The following selection gives the section of the charter of Los Angeles providing for the recall. This device for checking the misgovernment of elective officials before the expiration of the terms for which they are chosen has been twice successfully employed in that city. In the last instance, the mayor of the city, after more than two years of his term had expired was forced from office because he was about to turn the board of public works, having in charge the construction of a twenty-five million dollar aqueduct, over to political henchmen, and was permitting corruptionist influences to gain control of the city administration. About two weeks prior to the date set for the recall election the mayor resigned. The election was, however, carried to a completion and the reform candidate successfully installed. The charter provides as follows:

Sec. 198c. The holder of any elective office may be removed at any time by the electors qualified to vote for a successor of such incumbent. The procedure to effect the removal of an incumbent of an elective office shall be as follows: A petition signed by electors entitled to vote for a successor to the incumbent sought to be removed, equal in number to at least 25 per centum of the entire vote for all candidates for the office, the incumbent of which is sought to be removed, cast at the last preceding general municipal election, demanding an election of a successor of the person sought to be removed, shall be filed with the City Clerk; provided, that the petition sent to the Council shall contain a general statement of the grounds for which the removal is sought. The signatures to the petition need not all be appended to one paper, but each signer shall add to his signature his place of residence, giving the street and number. One of the signers of each such paper shall make oath before an officer competent to administer oaths, that the statements therein made are true, and that each signature to the paper appended is the genuine signature of the person whose name purports to be thereunto subscribed. Within ten days from the date of filing such petition the City Clerk shall examine and from the great register ascertain whether or not said petition is signed by

the requisite number of qualified electors, and if necessary, the Council shall allow him extra help for that purpose, and he shall attach to said petition his certificate showing the result of said examination. If, by the Clerk's certificates the petition is shown to be insufficient it may be amended within ten days from the date of said certificate. The Clerk shall, within ten days after such amendment, make like examination of the amended petition, and if his certificate shall show the same to be insufficient, it shall be returned to the person filing the same, without prejudice, however, to the filing of a new petition to the same effect. If the petition shall be found to be sufficient the Clerk shall submit the same to the Council without delay. If the petition shall be found to be sufficient the City Council shall order, and fix a date for holding the said election, not less than thirty days nor more than forty days from the date of the Clerk's certificates to the Council that a sufficient petition is filed.

The City Council shall make or cause to be made publication of notice, and all arrangements for holding of such election; and the same shall be conducted, returned, and the result thereof declared, in all respects, as are other city elections. The successor of any officer so removed shall hold office during the unexpired term of his predecessor. Any person sought to be removed may be a candidate to succeed himself, and, unless he requests otherwise, in writing, the Clerk shall place his name on the official ballot without nomination. In any such removal election, the candidate receiving the highest number of votes shall be declared elected. At such election if some other person than the incumbent receives the highest number of votes, the incumbent shall thereupon be deemed removed from the office upon qualification of his successor. In case the party who receives the highest number of votes should fail to qualify within ten days after receiving notification of election, the office shall be deemed vacant. If the incumbent receives the highest number of votes he shall continue in office.


1-Party Finance, Macy, J., Party Organization and Machinery, 218-29.

2-The Boss, The Party and The System, Howe, F. C., The City the Hope of Democracy, 92-112.

3-Party Methods, Shaw, A., Political Problems of American Development, 145–53.

4-Elections and their Machinery, Bryce, J., American Commonwealth, II, 142-53.

5-The War Against Bossdom, Ibid., 166-74.

6-The Present State of the Ballot Laws in the United States, Luddington, A., American Political Science Review, III, 252-61.


Abbott, L., 15.
Agriculture, work of Department
of, 403-405.
Aldrich Act, 476.

Amendment, of Articles of Con-
federation, 39, 40, 43; of Fed-
eral Constitution, 51, 70, 71;
process of difficult, 54, 156; of
State constitutions, 265, 266.
Amidon, C. F., 69, 82.
Anti-Federalists, oppose adoption
of the Constitution, 44-46.
Appeals, criminal, in the United
States, 330; in England, 331.
Apportionment of representatives,

Appropriations, national, method
of making, 437, 439.
Articles of Confederation, 31-39;
defects in, 39-44, 46.

Avery, B., 162.

Babb, J. E., 320.
Baldwin, S. E., 311.

Ballot, the short, 384-391; the
Australian, 509.

