contaminating sight : here she dwelt in her mother's blasting sight, and, bereft of peace, improving daily in every virtue and reason, rushed unbidden into the presence of accomplishment that could adorn her sex. her Maker! Poor Julia !--and shall a deed The mother, meantime, distressed in her committed in the hour when reason was overcircumstances in proportion to the decay of powered by the phrenzy of despair, cancel those charms which now failed to procure the purity of thy life, unmarked almost by her admirers, resolved, for a pecuniary con error? Ah, no! the many acts of virtue sideration, to sacrifice her too lovely daugh- thou hast done shall plead” for thee at the ter at the same shrine of prostitution to throne of mercy, and there mayest thou still which she had herself been' led a willing look down and witness the rear of symvictim. The thought was no sooner enter- pathy I shed on thy sorrows and untimely tained than executed. She quitted the habi- fate.—Peace to thy manes !--sweet Julia.” tation of misery and contempt, and, like an

Mr. Wolff's are all sketches: he calls infernal demon, entered the abode of innocence and peace. Julia was claimed, and them sketches, and we have no right to carried unresisting and unknowing to her expect the performance of more than is mother's dwelling; who having, through promised: at Rome, the Pantheon, the the means of a common pander of vice, ob- Coliseum, St. Peter's, the paintings of the tained the promise of a large sum from an Vatican, &c. &c. are • sketched with a' abandoned reprobate, to whom her daugļiter few rapid strokes and dismissed : his was to be sacrificed, disclosed the plan, sketches' of character and manners cloaked under the false garb and specious are many of them master pieces. The mask of pleasure, to her own offspring. From so `infamous a proposal, even thus

scene in the coffee-room of les quatre nacoloured and disguised, the virtuous, inno- tions we have already alluded to: that at cent Julia shrank, as at the sight of a basi- the post-house at Poggibonzi, where, as lisk. From arguments and entreaties her luck would have it, our traveller fell in mother proceeded to threats, in case a com with il padre Anselmo and his merry pliance should not be given within the pe- brethren of the monastery, is equally well riod of a few days. Neither the prayers nor drawn. tears of her virtuous daughter, in the mean From Rome Mr. Wolff took a trip intime, inade the smallest impression on the to the Neapolitan dominions : a 'sketch obdurate heart and debased mind of the vicious parent. A sense of filial duty prevent: San Carlo, is drawn with a rapid but no

of Pozzuoli and of Naples, its Corso and horrid scheme in agitation. The debauched vulgar pencil. Our traveller paid a : douard, who, by dint of bribery, was to tri- visit to Vesuvius, and witnessed a faint umph over such virtue, saw her in this trying eruption from its crater: Herculaneum situatioa, and was just meditating to seize and Pompeia, of course, could not elude upon his prey, when, with fearful steps, she his curiosity. fiew for relief to a former friend of her father's. She mentioned not her situation such as it laneum as his workmen were digging a

The duke d'Elbeuf discovered Hercu. was the dreadful alternative that awaited her--the brink of ruin on which she stood well in his garden at Portici, in 1736. but only solicited to be reinstated in her for- Whatever statues, fragments of ornamer residence, where she might once more ments, paintings, and other curious remfind happiness in retirement. This was nants are discovered in this subterrateadily promised, but, alas ! too late to pre- neous search, are immediately removed Feat the catastrophe that ensued. Julia re- to the king's museum at Portici, where turned home, but to what a home! a fiend an immense collection is formed of all awaited her arrival! she had to encounter the antiquities that have been thus resimmediate infamy, dishonour, and ruin!!Here let me draw a veil over the melancholy cued from oblivion. The museum is history; suffice it to add, that Julia, in the moreover enriched with all the curiosie bour of despair, friendless, unprotected, and ties which have been dug out of Pompeia: left to her distracted thoughts, sought refuge by order of government, a work is now is another and a better world. Hers had carrying on, descriptive of these wondbot been a life of pleasure, but it had been a rous fragments; it already amounts to life of peace and innocence; could then her six volumes in folio, and is daily increas. unsullied mind bear up against the stigma of ing. After having gratified his taste, rice, the scorn of the severely virtuous, of Mi: Wolff returned to Rome, and with such whose hearts had never possessed half ber innate modesty and worth, yet to whose

his compagnon

de voyage, Mr. Noring, se. lights and contumely she must have been cretary to the Swedish minister at the hourly exposed ? Her soul shrank from the British court, they once more bent their prospect; urged by despair, she hurried from steps to Florence.



