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vation and care in the future, alike with reference to the collection of vaccine lymph, the preparation of antitoxin, the practice of vaccination and its benefits, even beyond its protective power against small-pox. Almost forty years ago, in an essay on vaccination (Medical Society of the State of New York, 1864) we had occasion to refer to statistics gathered by Drs. Farr and Greenhow, and McCulloch's statistical account of the British Empire, showing that the death rate from scrofulous diseases was five times greater before the introduction of vaccination than subsequently; and that measles and scarlatina progressively had subsided since 1771 (at first under the influence of inoculation) and subsequently of vaccination. Yet the subject is now brought up by one of our medical contemporaries as one of recent observation. Moreover, it is worthy of remark in this connection that, according to recent records, the danger of communicating other diseases with vaccinia is evidently greater with the use of bovine vaccinia than it is with humanized lymph. But as to its danger in either case, compared with the danger of small-pox where vaccination is neglected, it is nil.
COSMOPOLITAN HEALTH STUDIES, by Dr. F. J. Oswald, will te resumed in our February number. They are of wide scope; will comprehend the conditions of health in relation to natural conditions, civic administration, government, municipal and rural, habit, food, etc., of different nations and communities.
The Board of Health of Liberty, Sullivan County, have enacted an ordinance providing that no building situate within the limits of the village shall be used, occupied, or maintained as a hospital, pest house, or sanitarium for the reception of public or private patients afflicted with consumption. A first violation of the offense is punishable by a fine of $50, and for a subsequent violation there is to be a penalty in the discretion of the board, not to exceed $100.
This means that Liberty, which was rapidly becoming famous as a Mecca for consumptives from New York, Brooklyn and Newark, will not be allowed to receive them any more. Hotels for their reception, costing thousands of dollars, have been built, and in Winter they used to flock there in great numbers to take the “open air sunbath treatment.” Every hotel in Liberty, except one, catered to their patronage. Steve Brodie spent several months there before his trip West, where he died.
The Loomis Sanitarium, located beyond the village limits, will not be directly affected, except that, as the ordinance states that no patients, “public or private," will be entertained within the limits, the patients will not be allowed to stop at any of the hotels for temporary rest or refreshment.
In the summer Liberty does a big business in catering to boarders, and it is expected that this will increase when the consumptives are barred.
PTOMAINES IN CANNED OYSTERS. Rochester, N. Y., Nov. 21.—Miss Clara Schmat, daughter of Fred Schmat, merchant in Attica, gave an informal party last night. About thirty of her friends were invited. Among the refreshments served were tin cans of oysters, which had been opened and allowed to stand for two days. Before midnight all of the guests were taken violently ill with ptomaine poisoning. Physicians worked all night, trying every effort known to counteract the poison, but Miss Schmat died early this morning, and Frank Harrison died two hours later.
At the annual meeting of the New York State Association of Railway Surgeons, held at the New York Academy of Medicine, November 14, papers were read by Dr. G. P. Conn, of Concord, New Hampshire division surgeon of the Boston & Maine Railroad, on car sanitation ; by Dr. J. N. Hurty, secretary of the State Board of Health of Indiana, on the transportation of passengers ill with contagious diseases; by Dr. W. J. Rosenau, of Washington, D. C., on the need of disinfection; by Dr. William H. Park, of the Board of Health of this city, on methods of disinfecting cars, and by L. L. Gilbert, assistant counsel for the Pennsylvania Railroad at Pittsburg, on medico-legal features of railroad sanitation.
"I believe that consumptives should be prohibited from traveling in railroad cars,” said Dr. Hurty. “When they travel in railroad cars they spread contagion everywhere. I have learned through my career that when consumptives travel for a change of climate they invariably return home in the baggage car. If they are allowed to travel they should have separate compartments. Typhoid fever convalescents and all other persons suffering from
infectious diseases should be prohibited from traveling in public conveyances.
“One of the greatest strongholds of disease germs on railroad cars is the excessive ornamentation,” says Dr. Rosenau. “There should be less of this, and the interior of the cars should be arranged so that it presents a smooth, hard surface, which would greatly facilitate disinfection.”
"The primitive method of using sulphur as a disinfectant in places where there have been infectious diseases,” said Dr. Park, “is still in use in New York City. The Health Board finds it efficacious. We cannot rid ourselves of all danger of the spread of disease in railroad and street cars under present methods of fumigation. A thorough cleaning of such vehicles every day and a blowing out of the dust with compressed air, and the use of some disinfectant, would make cars reasonably safe. The linen and blankets of sleeping cars should be steamed every day, however."
A HYGIENIC LABORATORY FOR THE MARINE HOSPITAL SERVICE.
