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THE

ANNUAL REVIEW;

OR,

REGISTER OF LITERATURE.

CHAPTER I.

VOYAGES AND TRAVELS.

HE works produced during the last year in this important and most inte

resting department of general knowledge are, with few exceptions, by no means of first rate consequence. The most valuable are translations from the French and German; for the list of native English authors is singularly deficient both in numbers and merit. The account by Mr. Sauer, of commodore Billings's unsuccessful attempt to explore the Arctic and Tatarian seas, and the travels of Acerbi into Sweden and Lapland, although written originally in the English language, are rather to be considered as the contributions of foreigners than the produce of our native literature. The publication, by the society for exploring the interior of Africa, of the intelligence received from its emissary Hornemann, is rather calculated to excite than to satisfy the public curiosity: in the most im. portant part, his journal is both inconsistent with itself and contradictory to the repart of Mr. Browne. The voyages of Mr. Mackenzie are of more consequence, though not so satisfactory as might have been expected. By combining his researches with those of Mr. Hearne, it is rendered highly probable that the northern regions of the American continent do not advance nearly so far into the circum-polar sea as the projecting parts of Asiatic Russia. The geography of the great Slave-lake and its vicinity is also considerably illustrated; and the practicability of a passage across the great ridge of the stony mountains from Canada to the Pacific Ocean is fully ascertained.

Of the translations from the French and German, the relation of Marchand's • royage round the world, though containing some matters of general interest, is chiefly valuable to professional men. Sonnini ar.d Olivier have communicated much information, and in an engaging manner, concerning the Turkish empire especially its natural history, the customs and domestic economy of its inhabitants, Axs. Rev. Tom. I.

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the personal and political subjugation of the Greeks, and the ominous weakness of its administration. Denon has afforded us a lively and interesting sketch of the military events in Upper Egypt, resulting from the invasion of that province by the French; and has ably availed himself both of the pencil and the pen in describing the colossal remains, the eternal monuments, which attest the high and antient civilization of the valley of the Nile. Professor Pallas has thrown a new light on the mineralogy and other departments of the natural history of southern Russia ; and the lively, the good-humoured, the entertaining travels of Fischer, reflect, in an enchanting camera obscura, the characteristic features of Spanish scenery and Spanish manners.

ART. I. A Voyage round the World, performed during the Years 1790, 1791, and

1792, by ETIENNE MARCHAND, preceded by an historical Introduction, and illustra:ed by Charts, &c. Translated from the French of C. P. CLARET FLEURIEU, of the National Institute of Arts and Sciences, and of the Board of Longitude of France. 2 vols. 4to. 1100 pages; also another edition, 2 vols. 8vo. 1400 pages.

THE careful narrator of this voyage are indebted to the expeditions which has prefixed to his work an historical

in- the largely estimated profits of that trade troduction, extended through nearly 200 provoked, for much of the geographical pages of the translation, in which he has knowledge of the north-west coast of given a summary of the various attempts America. Competitors in this new spewhich different nations have made within culation arose in three quarters of the the last 250 years, that is to say, from globe : Europe, by means of the ports of the expedition of Cortes, towards an ex, England, America by those of the Unitamination of the north-west coast of ed States, and Asia by those of Bengal America. In reverting to these antient and Bombay. If even Spain and Pordiscoveries, which first brought us ac- tugal could rouse themselves, and prequainted with that part of the new con. pare for making expeditions, the governtinent, M. Fleurieu endeavours also to ment of France, to use the words of ascertain what motive determined each M. Fleurieu, “ intent on every thing expedition, in what respect the immedi- that could give, at the same time, more ate object of discovery was attended activity to the national commerce, and with success, and in what particulars it more extension to the navigation of the failed : he marks the successive advances French, could not behold with indifferwhich geography has made, and appor- ence the general movement which was tions to countries and commanders, with preparing in foreign trade, and this comfidelity and impartiality, the honours and mon and simultaneous direction of all the merits to which they are respectively these speculations towards the same obentitled.

