts of these general we may remark how little those who two heads, that is to say, under the ham, enjoy the perfect use of their organs, know between the ham-strings, and within the the comprehensiveness of the blessing, the concave recess of the bone forned by the variety of their obligation. They perceive a extuberances on each side; in a word, along result, but they think little of the multitude a defile, between rocks, pass the great ves of concurrences and rectitudes which go to sels and nerves which go to the legt. Who form it." led these vessels by a road so defended and secured ? In the joint at the shoulder, in

From a general view of the mus. the edge of the cup which receives the head cles of the human frame, the author of the bone, is a notch, which is joined or proceeds to notice such as possess a pecovered at the top with a ligament. Through culiar advantage of structure and such this hole, thus guarded, the blood-vessels single muscles (as the digastric, which Steal to their destination in the arın, in- moves the lower jaw) which bear pecustead of mounting over the edge of the con

liar marks of mechanical contrivance. cavity.”

The next chapter treats of the vessels The ninth chapter, relating to the necessary to the circulation of the blood; muscles, is highly curious and satis. of those by which the chyle is formed factory. The exact relation which they and conveyed into the circulation of the bear to the joint that they are designed process of digestion, of the wonderful to move; the manner in which their contrivance of the gall-bladder, of the action is performed; their careful dis- pipe by which the saliva is conveyed to position so as not to obstruct or inter. the mouth, and of the exquisite structure fere with one another's action, though of the larynx. The mind that can peamcunting in number to four hundred ruse this chapter, without feeling perand forty-six; their being formed and suasion of the existence of supreme inplaced so as to act where their situation telligence, and the deepest veneration would have been inconvenient, or de and the most ardent gratitude, must stroyed the beauty and proportions of be a stranger to the most important the body; and the great mechanical va

affections of human nature. The conriety in their figure, prove them to be clusion is just and forcible: the result of counsel and contrivance, “ For the sake of method, we have conand forcibly lead the mind to the ac sidered animal bodies under three divisions, knowledgment of an intelligent Creator. their bones, their muscles, and their vessels :

and we have stated our observations upon “ The ejaculations can never too often be these parts separately. But this is to direpeated, How many things must go right minish the strength of the argument. The for us to be an hour at ease! llow many wisdom of the Creator is seen, not in their more, to be vigorous and active !" Yet, separate but in their collective action; in vigor and activity are, in a vast plurality of their mutual subserviency and dependence; instances, preseried in human bodies, not in their contributing together to one effect, withstanding that they depend upon so great and one use. It has been said, that a man a number of instruments of motion, and cannot lift his hand to his head, without notwithstanding that the defect or disorder finding enough to convince him of the exsometimes of a very small instrument, of' a istence of a God. And it is well said, for single pair, for instance, ont of the four he has only to reflect, familiar as this action kundred and forty-six muscles which are is, and simple as it seems to be, how many {mployed, may be attended with grievous things are requisite for the performing of it; inconveniency. There is picty and good how many things which we understand, to. sense in the following observation taken out say nothing of many more, probably, which of the Religious Philosopher. “T'ith inuch we do not, viz. first, a long, hard, strong formasjon," says the is riter, “ as well as cylinder, in order to give to the arm its ástcrionient at the goodness of our loving firmness and tension ; but which, being Creator, trave I cutisidered the sad state of a rigid, and, in its substance, inficxible, cun

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only tom upon joints : secondly, therefore, The general plan in the mechanism of joints for this purpose, one at the shoulder the human frame, is observed to prevail to raise the arm, another at the elbow to in all animal bodies, yet with such vabend it; these joints continually fed with a soft mucilage to make the parts slip easily exigency of different subjects. This af

riations as are required by the particular apon one another, and held together by Fords, if possible, a still stronger eviStrong braces to keep them in their position: dence of intelligence and design. In then, thirdly, strings and wires, i. e. muscles and tendons, artificially inserted for the chapter xii, entitled Comparative Anapurpose of drawing the bones in the direc- tomy, the variations are pointed out, as tions in which the joints allow them to they occur in the covering of the differe move. Hitherto we seem to understand the ent” animals, in the structure of the mechanism pretty well; and understanding mouth, the gullet, the intestines, the this, we possess enough for our conclusion : bones, the lungs, in the instruments of nevertheless, we have hitherto only a m chine standing still; a dead organization; motion, and in what are called the five

Besides the variations which an apparatus. To the system in a state

put of activity (to set it at work) a further pro

are discovered from an anatomical comvision is necessary, viz. a communication parison of one animal with another, şvith the brain, by means of nerves. We there are many interesting examples to know the existence of this communication, be found of a peculiar organization, because we see the communicating adapted tothe peculiar nature and wants threads, and can trace them to the brain : of different creatures. Some of the most its necessity we also know, because, if the extraordinary of these form the subject cutif

of the thirteenth chapter. tercepted, the muscle becomes paralytic: but beyond this we know little; the

Another mark of design (chap. xiv.)

organization being too minute and subtile for is exhibited in what Dr. P. calls Pros. our inspection.

pective Contrivances, i.e. the providing " To what has been enumerated, as of things beforehand, which are not to officiating in the single act of a man's raising be used until a considerable time afterhis hand to his head, must be added likewise, wards. From a variety of examples, all that is necessary, and all that contributes, to the growth, nourishment, and sustenta

are selected the following: the human tion of the limb, the repair of its waste, the teeth; the milk of the female parent; preservation of its health, such as the cir- the eye, at the time of its formation of culation of the blood through every part of no use; and the lungs. In the forma. it; its lymphatics, exhalants, absorbents; tion of these there is implied a contem, its excretions and integuments. All these plation of the future, which belongs share in the result; join in the effect: and only to intelligence. how all these, or any of them, come to The application of the original argugether without a designing, disposing intel

ment is carried still further in the next ligence, it is impossible to conceive.