At half a dozen miles from Terni, death bring to our author's mind the stands Mount Elus, from the cavities of more frightful and horrible particulars which issues, in summer, a strong cooling of the murder of Winkleman. From wiad: it is worthy of remark that the Modena we fly to Turin, Lyons, and inhabitants of a small town called Ceci, Paris, where we reluctantly take our convey this refrigerating air by pipes leave of this entertaining traveller. into their houses in the same manner as This work is presented to the public in water is usually conveyed.

a very handsome dress, the paper and From Florence we are carried to Bo- typograplıy are both beautiful, and the logna, thence to Modena, the birth-place vignettes are designed with elegance. of Corregio, the circumstances of whose

ART. XV. Tavels in Greece and Turkry, undertaken by Order of Louis XVI. and with

the Authority of the Ottoman Court. By C. S. SONNINI, Member of several Scientific Societies, of the Societies of Agriculiure at Paris, and of the Observers of Mlen. _Illus. trated by Engravings and a Map of those Countries. Translated from the French. 8vo. 2 vols. about 420 pages each.

THE honourable reception, as well exaggerated by Mr. Pauwe, Mr. Dallain England as in France, of Mr. Son. way, and other writers. One is the more nini's travels in Upper and Lower inclined to believe that a sufficient disEgypt; a reception amply merited by crimination has not always been made in the body of information so various, so this respect, and that the supposed, has interesting, and so important which been occasionally substituted for the real, that work contained ; has at once afford- or, more properly perhaps, the general ed the author a most grateful recom for the particular influence of slavery on pense for his labours, and imposed upon these descendants of their famed forefahim what he considered an obligation, thers, from the coincidence which we to draw from his port-folio the account, observe in the characters of the Greeks, which in his travels through Greece and as they are drawn by Nir. Eton, in his Turkey, he had drawn up concerning survey of the Turkish empire, and by those far-celebrated countries.

the author of the present work. Shall we here enlarge on the genius, Mr. Eton, whilst he represents the the taste, and the science of Sonnini ? is Turks as a brutal and barbarian race, the editor of Buffon a Tyro in science? whilst he represents their residence in is his skill, and are his acquirements as a Europe almost as a disgrace to the civilnaturalist, yet unknown ? are we yet to ed powers of it, and anxious for their be informed of the brilliancy of his ima- expulsion from this quarter of the globe, gination, the solidity of his understand- endeavours to justify the hostile opera. ing, and the philosophic cast of mind tions with which Russia has so repeated. which he enjoys? At once then let us ly menaced them, is solicitous at the accompany our traveller and confide in same time to show, that the Greeks have his narrative : his fidelity and his abili- still some of the noble blood which flowties have been equally tried.

ed in the veins of their ancestors.

“ Con The first remark that occurred to us quered Greece,” says he,“ polished in opening these volumes was, that Mr. Rome--but the conquerors were Ro. Sonnini has given a more favourable ac mans. Conquered Greece did not poa count of the modern Greeks, than the lish Turkey-for the conquerors were generality of his predecessors: the ex- Turks.” To the humiliating state of pressions of Mr. de Pauwe, descriptive of depression in which they are held by the the abąsement of this unhappy race, are Turks, he attributes, with obvious truth, unqualified in their severity. Indeed it most of the defects of the Grecian chahas been a good deal the fashion to con- racter as it exists at present. Notwith. found the Greeks and their conquerors standing this humiliation, he asserts, to mueh together : that the former that their superiority over the Turks in have degenerated under the disgraceful knowledge is surprisingly great : he coyoke of the proud Turk, is doubtless tends that their imagination is lively, ir!le, but we would willingly hope that that their genius and invention are fer thie degree of that degeneracy has been tile, that they bear the Turkish yoke

with impatience, and that they possess a' antiquity would still have the choice of more spirit of enterprise, which often prompts than one model.” them to noble achievements.

