field. The tongues of horses and cattle were cut out, and the agonized animals driven about for the amusement of their brutal tormentors. The massacre of men, the conflagration of houses, the butchery of women and children, to the disgrace of civilized man, have been often before recorded among the calamities and horrours of war; but we hope, and believe, that this is the only instance in the annals of the world, where men have made war with the brute creation, and inflicted torments from the mere love of cruelty. The horses, farms and other possessions of the tories were exempted from the general devastation, where they were known; but this was not always the case the ignorance or unrestrainable ferocity of their friends, sometimes brought them into a participation of the general sufferings, and many of them were driven to seek protection from the fury of their friends, of the proscribed and wandering på- . triots.

Horrible as was this tragedy in its general features, there were peculiar circumstances attending some of its scenes, which, but that the evidences of their reality are too strong, we should pass over as the creations of a distempered mind. A Captain Bedlock, who had been taken prisoner, had his naked body stuck full of sharpened pine sticks, and being in this state placed within a circle of turpentine knots, the whole was set on fire; and as if to add a mental pang to the agonies of the body, his two friends, Captains Ransom and Durgee, were thrown into the burning circle to perish with him.-A mother with her daughters and infant grandchildren were butchered by a son; her crime was having married a second husband, who also fell by the same hand.—In another instance, a son 26



became the cold-blooded executioner of father, mother, sisters and brothers. These things were not the ebullitions of a momentary rage in the heat of battle -they were transacted some days after all resistance had ceased-not by the wild untutored Indians, but by civilized men, professing the religion of Christby American tories. It is seldom just or reasonable to censure a whole people, or a whole party, for the licentious conduct of a few individuals; but it certainly cannot be regarded as wonderful that the name of tory should continue even to the present day to be a theme of execration by the people of the United States. We do not for a moment admit the belief, that the fiends of Wyoming perpetrated their enormities under the sanction, or by the orders, of the British government; but it must nevertheless be regarded as an everlasting stigma upon their character, that no means were taken to punish these violators of all law, human and divine, or to disavow the of fence. It is too true, indeed, on the contrary, that many of these shameless outrages against humanity are to be traced to the avowed agents of the English government, who by paying large rewards for scalps, excited the avarice of white, as well as red men, and inured them to scenes of blood. Whether these agents had the direct orders of their government to do this, or not, they were certainly clothed with authority, and according to the maxim, qui facit per alium, facit per se, the government must remain obnoxious to the reproach of wanton barbarity in the conduct of the war.

During the present summer, an expedition was fitted out from Virginia by Colonel Clarke, against the settlements in the Mississippi and Illinois country.

His force consisted of about 250 men, with whom he undertook to traverse a distance of 1200 miles, through an uninhabited wilderness. The provision which they were able to take with them, held out only until their arrival at the great falls of the Ohio, from which they had a march of two days before them to the town of Kaskaskias. This town consisted of about two hundred and fifty houses, protected by a small fort, which with proper precaution would have been sufficient to have kept off a much larger force than that which was now brought against it. But the Americans, who had fasted for two days, were determined here to end their sufferings in victory or death. They had arrived at night, when the inhabitants of the town, unsuspicious of any hostile approach, were buried in sleep; so that the town and fort fell into the hands of Colonel Clarke, without a struggle. He had so well planned his attack that not a man escaped. The Governour was sent to Virginia, and the inhabitants were required to take an oath of allegiance to the United States. Colonel Clarke took up his head quarters at the fort, and from thence planned several expeditions into the neighbouring settlements, which proved equally successful-having taken three French towns, and brought them under allegiance to the United States.


Events of 1778 continued.-Recognizance of M. Gerard as Minister from the French King-Dr. Franklin appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to France--Marquis de la Fayette returns to France-Count D'Estaing sails from Boston-Unsuccessful attempt of Admiral Byron-General Gates arrives to take command at Boston-Movements of Sir Henry Clinton-his expedition against Bedford against Egg Harbour-Slaughter of Pulaski's Light Infantry-of Baylor's regiment of HorseCongress grant half pay to the American officers.-Exchange of prisoners.-Expeditions against East Florida-Sir Henry Clinton sends an expedition against Georgia.-Defeat of General Robert Howe, and capture of Savannah, by Colonel Campbell.-Marauding incursions into Georgia from East Florida. General Prevost arrives-takes Sunbury, and the whole of Georgia falls-Expedition from Scoharie-Gallant exploit of Major Talbot-Conduct of the enemy at Cherry Valley. Mr. Silas Deane makes an appeal to the people-Is answered by "Common Sense."-Monsieur Gerard presents a memorial to Congress-The French and British fleets meet in the West Indies.Generals Schuyler and St. Clair honourably acquitted by their Courts Martial.-Sentence against General Lee confirmed.— Reflections on the state of the Country.

THE honourable Sieur Gerard, who had been for some time resident in the United States as a publick agent of the Crown of France, was very soon after the conclusion of the Treaties, appointed by his master Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States. This was an epoch in the history of our infant nation; and his presentation to Congress was attended with much ceremony. The 6th of August had been fixed upon for his introduction; the government of Pennsylvania were invited to attend, and each member of Congress was authorized to give two tickets of ad

mission to his friends. The new Minister was introduced by two members of Congress appointed for that duty, and being led to a seat, his Secretary delivered to the President of Congress, the credentials of his Excellency in a letter from his most Christian Majesty, which being read, the President formally announced to the Congress M. Gerard as Minister Plenipotentiary. His Excellency then addressed them in his native tongue; the President replied with suitable compliments; and a publick entertainment, given by Congress, closed the transaction.

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A few weeks after this, Congress appointed, by ballot, Dr. Franklin to be Minister Plenipotentiary to France. One of the most important points of his instructions, was to lay before the Court of France a plan which had been formed in conjunction with the Marquis de la Fayette and M. Gerard, for the conquest of Canada; and the young Marquis soon after obtained leave from Congress to return to France. He took with him a letter of strong recommendation to the French King; and our new Minister was directed to cause an elegant sword to be made and presented to him in the name of the United States. The plan of an expedition to Canada, which had been first suggested by Mr. Gerard, had manifestly other objects in view than to aid the cause of the United States. It has been hinted, in the early part of this work, that France saw the struggles of the Colonies with the Mother Country, with secret satisfaction, and that she looked forward to the time when a cooperation with us might be the means of regaining her own conquered possessions in America. That this was the present object of the French Minister and of France, there is no reason to doubt; and it certainly relieves

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