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the horse of the officer who was shot became unruly, and wheeling suddenly round galloped off the fieldthe whole of the cavalry, supposing this movement to have been directed, followed, and Washington was compelled to check his eager career. Webster in the mean time having rallied his grenadiers and 23d regiment, and O'Hara, though severely wounded, coming up to their support with the remnant of his first battalion and the 71st, they fell upon Howard, and Hawe's Virginia regiment at the same moment. Thus was the contest renewed and warmly continued for some time longer with various success, until Tarleton who had been hitherto unengaged, rushed in with his fresh cavalry and decided the fortune of the day.

General Greene now, fearful of risking the entire loss of his army, ordered a retreat, which was conducted in perfect order and regularity, under cover of Colonel Greene's Virginia regiment, which had been from the first selected for this purpose, and kept out of the action, very much to the dissatisfaction of this brave and veteran officer, who burned with desire to take his part in the contest. It would be impossible, perhaps, justly to find fault with the arrangements of General Greene for this battle. The choice of bis ground, the disposition of his forces, the ability with which he adapted his plan to his means, and the personal contemptof danger which he displayed throughout the action, bespoke no ordinary generalship. But it is probable if Colonel Greene, with the reserve, had been brought into action at the moment that Webster and Stuart were routed, victory would have declared in favour of the American arms.

The British loss in this memorable battle, exceeded 500 killed and wounded, among whom were seve

ral of their best officers. Our loss was little more than 400 killed and wounded, of which more than three fourths fell upon the continentals. Major Anderson of the Maryland line was among the killed, and Generals Huger and Stevens among the wounded. Though the numerical force of General Greene nearly doubled that of Cornwallis, yet when we take into consideration the difference in the nature of those forces, the shameful conduct of the North Carolina militia, who fled at the first fire, never to return, the desertion of the second Maryland regiment, and that the reserve under Colonel Greene was not brought into the action, it will appear that our number but little exceeded that of the enemy.

Our veteran troops, indeed, of every description, amounted to not more than 500 rank and file; whereas the whole of Cornwallis's troops were well disciplined, experienced soldiers. Upon the whole it was a well fought battle, leaving to the victors nothing to boast of, and to the vanquished nearly all they could have expected from victory; for Cornwallis so crippled, as to be unable to pursue, and so straitened, for the means of providing for his broken force as to be compelled to leave his wounded behind, made a circuitous retreat of 200 miles from the scene of his victory, before he could find the means of shelter, subsistence, or rest. General Greene, on the contrary, retired quietly to his former position at the iron works on Troublesome Creek, where he soon prepared himself for another action, under the supposition that his Lordship would seek to follow up his advantages, and even marched in pursuit of his Lordship, the moment he heard of his having quitted Guilford. The vi. gour of his pursuit, indeed, showed that he was anx

ious for a second opportunity of measuring swords with his foe; and his troops though badly clothed, and without food, were equally desirous of another chance of striking at the British regulars. But their efforts were fruitless; Cornwallis felt no disposition to turn upon bis pursuers, and General Greene halted his army at Ramsay's mill. Thus ended the active and diversified campaign of the south, which upon the whole resulted in manifest advantages to the United States.


Events of 1781 continued.-Revolt of the Pennsylvania troops at

Morristown.-Sir Henry Clinton attempts to take advantage of the discontents.His agents are delivered up by the mutineers at Princetono committee of Congress meet them at Trenton, and adjust their claims.- The New Jersey line revolt, are reduced to obedience, and their ringleaders executed. Views of Washington with regard to the state of the country Arnold's expedition to Virginia-He destroys the stores at Richmond, Smithfield and elsewhere, and establishes himself at Portsmouth.-Washington calls upon the French commanders to cooperate with him in an expedition against Arnold.The Marquis de la Fayette sent with a detachment to AnnapolisEngagement of the French and English squadrons of Cape Henry.-Admiral D'Estouches retires to Newport.-The Marquis de la Fayette recalled from Annapolis, and ordered to Virginia-Major General Phillips is sent with a strong detachment

to reinforce the British army at Portsmouth, and takes the com· mand.--His marauding excursions up the James River.- The

Marquis de la Fayette arrives at Richmond, and is joined by the militia under Baron Steuben.-General Phillips moves with his forces to Petersburg. - The Marquis establishes himself near Richmond.General Greene moves from Ramsay's mill, and advances to Cambden-Marion and Lee invest Fort Watson and reduce it.-Battle of Cambden, and retreat of General Greene-Lord Rawdon evacuates Cambden, and retires to Jonk's Corner.The post of Motte's surrenders to Marion and Lee.-The Americans reduce Orangeburg and Fort Granby Marion gains possession of Augusta.-Greene lays siege to Ninety-Six-attempts a storm and is repulsed.- Arrival of Lord Rawdon with reinforcements.-General Greene retreatsIs pursued by Lord Rawdon to the Ennoree.-Evacuation of Ninety-Six.-Skirmishes of Lee's legion at Monk's Cornerat Quinley Bridge.-General Greene retires with his army to the high hills of Santee.

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While these things were transacting in the south, it was the fate of Washington to experience a renew

al of those troubles and distresses, which had so con.. stantly followed him into winter quarters. That interval from active operations which was spent by his adversary in ease and peaceful enjoyment, was destined always to augment the labours and sufferings of the American commander. Engaged in battle, or in marching from post to post, the American soldiers, for the most part badly clothed and fed, had no leisure to brood over their grievances ; but the moment they were provided with comfortable shelter from the severities of the weather, when their officers vied with each other in endeavours to relieve their wants, and to mitigate their sufferings, the spirit of complaint broke forth; the efforts to alleviate their distresses, served but to bring them more forcibly to their minds. Nor is it wonderful, that men who had borne so much, who had murmured so long in secret, in the vain hope that their calamities would soon end, should at length lose their patience with their faith in Congress, and break out into open revolt. .

No army ever suffered more than that under the immediate command of Washington, from the beginning to the end of the revolution. Without clothes, without money, and frequently for four days together without a mouthful of bread; in many instances compelled to serve beyond their period of enlistment, without receiving their arrearages, and with no prospect of being paid for future services; put off from time to time with promises of redress by Congress, and constantly disappointed; it would be difficult to decide, whether they deserve praise more for their long and patient suffering, or for the spirit which at length prompted them to seek redress for themselves. Many new causes now combined to ripen the disconVOL. II.


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