It is true, indeed, that Sonnini has Mr. Eton resided many years in Tur- here drawn a comparative picture: his key, and consequently had that opport travels into Greece immediately followed tunity which long and repeated obser. his travels through Egypt: he compares ration affords of correcting the too fre- the physical state of the two countries, quent fallaciousness of first impressions: and the character of the men who inhahis authority is good, and on this ac- bit them; and what race of men would count we have stated his opinion as cor- not profit by a comparison with the roborative of the following deseription Copt, whose character partakes of the of Sonnini:

dryness and rudeness of the climate he “ The man of these charming parts of

lives in ? His person is represented as GREECE is of a handsome stature; "he carries short and heavy, his countenance dull his head high, his body erect, or rather in- and unmeaning, his disposition gloomy clined backward than forward: he is digni- and melancholy; "his treachery is the hed in his carriage, easy in his manners, and more dangerous, as it is, in a manner, fimble in his gait; his eyes are full of viva-, more concentered; having no taste for city; his countenance is open, and his ad- the arts, no fight of curiosity leads him dress agreeable and prepossessing; he is neat to instruction; sedentary, because he and elegant in his clothing; he has a taste has no vivacity in his mind, he seeks for dress, as for every thing that is beautiful; active, industrious, and even enterprising,

not to be acquainted with what sur. he is capable of executing great things; he rounds him lazy and slovenly, clownspeaks with ease, he expresses himself with ish and ignorant, unfeeling and superwarmth; he is acquainted with the language stitious, he has no longer any rememof the passions, and he likewise astonishes brance, nor even any trace remaining, by his natural eloquence; he loves the arts, of the greatness of his ancestors. What without daring to cultivate them, under the a difference between this nation, entirely brazen yoke which hangs heavy on his neck; degenerated, and that which still inhas skilful and cunning in trade, he does not al- bits the beautiful countries of Greece!” ways conduct himself in it with that frank. We have already stated, on the authoand if we still find in modern Greece many rity of Mr. Eton, that the Greeks bear of the fine qualities which do honour to the the burden of Turkish despotism with history of ancient Greece, it cannot be de- impatience: as it is of great importance nigd, that superstition, the child of ignorance to compare the accounts. of contempoand slavery, greatly tarnishes their lustre; raneous travellers on moral, physical, and we also discover in their disposition that and political subjects, it cannot be nekekleness, that pliability, that want of sinceriis, in short, that artful turn

of mind cessary to apologize for referring once shich borders on treachery, and of which incidence of his account with that of

more to Mr. Eton, and noticing the cothe Greeks of antiquity have been accused.

" But this obliquity of character fortunately Mr. Sonnini. “ Were the weight of this does not extend, or at least is very much weak- despotism taken off,” says Mr. Eton, ened, among the women of the same countries. “ the elasticity and vigour of the soul The Greek females are, in general, distin- would have wide room for expansion ; guished by a noble and easy shape, and a and though it cannot be expected that majestic carriage. Their features, traced by they would at once rise to the proud the hand of beauty, reflect the warm and animation of their former heroes, they profound affections of sensibility; the sere- would, doubtless, display energies of bits of their countenance is that of dignity, without having its coldness or gravity; they mind, which the iron hand of despotism ate amiable without pretension, decent with has long kept dormant and inert.' It is but 'sourness, charming without affectation. rather astonishing that they have rell, to such brilliant qualities, we add, ele- 'tained so much energy of character, and . sation of ideas, warmth of expression, those are not more abased; for, like ‘noble fights of sisaple and ingenuous cloquence coursers, they champ the bit, and spurn which attract and fascinate, a truly devoted indignantly the yoke ; when cnce freed attachment to persons beloved, exactness and from these, they will enter the course of fidelity in their duties, we shall have some Dotioa of these privileged beings, with whom glory.”. mature, in her munificence, has embellished

