« ForrigeFortsett »
is at least likely to be placed on a more theology, in the same university. A solid basis.
similar engagement was then formed We shall state the nature of the pre- with C. D. Beck, well known to the pubsent work, in the words of the learned lic by his useful labours in the province editor.
of ancient learning, who undertook the
collection of various readings, of extracts “ It was my object,” says he, “ in this revision of the poems of Homer, besides the from the Scholia, and of passages quoted labour which is common to every editor of a
by ancient authors, from the writings of classic author, in determining the true read Homer. In 1792, M. Heyne was, howing, and just interpretation, to collect the ever, deprived of the assistance of his scattered remarks, so far as they are valuable, second colleague; and in reviewing the of ancient and modern commentators, slightly extent and difficulty of his plan, would noticing what is of less consequence, and willingly, he says, have relinquished his explaining what is more important, at greater undertaking, had it been consistent with length. As the labours of the ancients, the engagements into which he had enespecially the grammarians, in the illustration of Homer, form a subject of considerable tered. Notwithstanding these discoucuriosity, it appeared an object of importance ragements, therefore, to which was added to extract their learning from the mass of the consideration of his declining age, scholia, glossaries, and commentaries, in and the multiplicity of his avocations, which it is contained, and freeing it from the he at length resolved to persevere, freextraneous matter with which it is com- quently repeating, as he informs us, that bined, to present it at one view to the reader,
verse of his author that he may be enabled to form a judgment of its real merit. And as the moderns have, Δαιμονιε, ου σε εοικε, κακον ώς, δειδισσεσθαι. in the same province, distinguished themselves no less in both the departments of criti
Some very important resources of difcism, as relating to the just constitation, and ferent kinds were open to M. Heyne, grammatical interpretation of the text, and as for the execution of this work. He extending to the illustration of the poetry it- first enumerates six manuscripts, preself, the structure, the glossaries, and beau- served in the public library of Breslau, ties of the work, I have thought it an object the use of which was procured from the of principal importance to associate their la magistrates of that city. A description bours in my plan, subjoining my own judg- of them occurs in the prolegomena of ment, whatever
the third volume, pp. 88, 89. These Such is the plan, which more than manuscripts were collated by Frederic twenty years ago was marked out for the Jacobs, the editor of the Anthology, and execution of the present work. It ori- at this time a learned professor at Gotha. ginated in an application from Ernesti, In the year 1788, collations were prothe editor of Homer, at Leipsic, in 1759, cured from Matthaei, of several manu. to superintend a revision of his edition, scripts, generally imperfect, particularly which he then intended to lay before the some preserved at Moscow, one of which public. This proposal was declined, is accompanied by unedited Scholia. since the edition of Clarke, republished in the same year appeared Villoison's and augmented by Ernesti, though a edition of the Iliad, with scholia, pubwork of merit and utility, when consic lished from ancient and valuable ma. dered with reference to the period of its nuscripts, then preserved in the library execution, was still inadequate to the re. of Śt Mark, at Venice, and since transquisitions which arose from the advanced ported, with the spoils of Italy, to the state to which Greek literature has re. national library at Paris. This was cently attained. Having resolved, there- an event of the greatest importance fore, in the preparation of a new edition, to the criticism of Homer, as the to consult his own views, it was the first scholia of the Venetian manuscripts are object of M. Heyne to alleviate the bure of a much more valuable order than any den of his undertaking by the aid of of those which had been before made some literary associate. In 1781 an en- public. gagement for this purpose was formed M. Heyne also procured the use of a with S. F. N. Morus, at that time pro- copy of the edition of Homer, by Stefessor of Greek and Latin literature, in phanus, preserved in the library of Tri. the university of Leipsic, a connection nity College, Cambridge, formerly pos. which was, however, shortly afterwards sessed by Doctor Bentley, and enriched broken, by his removal to the chair of with the manuscript notes of that illus.
trious scholar. It is well known that tions of Homer. In the progress of his Bentley had, at one period of his life, inquiries, M. Heyne also discovered the formed the project of a new edition of manuscript of Mr. Townley to be the Homer, a principal object of which same with that described by Lucas Hols. would have been the restoration of the tonius, in his life of Porphyry, as pre. digamma. This plan he never carried served by a noble family at Florence, into execution. He has, however, mark- with scholia, ascribed by some to Por. ed in the margin of his copy of Homer, phyry, by others to a still more ancient the words which appear to have ori- author. The result is, that the Victorian ginally possessed the digamma; and scholia are a transcript from the celeM. Heyne acknowledges himself under brated Florence manuscript, which had the greatest obligations, in the doctrine since disappeared; and that this manu. which he has advanced on this subject, script, the subsequent fortune of which to the diligence and sagacity of our was hitherto unknown, is the same which learned countryman.