The appropriation of $30,000, made at the last session of Congress for the erection of a building for the laboratory for the study of hygiene by the Marine Hospital Service, is now available, and a site for the laboratory has been selected on the Potomac flats near the terminus of the proposed memorial bridge across the river.
STUDY OF HYGIENE RECOMMENDED FOR WEST POINT CADETS.
The Board of Visitors at the United States Military Academy, West Point, has recently expressed itself in its official report to the Secretary of War, with respect to the addition of the subject of military hygiene to the prescribed course of study, in the following language :
"The Board feels that the time has come when those in charge of the academy should realize that there are other requisites to : well-rounded education, as applied to the soldier, than those that relate to mathematics and their application. There has been too great a tendency to cling to old educational traditions that have influenced, if not entirely shaped, the curriculum from the foundation of the academy, ... while in the academy he should have time and opportunity for the study of ... military hygiene."
THE SALE OF HORSE MEAT.
Nearly half a century ago the experiment of putting horse meat on the market was made for the first time in Austria. A Government decree of April 20, 1854, gave legal permission to cut up and sell horse meat as an article of food. During the rest of that year and in 1855, 943 horses were slaughtered for food in Vienna. The number rose in 1899—the last year for which statistics are obtainable—to 25,640 head.
SUNFLOWER-SEED OIL.—Consul Ravndal reports from Beirut, September 13, 1901: Olive oil has many uses, but more substilutes, and few salads are compounded without the aid of one of them. Cotton-seed oil is a favorite substitute, but, according to an Egyptian newspaper, this is soon to find a sturdy rival in the form of the seed of the sunflower. Experiments made by German chemists have convinced them, it seems, of the availability of this cheap raw material, and it may shortly become a valuable article of commerce. It is said to be convertible to many uses, and, besides having possibilities as a lamp oil, may be used for dyeing purposes, and will be of service in soap-making.
DR. WALTER D. GREEN, HEALTH COMMISSIONER OF BUFFALO.
At the time of this writing it has been announced that the newly elected Mayor has decided not to reappoint Dr. Ernest Wende Commissioner of Health, but to appoint Dr. Walter D. Green in stead. Dr. Green is not a new man in the health service of the city. He has been deputy commissioner under Dr. Wende. He was the head of the department from 1889 to 1891, when he was succeeded by Dr. Wende. He was graduated from the medical department of the University of Buffalo in 1876, was appointed district health physician in 1882, and has been connected with the department ever since. He is clinical professor of diseases of the kidney and bladder and attending surgeon at the Sisters of Charity Hospital and at the Erie County Hospital. An active canvass had been made to retain Dr. Wende at the head of the department by his friends, but it failed. In the appointment of Dr. Green, Dr. Ilende has a worthy successor.
AN INTERNATIONAL SANITARY CONGRESS.
will be held in Paris during the week of February 15-21, 1902. Among the subjects to be discussed will be the role of mosquitos in the spread of yellow fever, malaria, filarisis; quarantine and the value of municipal sanitation in the prevention of epidemics.
THE INTERNATIONAL SANITARY CONGRESS IN HAVANA.
At the recent Pan-American Medical Congress at Havana, the organization of an international sanitary congress was recognized as a necessity. It has now been completely organized and will meet at Havana, February 15, 1902. It is for the purpose of conferring on sanitary matters affecting the various Pan-American countries collectively and individually. Each country is entitled to three delegates, a physician, an engineer and a merchant. The duties, rights and penalties of each country in respect to sanitary matters will be discussed, and the means to aid those nations without resources for such measures for the public health. The Congress will also discuss prophylactic measures in general, and as applied to each particular port. The greatest publicity is desired and membership is open to all men of science, manufacturers and merchants who apply to the committee of organization. Dr. Thomas V. Coronado, of Havana, is secretary, and Dr. Juan Santos Fernandez is president. English, Spanish, Portuguese and French are to be the official languages of the Congress. Further particulars will be furnished on application to the secretary.
AMERICAN CONGRESS OF TUBERCULOSIS.
The Executive Committee of this Society has fixed upon the City of New York as the place, and the 14th, 15th and 16th of May, 1902, for the annual meeting of this Association, and extend an invitation to all interested in the prevention of tuberculosis to enroll and to contribute papers to be read. Every indication points to a still more successful meeting than that of last year, and all the Canadian Provinces and the Central South American States are expected to be represented.. Respectfully yours, New York, Dec. 21, 1901.
CLARK BELL, Sec'y.
Mr. Bloom—“I don't feel preddy well, Hans. I haf a horse in my throat.”
Hans—“Dot 'horse' is nod right. You mean you have a 'colt in your hedt.' "_"Chicago News."