ject." A few furs were procured by the crew France, however, before she would em. of captain Cook, during their stay in bark in a speculation where there were Prince William's Sound and in Cook's so many competitors, thought it prudent River, from the Indians in exchange that the north-west coast of America for European commodities of insig- should be visited by vessels belonging to nificant value; and these furs being the state, in order to make a deliberate carried to China, and sold at exorbitant and unprejudiced estimate of the advanprices, suggested to captain King (who tages that she was likely to reap from on the death of captains Cook and engaging in the rivalry. To the general Clerke had succeeded to the command) instructions of La Perouse, who was then that great advantages might be derived about to commence his disastrous expefrom a voyage taken to that part of the dition, were superadded particular inAmerican coast, purely for commercial junctions to survey the north-west coast purposes. If we are indebted to captain of America; and of that coast, most careking for opening to us a new source of fully to visit the parts comprised between commerce with China, the fur trade, we the latitude 4.90 and 57°, where the per

zrering efforts of captain Cook had that time, between Spain and England, been so constantly baffled by the winds, concerning the property of Nootka that he had not been able to examine Sound, and which threatened both Euany other point than Nootka.

rope and America, made it necessary to La Peronse sailed from Brest in 1785: suspend the expedition. Affairs, howbe applied himself assiduously to the ever, being soon afterwards amicably object of his voyage: he discovered a settled between the powers of Europe, fine harbour in 58° 40'; some exten- the project was resumed, and captain sire lands detached from the continent, Etienne Marchand sailed in the Solide, between 54° and 42°; and to the east- from the harbour of Marseilles, on the ward of those lands, admiral de Fuente's 14th of December 1790. archipelago of San Lazaro. But the We are concerned to say, that M., Foyage of the unfortunate Perouse is Fleurieu has not been able to enrich his published, and his discoveries are known; narrative with any part of the journal of we have merely introduced his name, captain Marchand himself. and the secondary object of his expedition, the obtaining some information on “ That estimable navigator, after having the subject of the fur trade, as they were happily brought back the Solide into one of connected, and led to the patriotic en- our ports of the Mediterranead, took the terprize of the present circumnavigator. of France, (where he ended his days); and I

command of another ship, bound to the Isle It is asserted by M. Fleurieu, that the

am ignorant into whose hands his Nootka Sound company of London,

papers may

have fallen. But if we have to regret formed for the purpose of establishing a re- the particular remarks which his own jourgular trade between the north-west coast nal might contain, we may consider ourselves and China, had in the beginning kept an as inden:nified by the possession of that of interested silence in regard to the success captain Chanal, who had been, during the of the expeditions of captains Portlock course of the voyage, personally charged wito and Dixon, (two experienced officers all the surveys that were made, whethe who had served under

captain Cook), great ocean, or of the parts of the north-we

of the islands discovered or visited in 11 Colnett, and Duncan. Those of captain coast of America, where the Solide traded' Meares, who sailed from Calcutta, and of furs. Captain Marchand and captain C other navigators, were not yet known; nal made to each other daily, a recipro and the uncertainty respecting the fate communication of their astronomical obsı of La Perouse, had suspended the publi- vations, and of the results which they ha cation of his voyage, which it was still drawn from them; and both were inserted, hoped he would publish himself. M. according to their date, in captain Chanal's Etienne Marchand, however, on his re- journal: the latter has, besides, added to his turn from Bengal, met with captain which he himself drew. This journal, kept

narrative the plans of the harbours and coasts Portlock in the road of St. Helena, and with method, and presenting in the best received from him every desirable infor- order all the incidents of the voyage, mation relative to the trade of the north- unites to the log-book, hourly transcribed, west coast, and the profits which might every particular relative to navigation, which be expected from it, if a ship carried her the curious reader seeks and wishes to find in cargoes of furs to China, and having a sea journal; and, what is no less valuable, there met with an advantageous market the simple and faithful exposition of every for them, secured a cargo for her re

fact, and a picture drawn from nature of men tum to Europe. On his arrival at Mar- and things, seen without prejudice, and with

out system.” seilles, the French captain communicated the important information to the It appears to have been the intention mercantile house of Baux, who with an of captain Marchand, to have proceeded alacrity which did them honour, imme directly from the Cape de Verd islands diately suggested the expedition, the par. to the north-west coast of America, a ticulars of which are related in these vo- passage of above 4000 leagues, without lames, and who opened at their own ha- touching at any port! This project, zard a new channel of commerce to their which seems to have been entertained countrymen. A ship was constructed from a motive of mere vanity, for the of 300 tons burden, and so early as the purpose of overcoming a difficulty month of June 1790, every thing was which involved no inconvenience, and prepared for the equipment; but the dis- the conquest of which would therefore pate which very unseasonably arose at have been attended with no advantage,