Sonnini, giving a hint to his country the earth, and who are not rare in Greece. of too obvious meaning to be mistaken, There it is that the genius of the artists of asserts, that as the inhabitants of Egypt

“ But a.

would never have dreamt of breaking longer furnishes sufficient oil for the their chains had not the French under supply of the inhabitants; and the des taken their deliverance, so the Greek's, structive custom of lopping off the even should some enterprising genius branches of the latter, for the purpose rise up in the midst of them, and offer of giving their leaves to the silk-worms, to lead them to victory and freedom, together with the total abandonment of will never have sufficient confidence in the culture of this tree in several quara themselves to shake off the odious fetters ters of the island, seem to indicate a de. which gall and oppress them; " but clining silk trade, which, however, is should foreign forces, sufficiently im- still of considerable importance. The posing to banish fears, which, in weak Culture of the cotton tree is also neglect. minds, are inseparable from the uncer. ed: the whole island now affords to tainty of success, make their appearance, commerce but 3,000 bales of cotton; not with projects of invasion, but as de- whereas, under the government of the liverers of Greece, insurrection against Venetians, the annual quantity of the tyranny would become general; cohorts bales amounted to 30,000. The Carob, of courageous combatants would be or St. John's bread tree, is cultivated formed on all sides; intelligent and with care, and furnishes a particular active mariners would cover the sea with trade. When the Venetians possessed fast sailing vessels, which would rapidly the island of Cyprus, they made there carry succours and troops to all the large plantations of sugar-canes, which points of the islands and coasts that succeeded as well as in Egypt. would become those of the whole na stern barbarian, with sword and fire in tion; all would second and bless their hand,” says the indignant traveller, "ad. deliverers."

vanced as an exterminator of all pro, As it would extend this article to an perty, and proud of annihilating every unreasonable length, were we to accom- trace of ameliorations, which were in pany Sonnini in all his “ cross and re his eyes the work of infidels, he caused trograde trips” among the islands of the to be burnt, with the sugar houses, those Archipelago: rather than thus fasten rich plantations, and thus devoted to ourselves, as it were, upon his rigging, sterility vast plains, destined to give we must take wing, and only alight here fresh activity to industry and national and there, as it may suit our conveni- prosperity.” Should the Fresich

possess ence, without much retarding our flight, this island, the patriot Sonnini suggests We must first perch, for a moment, on the culture of the coffee tree: the soil the island of Cyprus, the fertility of and climate appear to be favourable to whose soil, the mildness of whose cli- the vegetation of this shrub. mate, the beauty of whose plains, the If a grinding despotism has blasted variety and richness of whose produc- the luxuriance of nature, and, by a' tions, justly entitled it to the appellation deadly touch, converted it to sterility; of Macaria, or the Fortunate Island. if it has crippled commerce, and deAlas! the demon of despotism has here stroyed the arts; if every thing, in short, exercised its malignant sway: agricul- which is good and useful, has decayture no longer calls into action the feed in Cyprus, every thing that is miscundity of the soil; the plains are bar- chievous and valueless seems to prosren, the old forests are felled, the beauty per. Thousands of myriads of locusts of the landscape is destroyed. The sub- sometimes, destroy the fruits of the terraneous treasures, for which this island earth, and render frustrate the lawas so celebrated, are no longer allowed. bours of the cultivator : “ fire is less to enrich the degraded Cypriot; all bor. quick: in a few moments the stalks of ing, all searching, after mines is strictly the plants are laid down, and cut in: prohibited; zinc, tin, iron, and particu- pieces, the ears devoured, the crops delarly copper, once so abundant, once so stroyed, and the fields desolated. On renowned for the magnitude and beauty their approach all verdure disappears, of its blocks, are now destined, by the and they even gnaw the very bark of the barbarian Turk, to lie undisturbed in trees.” Various are the hypotheses rethe bowels of the mountains which give specting the irruption of these insects; them birth. The culture of the olive Sonnini inclines to that of Hasselquist, and the mulberry is in a great measure who conceives them to arrive from the neglected: the fruit of the former no Continent, where they must have been

formed in the midst of the deserts of vessels of war. Of Captain G*** seveArabia, whence they depart, supported ral anecdotes, exhibiting his calm intreand impelled by the winds. Snakes are pidity and power, are related; the folcommon, tarantulæ not uncommon, lowing shews that the unhappyGreeks are and that frightful spider is sometimes