has since come into the possession of M. Heyne experienced the generosity Mr. Townley, and which may be regardof Mr. Townley, (whose exquisite col. ed as one of the most valuable copies of lection of different remains of antiquity, Homer at present existing. and his liberal exhibition of them to the mon with some other manuscripts, it curiosity of the public, are well known), wants the catalogue. in the use of a most valuable manuscript Such is the object of the present edi. of Homer, which forms a part of his tion, and such the principal resources literary treasures. As this relic may be from which its peculiar advantages are regarded as interesting and honourable, derived. not only to its possessor, but in some de The text of the Iliad is contained in gree to the British public, an account of the two first volumes, with a preface, it
, extracted from the prolegomena of briefly stating the history of the work, the present edition, may prove not unac- and accompanied by short notes, illusceptable. It was procured about the year trative of the structure of the poem, its 1773, by Mr. Townley, along with some phraseology, and the more obvious diffi. other manuscripts, at Rome, and its age culties which may occur to the reader in was then referred, by Asseman, librarian a cursory perusal. The words in which of the Vatican, to the ninth century. It the digamma is inserted (which are in is written on parchment, consisting of general only those in which the inser. 288 leaves, and is accompanied by a tion is important to the prosody), are series of ancient scholia, which, on the printed in capital letters, between the first inspection, appeared to be of con text and the notes, where the variations siderable value and importance. Those from the common reading are also of the 1st, 19:h, 20th, 21st, and 22d stated. The third volume includes the books, were transcribed, and were found prolegomena, and the Latin version; in general to agree with the second Ve- the remaining five are occupied by the netian scholia, and others of the same various readings, the observations, and order. They are written, if not in the the excursus. same hand with that of the Iliad, at It is not to be expected that many least by one of equal antiquity, though new discoveries can be made from any with some interlineations of subsequent of the remaining sources of critical ildate, and inferior value. M. Heyne lustration, by which the works of Homer had, a short time previous to his inspec- may be restored to a state of much tion of this manuscript, obtained a copy greater purity, than that in which we of the scholia which pass under the name now possess them. The writings of this of Victorius, and he was struck by their poet, if we date at least from the period correspondence with those which accom- of the later Alexandrian grammarians, pany the manuscript of Mr. Townley. appear to have been transmitted to us A further comparison left no doubt on in a state less corrupt than that in which his mind that this manuscript was the many other works of antiquity have source from which the scholia, copied reached us. It is the judgment of the by Victorius, and known by his name, editor that, in this respect, Homer has were originally derived, a specimen of experienced a fortune more favourable which was published in the year 1620, than Virgil. It may, however, be easily and may be seen annexed to several edi- supposed that he possesses no exemption
from those corruptions which the lapse yet been collatéd, and others have been of time, and the negligence or igno. but imperfectly examined; it is, how. rance of transcribers, have so profusely ever, the opinion of Professor Heyne, introduced into most of those produc that much further benefit is not to be tions of the writers of antiquity, which expected from the collation of them, if have descended to us through a series of an estimate may be formed from the ad. ages, so unfriendly to the cause of litera- vantage which has resulted to the text ture. We shall here endeavour to place of Homer, from those which have been before our readers a general view of what already inspected. has been effected in this department of The ancient scholia form a more im. the edition.
portant field of critical investigation. The authorities for the constitution of It is well known, that the respect paid the text, are the early editions, the manu- by the natives of ancient Greece, to the scripts, and ancient scholia, a critical ac- works of Homer, was gradually carcount of which is given in the prolego- ried to the highest pitch of enthusiastic mena of the third volume.