chapter, which treats of relations, or From considering the mechanism of the fitness of different parts in the animat the human frame in its several parts, frame to one another, for producing 4 we are next led, chap. xi. to contem- particular effect. These relations are plate the animal structure, regarded as either general or particular: to the first

Here we cannot fail to be may be referred the parts and powers in much struck by the exact correspondency the animal economy that necessarily act of the two sides of an animal, by the upon food, the relation of the kidneys curious package, or arrangement of the to the bladder, and of the ureters to internal parts, by the symmetry of the both; the position of the eyes; the reexternal covering, which conceals a me

lation of one sex to another: “ in. chanism, the constant operations of explicable without design; so much so, which, if exposed to view, would keep that were every other proof of contriüs in a state of perpetual alarm. The vance in nature, dubious or obscurepower which this mass possesses,


this alone would be sufficient;" and serving an erect posture, especially in lastly, the relation which the teats of two-legged animals, is more curious animals bear to the mouth of the suck than we are generally aware of; and the ling progeny. Of particular relations a tecth, nails and skull exhibit deviations the swan and the mole exhibit the most from the general conformation that prove striking. the existence of design.

There is also another species of rela

a mass.

tion which Dr. P. calls (ch. xvi.) Com parts of their nice structure furnish evi. pensations. Thus, the proboscis of the dence of wise mechanical contrivance, as elephant

, compensates for his short un- the sting of the bee, &c. Others combending neck; the structure of the bine with mechanism, some of the opeppper mandible of a parrot, compen- rations of chymistry, or the principles of sates for the peculiar form of the beak; natural philosophy: the glow-worm the spider's web ;.the insect's eye; the guides her wandering mate by a phosfuminating faculty in the sheep, deer phoric hymeneal torch; and the gossa. and ox tribe, and the gizzard of gra. mer spider floats through the air suspenminivorous birds, are striking instances ded to his silky balloon. of compensation, proving intelligence Plants exhibit less of a designed and and design.

studied mechanism than animals, yet Chap. xvii. opens to us relations of a there are some which display phæno. yet higher kind; of animated bodies to mena too curious to be wholly omitted inanimate nature; of the wings of a in a work of this nature. Some of these bird, for instance, to the air; and of the are selected for the subjects of chapter fins of a fish to water; of the ear, and XX, General properties belonging to the organs of speech to air; of the organs plants are first noticed, and then some of vision to light; and of sleep to night. particular species; as the vallisneria of

The following passage cannot be read the river Rhone; the cuscuta europeas. without admiration :

the misseltoe; the colchicum autum" If the relation of sleep to night, and, nale; and the dionæa museípula. in some instances, its converse, be real, we

The next chapter is devoted to recannot reflect without amazement upon the marks upon air, water, fire and light, extent to which it carries us. Day and night under the absurd and exploded title of are things close to us.: the change applies

elements. immediately to our sensations; of all the Ch. xxii. treats of the proofs which phænomena of nature, it is the most familiar astronomy affords of the agency of an to our experience: but, in its cause, it be- intelligent Creator. Upon this subject longs to the great motions which are passing Dr. Paley observes : in ihe heavens. Whilst the earth glides round her axle, she ministers to the alternate necessities of the animals dwelling upon been, that it is not the best medium through

My opinion of astronomy has always her surface, at the same time, that she obeys which to prove the agency of an intelligent the influence of those attractions which re- Creator; but that, this being proved, it gulate the order of many thousand worlds. shews, beyond all other sciences, the mag; The relation therefore of sleeping to night, nificence of his operations. The mind is the relation of the inhabitants of the earth which is once convinced, it raises to sublito the relation of their globe; probably it is mer views of the Deity, than any other more: it is a relation to the system, of subject affords; but is not so well adapted, which the globe is a part; and, still further, as some other subjects are, to the purpose of to the congregation of systems, of which argument. We are destitute of the means this is only one. If this account be true, of examining the constitution of the heavenly i connects the meanest individual with the bodies. The very simplicity of their apuniverse itself; a chicken roosting upon its pearance is against them. We see nothing perch, with the spheres revolving in the but bright points, luminous circles, or the brmament.”

phases of spheres, reflecting the light which As a species of relation, instincts come falls upon them. Now we deduce design next to be considered. Out of the long of parts. Some degree therefore of com

from relation, aptitude, and correspondence catalogue that might be formed of these, plexity is necessary to render a subject fit

. Dr. P. suggests (ch. xviii.) such as he for this species of argument. But the heathinks most extraordinary, and combats venly bodies do not, except perhaps in the with ingenuity and success, the theory instance of Saturn's ring, present themselves that resolves instinct into sensation; al. to our observation as compounded of parts ihough neither that nor any other theory at all

. This, which may be a perfection in would be sufficient to destroy or weaken them, is a disadvantage to us, as inquirers the proof which the actions of various after their nature. They do not come within

our mechanics. animals exhibit of contrivance and coun

“ And what we say of their forms, is sel.

true of their motions. Their motions are Ch. xix, contains some curious re- carried on without any sensible intermediate marks upon the insect tribe. Several apparatus: whereby we are cut off from

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