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was, however, obliged to be abandoned The Mendoçan belles are not singula: in consequence of the putrescent state in the liberality with which they confer of the water, in the casks, towards the their favours: we know from the au. middle of May; he shaped his course, thority of captain Cook, and of others, therefore, for the islands called Las Mar- that in many islands of the Pacific Ocean, quesas de Mendoza, situated in the pa. or as it is here called the Great Ocean rallel of 10° south, and about the 141st women seem to consider the offer of their meridian from Paris. On the 14th of persons to strangers, whom they never June the Solide came to anchor in the saw before, as the mere ordinary pledge bay of La Madre de Dios: part of the of hospitality. There is a circumstance crew went ashore on the island Santa more important, in which navigator Christina, where they were received with who have visited these islands are agreed caresses by the natives, with whom they namely, that the inhabitants are gene bartered for whatever commodities they rally mild in their manners, and friendly wanted.

in their disposition. M. Fleurieu takes the opportunity Surgeon Roblet, and captain Chanal whilst our voyager is at anchor, to enter each compiled a separate vocabulary of elaborately upon a general description Mendoçan words, and M. Fleurieu ha: of the Marquesas, and a particular one added a third column, in which are a few of the island of Santa Christina or Wa- words of the same language correspond hitato: he gives an account of the soil, ing to some in the preceding columns productions, animals, and climate of the given, upon the authority of captair island; describes the inhabitants, their Cook, according to the English pronun persons, dress, and ornaments; their ciation. food, industry, manners, characters, customs, &c. &c. This account is drawn The language of the inhabitants up from the narratives of the Spaniards, Santa Christina, has the greatest afinity to the English, and the French. The co that of the Society Islands, or rather is the incident remarks of captain Cook, Messrs.

same tongue: which proves that althoug! George and Reinhold Forster, captain space of sea of two hundred and sixty leagues

the two archipelagoes are separated by: Chanal, and surgeon Roblet, are notic- and although it is presumable that thei ed; and when any variations occur in canoes do not maintain between them an ha their accounts, such variations are rea bitual communication, the people who inha soned upon, and generally they are sa bit them must have had a common origin: tisfactorily reconciled. This digression, native of the Society Islands, who was ein for it cannot be considered as strictlý barked in the Resolution, conversed fluenu; relevant to the narrative of the voyage, captain Cook says that the English, whi

with the natives of La Madre de Dios; bu is ably executed, and very interesting. must in their visits to Taheitee have ac All agree

that the native Mendoçans quired a knowledge of most of the word surpass every other nation in the regu. spoken there, could never succeed in mak larity of thoir features, the symmetry of ing themselves understood at Santa Chris their proportions, and the masculine tina. *" beauty of their limbs. If voyagers have not exaggerated the admiration with From the anchorage in the bay of L which they were struck at the sight of Madre de Dios, there was perceived or the Mendocans, we shall think with them the horizon to the west north-west, an that sculpture might take her models north-west by west, a fixed spot whic at Santa Christina; she would there find presented the appearance of the summi Hercules, Antinous, and Ganymede. of a lofty peak: on the next day the sam As to the females, the softness of their appearance was observed, and it wa skins, their light, graceful motions, the naturally supposed, although no cha: elegance of their form, the easy melting indicates any, and no voyager mention outline, the harmony of their whole any, that this spot, must be land. O contour, and superadded to this assem- the 20th of June Captain Marchan blage of voluptuous attractions, the fas set sail from the bay, and steered accord cination of their smiles, and the witchery ing to the bearing which he had takei of their little playful maneuvres, seemed and discovered a new group of island to have called into action all the gal- forming but one archipelago with th lantry of the crew,

