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fields, bacteriology, hæmatology, physiology and biology were well represented.

It would also be desirable to secure exhibits of new apparatus, charts, etc., used by teachers of pathology and physiology ir. medical colleges.

This exhibit has already become a permanent feature of the annual sessions of the American Medical Association and the Committee is desirous of securing its list of exhibits as early as possible and to this end asks those having desirable materials to communicate with any member of the Committee.

To contribute to the value of the work, it is suggested that as far as possible each contributor select materials illustrative on one classification and by such specialization enhance the usefulness of the display.

Those lending their materials may feel assured that good care will be given their exhibits while in the hands of the Committee and due credit will be given in the published reports.

F. M. JEFFRIES, 214 East 34th St., New York City.
W. A. EVANS, 103 State St., Suite 1403, Chicago, Ill.

Roger G. PERKINS, West. Res. Med. School, Cleveland, O. Committee on Pathologic Exhibit, American Medical Association.

MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY REPORTS AND

REVIEWS.

New York.-Bulletin of State Department of Health for March, 1902: Population, 7,467,050; deaths, 10,670; death rate, 17.5; deaths under five years, 2,936; at seventy years and over, 1,897 ; from zymotic diseases per 1,000 from all causes, 98; cerebro-spinal meningitis, 44; typhoid fever, 112; malarial diseases, 16; smallpox, 51 ; scarlet fever, 134; measles, 138; erysipelas, 33; whooping cough, 69; croup and diphtheria, 247; diarrhæal diseases, 227; acute respiratory diseases, 1,951; consumption, 1,235; puerperal diseases, 120; diseases of the digestive organs (not diarrheal), 606; of the urinary system, 911; circulatory system, 1,167; nervous system, 1,176; cancer, 406; accidents and violence, 487; old age, 442; unclassified, 1,363.

City of New York, 3,632,501 ; deaths, 6,010; death rate, 19.5; deaths under five years, 2,029; from zymotic diseases per 1,000 from all causes, 120; cerebro-spinal fever, 24; typhoid fever, 26; malarial diseases, 13; smallpox, 44; scarlet fever, 112; measles, 103; erysipelas, 19; whooping cough, 49; croup and diphtheria, 174; acute respiratory diseases, 1,253; consumption, 736; cancer, 208.

For the quarter ending March 31, total deaths, 18,364; under one year, 3,500; one year and under two, 1,426; total under five years, 6,228; sixty-five years and over, 2,696; death rate, 20.52. Causes of death: Typhoid fever, 99; malarial fevers, 32; smallpox, 127; measles, 349; scarlet fever, 356; whooping cough, 135; diphtheria and croup, 581 ; influenza, 99; other epidemic diseases, 100; tuberculosis pulmonalis, 2,015; tubercular meningitis, 190; other forms of tuberculosis, 163; cancer, malignant tumors, 565; meningitis, simple, 328; apoplexy, congestion and softening of brain, 711; organic heart disease, 1,459; acute bronchitis, 719; chronic bronchitis, 104; pneumonia (excluding broncho-pneumonia), 2,453; broncho-pneumonia, 1,181; diseases of stomach (cancer excepted), 172; diarrhæas (under two years), 316; hernia, intestinal obstruction, 126; cirrhosis of liver, 201 ; Bright's disease and nephritis, 1,510; diseases of women (rot cancer), 93; puerperal septicæmia, 87; other puerperal diseases, 102; congenital debility and malformations, 584; old age, 270; violent deaths, 777; other accidents, 599; homicide, 19; suicide, 159; all other causes, 2,017; ill-defined causes, 343.