admiration. The writings, therefore, The editions of any critical authority, of the national bard, regarded with a are stated to be but few; the edilio prin. degree of reverence approaching to idolceps of Florence, in 1488; the second atry, would naturally become the subAldine, the first Strasburgh edition; ject of innumerable treatises, commentathat of Rome, with the cammentaries of ries, and remarks. Many fragments of Eustathius; those of Turnebus and these works have been transmitted to the Stephanus, the latter of which is re- present time, and though they are ingarded as the basis of the common read. cumbered with much useless and foreign ing. Of these the principal, in critical matter, yet they convey also a considerimportance, are the Florentine and Ro- able portion of information, which may man. There are, however, some later be applied with great utility to the illuseditions, as those of Barnes and Ernesti, tration of the poet. which contain reports of manuscript
Our author first enumerates among readings. That of Clarke has lost a the interpreters of Homer, those who considerable part of the authority which undertook to explain the allegories which it once possessed. Its merits and defects they discovered in his poems, or eniare very justly estimated by the present ployed themselves in different ways, to editor; but though Clarke cannot, per- defend or excuse the apparent absurdity haps, be admitted to stand in the very or impiety of some of his fictions, some. first rank of classical commentators, he times by physical, and sometimes by will, beyond all controversy, in his varied ethical interpretations. Little, hov. characters of scholar, philosopher, and ever, is accurately known respecting the divine, continue to occupy a distinguish. earliest attempts of this nature. Anoed place among those illustrious names ther species of questions was agitated which form the ornament of his country. by the philosophers and sophists, respect“Nomen viri docti
, acuti philosophi, et ing passages which they referred to the theologi sobrie philosophantis, carum et opinions of their own age, intermixed sanctum nihihabetur." Heyne prel.p.32. with various substitutes relative to places
Many valuable manuscripts of Homer, of obscure or doubtful meaning. These are preserved in the different libraries of were termed «7.07.1874 or 5179,0tis, and Europe. It cannot be supposed that were accompanied by the duous, of the they should furnish much information sophists, some of which are preserved by respecting the state of these poems at a the scholiasts. period earlier than that of the recensions These critics, if they deserve the name, of the Alexandrian grammarians. “Pro- were succeeded by the Alexandrian babiliter dici posse apparet hoc,” says grammarians, under whom the read . the editor, “ fundum nostræ lectionis ing, and grammatical interpretation, at esse Aristarcheam, mutatam tamen in length became subjects of some conmultis et vari.tam judiciis aliorum cern. From the knowledge which has grammaticorum, interdum temeritate li- been transmitted to us respecting their brariorum et vanitate correctorum; mul labours, they appear, however, to have tis tamen in locis etiam emendatiorem ac been very remote from the critical premeliorem ipsâ Aristarcheâ.” Several
Several cision of modern philologists. of the remaining manuscripts have not As the remarks of a single gramma
rian frequently extended only to a single to have written a work of much greater book, or to some other portion of the extent upon the subject, of which the whole work, miscellanies of scholia were treatise now extant is, perhaps, an gradually formed from different authors, abridgment, and fragments of which of different descriptions.
are found in the different collections of By the decline of learning in Greece, scholia. The scholia brevia, first puband the changes suffered by the ancient lished by John Lascaris, in the year language, it at length became necessary 1517, and found in many of the common for those who wished to peruse the editions of Homer, form the third class. writings of the Aourishing ages of their In common with every other collection, country, to qualify themselves for this they retain some fragments of the more purpose, by the study of their native ancient and valuable commentaries, but language in its former state. Homer are chiefly derived from later and infenow required an inte preter, obsolete rior sources, and are perpetually interwords were to be rendered by others mixed with the interlineary glosses of better known, which were often inserted the manuscripts by interlineations in the manuscripts, for The commentaries of Eustathius have the assistance of the reader. Hence been long in the possession of the criti. arose a fresh order of scholia, gradually cal student of Homer, but they are more descending from the explication of the valuable, perhaps, for the grammatical more obscure words and phrases, to learning which they contain, and their nu. those which are among the most fre. Ierous citations of ancient authors, than quent and familiar.
for their direct tendency to illustrate It became customary also to form the poet to whose works they are ascollections of the ancient explanatory tached. " He appears," says the edi. scholia, or nezers, reduced to alphabetical tor, “ to have possessed several manuorder; these were termed načinz; hence scripts of scholia, from which he has the Lexica Homerica, such as that of formed extracts.” He accordingly calls Apollonius, published by Villoison. his collection παρεκβολας.