, equally slaves to the Maltese and the though rarely, met with, whose aspect Turks, and that the determined firmness is represented as terrifying, and whose of the former is scarcely less to be venom as striking with death whomso- dreaded, than the violence and impetu, ever it reaches. Of this latter insect, osity of the latter, which Sonnini, after Olivier, a celebrated naturalist, has called Galéode ara- of a house which he had caused to be pulled

“ At Argentiera I was shewn the site néoide, or the scorpion spider, a minute down, and which no one dárst rebuild. Thuis description is given, illustrated by a happened on the following occasion. plate,

* The fate of the Greeks, inhabitants of At Rhodes the traveller calls to mind the small islands of ile ARCHIPELAGO, the noble energies displayed, and the abandoned to themselves, and who seemed valorous achievements accomplished, by to be sought only to be tormented and plunthe knights of St. John, in opposition to dered, was truly deplørable. If a Turkish the successful, yet humiliated, arms of ship, or the smallest galiot belonging to that the proud Solyman. In several places nation, puts into one of these islands, the

cominander becomes its despot; the chiefs of the city are to be seen marks of the of the town or village hasten to kiss his hand, ancient possession of the knights: a long and receive his coinınands. He disposes of street still preserves the name of Rue des every thing, causes to be delivered to him Chevaliers and on the old houses which the provisions and all the artioles of which compose it, remain the armorial bear- he stands in need, imposes labours on the ings of the members of the order. No men, sets up for supreme judge, decides vestiges are to be seen of the vast colos controversies, settles quarrels, condemns to sal figure for which this island was once the bastinado, on the sole of the feet, to be

fines which must be paid immediately, orders so celebrated; no monument of art applied as he thinks proper ; in short, his points out the ancient seat of genius, stay spreads terror and consternation. Did science, and of taste. Nothing remains a Maltese privateer appear in her turn, nearly to the Rhodian but a genial climate, a the same scenes of the abuse and harshness pare air, and a luxuriant soil; which, of power and of debasement were representindeed, would yet make the island one ed, the same compliments, the same preof the most delightful abodes, but that sents, the same tasks, the same arbitrary the surly extorting Turk renders frus- acts, the same humiliations, and sometimes

even ill usage. trate the efforts of nature, and paralyzes the sinews of industry and art.“ Hap- on these unfortunate Greeks, ivas, as soon

“One of the obligations of rigour imposed piness no longer inhabits a land formerly as a Maltese or Turkish vessel cast mchor in fortunate ;* and the golden shower which their barbour, to station persons to look out the poets of antiquity caused to fall there on the inost elevated points, in order to disas an emblem of its riches and brilliant cover at a distance ships at sea, to give noadvantages, is converted into a storm tice of their approach, and to skreen a more of desolation.”

troublesome guest from the danger of being During his stay in the Archipelago, rived in the road of Argentiera ; watches

surprised by his enemy. G*** had just arMr.Sonnini became acquainted with Cap. had been placed according to custom, at the tajn G***, the daring adventurer, who top of towers built on some eminences which with a handful of fellow-slaves, carried overlook the village on every side; the capoff, during a holy festival, the Turkish tain of the privateer was on shore with pait flag-ship, in the very midst of the Otto- of his crew, when a vessel was seen to enter man fleet, and took her to Malta with the road. The negligence of the sentinel out resistance, while the mussulmans posted on the side froin which the vessel stood gazing with stupid astonishment came was cruelly punished: G*** ordered at her expanded sails! The particulars his house to be demolished, and forbad- that, of this bold enterprise he had from the as long as he should live, any one should intrepid commander himself, before order was executed in every point, and, se

presume to build on the same spot. The whom the Greeks tremble as in the pre- veral years after, I saw the ruins of the haserice of the commander of the Turkish Litauion of a whole family over-run by • It participa!cd with Cyprus in the appellation of Macária.

« ForrigeFortsett »