Bank, central, plan of, 478-479;
advantages of, 479–482.
Bank currency, 473, 481.
Bank of the United States, power

of Congress to charter, 56, 57.
Bank reserves, 471-473.
Banking, national, 464, 468.
Board of Estimates, municipal,

Bradford, G., 226.

Braxton, A. C., 325.

Bribery, difficulties of conviction

for, 518, 521.

Bryan, W. J., 26, 29.

Bryce, J., 51, 61, 145, 170, 215,
261, 271, 273, 435.

Cabinet, English, 150, 193, 194,

Cabinet government, 193, 194.
Cabinet, organization of, 211-214;
powers of, 214-218; relation of
to Congress, 218-223, 226-228;
to committees, 223-226; to the
President, 227-228.

Candidates, nomination of, 374;
great numbers of, 371, 386, 388,
389, 507.

Cannon, J. G., 169.

Childs, R. S., 384.
Choate, R., 247.

Cities, powers of, 362; democracy
in, 503.

City Council, decline of, 349, 351-

Citizenship, definition of, 95, 96;

rights of, under the Declaration
of Independence, 97, under the
14th Amendment, 96, 100, 101-
105; protected by the States, 98-
100, 101, 102, by the Federal
Government, 103-105; responsi-
bility of, 126-128.

Civil Rights Case, 101.

Civil Service Commission, creation
of, 234; twenty-fifth annual re-
port of, 238.

Civil Service Examinations, 234-

Civil Service, reform of, 233-234;
classification of, 235.
Clearing-house banks, 470.
Clearing-house certificates, 470,
Clinton, G., 44.

Commerce, regulation of, 78, 79;
national character of, 82-86;
States not able to assume con-
trol of, 86-88; States should

share in control of, 90-91;
power to regulate interstate,
483-485, 492-497; control of
State, 485-486.
Commerce, Court of, recommend-
ed, 499.

Commission Government, in cities
of Iowa, 356.

Committee on Rules, of House,
133, 143; of Senate, 164.
Committee on Ways and Means,
223, 435.

Committees, of House, 145-148;
of Senate, 162-166; relation of
Congressional to heads of de-
partments, 223-226.
Commons, J. R., 21.
Congress, powers of, 56-61; power

of increasing, 74; danger of too
great power of, 77-81; power
of to regulate commerce, 484,

Congressional Government, 196.
Conservation of resources, 407.
Constitutional government, origin
of, 10; meaning of, 11-15; dis-
tinct from self-government, 19.
Constitution, English, 62.
Constitution, Federal, ratification

of in New York, 44; amendment
of, 51, 70, 71; amendment of
difficult, 54, 156; construction
of by Marshall, 56-61, 250-254;
present meaning of, 65-67, 69-
70; strict construction of, 67-
68, 76-81; loose construction of,
69-73, 82-87; fundamental

character of, 245, 251, 252;
power of courts to interpret,
Constitutions, State, history of,
261-265; amendment of, 265,
266; recent changes in, 265-
Constitutions, written and


written, 52; danger of too rigid,
53-55; interpretation of the
rigid, 61-65; interpretation of
the written, 251, 252.
Consular service, 408-409.
Conventions, nominating, great

number of, 374; management
of, 376.

Cooley, T. M., 67.

Corporation tax, 426; advantages
of, 427; methods of assessing,

Corporations, national character
of, 84-85, 87; federal incorpora-
tion of, 78, 79, 500-501; federal
regulation of, 487, 490, 492,

Corrupt Practices Act of Connecti-
cut, 513.

Corruption, political, suppression
of, 518-525.

Courtesy of the Senate, 174, 178-

Court of commerce, recommended,

Court of customs appeals, estab-
lished, 447.

Court, Supreme, attitude of to-
ward trusts, 493, 496 (see also
Supreme Court).

Courts, criminal, procedure of, in
the United States, 228-232; in
England, 232-234.

Courts, independence of, 246;
power of to declare acts un-
constitutional, 244, 245, 250-
254; method of interpreting
law, 255-258.

Crawford, C. C., 105.
Credit Currency, 473.
Credit system, 467.
Currency, elastic, 473, 481.
Customs districts, 448.

Customs duties, collection of, 448-
450; evasion of, 450-451 (see
also Tariff).

Dalzell, J., 136.

Declaration of Independence, and
self-government, 15-17; rights
held under, 97.
Deeming, H. E., 503.
Democracy and Liberty, 310.
Democracy and privilege, 506.
Department, of Treasury, 219-
220; of Agriculture, 403-405.

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