From these different species of scholia, Such are the authorities which now the scholia found in the manuscripts pre- remain for the establishment of the served to the present times, have been genuine texi, the advantages of which collected with different degrees of judg. have been more amply enjoyed by the ment and discrimination; the more an present editor, than by any of his precient the manuscript, the more valuable decessors, and in themselves confer a and important the scholia generally considerable degree of importance on prove. They are reduced by M. Heyne his work. to three classes; the first is that of the The basis of the text is the first ediancient scholia, Collected from the re tion of Wolfius, published in 1784. marks and discussions of the Alexan. If any valuable reading is supplied drian school. These appear to be the by good manuscripts, it is of course most numerous in the first Venetian adopted. manuscript, published by Villoison ; But the sagacity and diligence of mo. they are, however, found interspersed dern critics have in some instances estaamong the scholia of other manuscripts, blished principles of emendation, in parof inferior order. Those of the second ticular cases of greater weight than the class are principally found in the second anthority of manuscripts themselves. Venetian manuscript of Villoison, in that .Such, in the attic poets, are the observaof Mr. Townley, those of the Leipsic, tions respecting the invariable use of the Leyden, and some others. The com- augment, and the defendance of differmeritators of this class are principally ent words and tenses on the particles occupied, not in grammatical or criti. with which they are connected, and the cal questions, but in discussions respect state of the clause in which they occur. ing the narrations, maxims, and senti. Such in the construction of the tragic ments of the poet, their proprieties and iambic, are the canons respecting the defects. Porphyry is placed at the head exclusion of the anapæst from the even of this division. A work attributed to seats of the verse, and, by the decision him, with the title of 'Oumpisce Gormuata, of Professor Porson, from the third and is still extant, and has been several times fifth of the uneven places. And whena published. He is supposed, however, ever, by an easy anù probable emendi
tion, a deviation from these general alteration, is it not possible that it may rules can be removed, a critic will not sometimes have been employed in prehesitate to receive it, in preference to a ference to the Ionic form, in cases where reading which violates them, and which both are otherwise equally admissible, may, on that account, be deemed cor- for the sake of some superior melody rupt, though uniformly exhibited by the which it may have communicated to the remaining manuscripts.
verse, perhaps not in all instances easily These rules are concluded to be uni. perceptible to us? Mr. Wakefield (noct. versal, from a preponderancy, beyond carc. 51) remarks the suavity in some all comparison, in the number of in- cases, and the frequency of the cæsura, stances in which they are observed, and at the first syllable of the fifth foot, in the ease with which, in all, the violation the heroic verse. Hence, Il. xvi. 356, of them might have been avoided. he would prefer the division Aidos defeßnxe, Many of those violations which appear afforded by the copies of Plutarch, and in the common editions, have also been now by some manuscripts apud Heyne, removed by the authority of better co- to the common reading Asdos de Bebnxei. pies. Similar canons of emendation, The use of the word ó, , to, by Hoperhaps of equal certainty, may in some mer, and in imitation of him, by others instances be established in the criticism of the heroic poets, as a pronoun or reof Homer. The editor, however, has lative, which in the use of subsequent rarely ventured to admit into his text writers, became the article, affords, per any alteration founded on them, unless haps, in some passages an admissible confirmed by the authority of some ma- ground of alteration. Thus Il. i. 35, nuscript.
where our copies have nga' regaios, the The hiatus in the writings of Homer, original reading was probably nesto forms a probable ground of emendation. yagaios. It is probable, however, that Bentley has endeavoured to expunge it this observation cannot safely be applied in every instance in which it occurs, and without some limitation. with some limitations, which will after There are some other rules of slighter wards be specified, this doctrine will, importance, to which attention has been perhaps, generally be admitted.
paid in the text of the present edition. The doctrine of the digamma, as ap The forms Bnotto and dvorto, are replied to the writings of Homer, may, ceived in preference to those of Bresto with regard at least to many words, be and duoato. considered as so well established, that In many cases a division of words, every deviation from it implies either a commonly compounded, is preferred to. corrupt or a supposititious reading. their united state, as xu YLIOPEVOV, xxign
The Ionic forms of verbs, omit- Xopowtas. The latter words, in the ting the augment, are always, in this earlier parts of the poem, are printed as edition, preferred, wherever any manu. they are here represented, but are after, script of any value authorizes the adc wards compounded. No reason, so far mission of them. In many instances as we have observed, is given of this in. this is effected merely by a different di- consistency. The division of these words vision of the words, and in others by is preferred in the excursus, T. iv. p. 180. some very easy change. Thus in Iliad The confusion of the words Fequw and i. 5, in the common editions, we read aguw, has in some instances been the oc. Asos d'eTedave to Boàn, in the present, Aros de casion of corruptions, which ar attention TENsito Bran; Il. i. 2, in our present to their prosody and signification may copies we find anys i Snue; the Ionic read. remove. ing, equally consistent with the verse, We shall notice two of those varieties would be adyace Snxe. The editor is some of reading, which have struck us as times tempted to regret that he has not most conspicuous in the perusal of this preserved the uniformity of this rule, by edition. the preference of these forms, wherever
The first occurs, Iliad xiv. 485. The the introduction of them is easy and ob- reading both of the manuscripts and vious, even in contradiction to the au- editions in this passage, is thority of manuscripts. Yet as the augment certainly occurs in many instances γνωτου ενα μεγαροισιν αρεως αλκτηρα γεεσθαι. in the writings of Homer, where the The word opews is, therefore, to be inconstruction of the verse does not admit terpreted, with some harshness of expres.