Marquesas de Mendoça: these he ei Cook's second Voyage, vol. 1. page 308.

zanined and has described, the principal ty were only to be obtained in exchange one particularly, which, in honour of the for these. Almost all the garments, commander, the officers of the Solide which the natives wore were of English called Isie Marchand. The discovery of manufacture; these, however, it is ccathis group adds one to the numerous op- jectured, were brought thither by some portunities, none of which M. Fleurieu vessel belonging to the United States, suffers to escape him, of mentioning cap- two copper coins of the province of Nastain Cook. It is impossible even for an sachusetts being recognized while ornaEnglishman to feel a higher respect, one menting the ears of a young man. Dermight almost say veneration, towards ing the few days which captain Marchand this undaunted, scientific navigator, and spent at this anchorage he purchased 100 ercellent man, than appears to be im- prime otter skins, the greater part raw pressed upon the mind of the able editor or half dressed ; 250 cub otter skins of a of the work which now lies before us. light colour ; 36 whole bear skins, and 13 Instead of making it a matter of triumph half skins; a considerable quantity of that this group had escaped the English Otter skins cut into stripes of an inferior captain, and instead of indulging any quality, the greater part of them much ltde national pride that they were dism worn, which might be estimated at 150 covered by the sul sequent fortune of his skins; 37 seal skins; 60 skins of beavers, countrymen, he anticipates our surprise, racoons, and other animals; a bag conand accounts, not less honourably be- taining a few squirrel skins and several cause truly, for the escape of this group otters' tails; a carpet of marmot or from the observations of Mendana and mountain rat skins; another carpet comCook, who both put into the bay of La posed partly of marmot skins, partly of Madre de Dios. In the first place cap- bear skins. tain Marchand was singularly fortunate M. Fleurieu now enters into an elaboin the weather : in the seas situated be- rate description of the Techinkitânayans, tween the tropics where the heat is con- of their arts, their industry, their tools, stant, it is by no means usual to have an their manners, customs, and characters ; borizon sufficiently free from vapours to a considerable portion of these physical afford a possibility of distinguishing a and moral observations are offered by small island from a small cloud, or even surgeon Roblet, whose science as a nato perceive it. In the next place the turalist has much contributed to enrich courses which these two navigators steer. these volumes. Leaving Teciinkitânay, ed on quitting the bay, did not put them captain Marchand directed his course toin a track which could lead them to the wards Nootka Sound, reconnoitering in discovery. This group of islands, called his way Queen Charlotte's islands, and by M. Marchand Isles de la Revolution, oc- trading for furs with various success. cupies 1° 42' in latitude and 44 only Although our English navigators have in longitude, and uniting it to that of the frequently touched at these islands, much Mendoca islands, it will form an archi- novel information respecting the man. pelago which will occupy 2° 40' in lati- ners and habits of the natives remained tude and 1° 47' in longitude. The mid- to be gleaned. Indeed it must be ac. dle of Marchand's island in situation is knowledged, on comparing the journals 9° 21' south latitude, and 142° 19' west of captain Douglas and captain Dixon longitude.

respecting these islands, with that of capOn the 12th of August the Solide tain Chanal and surgeon Roblet, that dropt her anchor in the bay of Guadelupa, although our navigators discovered the or Norfolk Sound, after two hundred and bay and channel and affixed names, yet forty-two days navigation from the time we are indebted for an account of the of her departure from France, of which productions of the country, and the chaten only had been spent at anchor!' In racter of the natives, to the more ample this bay, which the natives call Techin- information of the French. kitânay, the captain begun his traffic for furs: the market was well supplied ; se

« The natives of this northern part of veral beautiful otter-skins, and others of Queen Charlotte's islands appear endowed an inferior quality, were purchased, in opinion may have been already formed of this

with a superior degree of intelligence : an eichange for pots, pans, and various from the solidity and arrangement of their other untensils and toys. European habitations; and the make of their canoes, cloths, however, were in the greatest which are no less substantially constructed jepute, and otter skins of the first quali- than skilfully wrought, is another proof of

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