Spitting on the Sidewalks Forbidden.-As the result of a communication received by President Lederle from Dr. Herman H. Biggs, the medical officer of the Bcard of Health, at its meeting May 14, amended its code so as to forbid spitting on sidewalks. In his letter, Dr. Biggs said:

“A grave feature of the pollution of public places of assembly and public conveyances is the inevitable transmission of the always objectionable and dangerous material on the footwear, clothing, and particularly the skirts of women, into private houses, where it is a constant menace to the welfare of the occupants whose attempts to maintain salubrious conditions are rendered futile. The action of the department taken six years ago has been productive of much good. There is still less excuse for spitting on the sidewalks than in the other places mentioned."

Borough of Manhattan, for March, 1,895,491 ; deaths, 3,342; death rate, 20.5; deaths under five, 1,179; zymotic diseases per 1,000 from all causes, 114; cerebro-spinal fever, 19; typhoid fever, 17; smallpox, 4; scarlet fever, 58; measles, 45; whooping cough, 26; croup and diphtheria, 94; acute respiratory diseases, 682; consumption, 370; cancer, 114.

Borough of the Bronx, 244,141 ; deaths, 426: death rate, 20.5; deaths under five, 157; from zymotic diseases per 1,000 from all causes, 200; smallpox 24 (smallpox hospital in this borough); scarlet fever, 12; measles, 28; croup and diphtheria, 7; acute respiratory diseases, 81; consumption, 98; cancer, 10.

Borough of Brooklyn, 1,249,650; deaths, 1,889; death rate, 20.7; deaths under five, 592; deaths from zymnotic diseases per 1,000 from all causes, 125; typhoid fever, 8; sınallpox, 16; croup and diphtheria, 67; acute respiratory diseases, 416; consumption, 228; cancer, 72.

Borough of Queens, 172,472; deaths, 242; death rate, 21.5; deaths under five, 74; from zymotic diseases per 1,000 from all causes, 82; croup and diphtheria, 7; acute respiratory diseases, 48; consumption, 24; cancer, 8.

Borough of Richmond, 70,747 ; deaths, III; death rate, 18.5; deaths under five, 27; from zymotic diseases per 1,000 from all causes, 36; acute respiratory diseases, 26; consumption, 16; cancer, 4.

Richmond's New Health Officer in Office.—Dr. John T. Sprague, who has been appointed assistant sanitary superintendent of the Borough of Richmond, to succeed the late Dr. Theodore Walser, has assumed his new duties. Dr. Sprague is a staff physician of the S. P. Smith Infirmary. Prior to the consolidation he was health officer of the Board of Health of Edgewater, and afterward was attached to the Health Board of the borough.

Albany, 94,151 ; deaths, 120; death rate, 15.3; deaths under five, 12; from zymotic diseases per 1,000 from all causes, 35; acute respiratory diseases, 21; consumption, 18; cancer, II.

Syracuse, 108,374; deaths, 125; death rate, 13.5; under five years, 25; from zymotic diseases per 1,000 from all causes, 110; acute respiratory diseases, 14; consumption, 11; cancer, 6.

Buffalo, 352,387; deaths, 520; death rate, 17.4; deaths under five, 166; from zymotic diseases per 1,000 from all causes, 121; from acute respiratory diseases, 74; consumption, 53; cancer, 27.

Rochester, 162,608; deaths, 176; death rate, 12.0; deaths under five, 26; from zymotic diseases per 1,000 from all causes, 50; from acute respiratory diseases, 20; consumption, 15; cancer, 7.

Smallpox continues in numerous places in the Adirondack region. Now (the last of April) there exist as reported, at Old Forge and Partlow, Herkimer county, 5 cases; Tupper Lake and Dickinson, Franklin county, 25; Hopkinton and Edwards, St. Lawrence county, 16; Crogan, Lewis county, 2; Newcomb, Essex county, 4; Champlain, Chazy, Plattsburg and Saranac, Clinton

county, 8 (the last not recently reported on); and 4 or five in the towns of Albion and Richland, Oswego county, about 75 cases in all. During April, 5 cases have occurred at Mt. Vernon, Tarrytown, Mamarcneck and Islip, near New York City; 12 cases have developed in Albany and 2 at Troy, brought to a cheap lodging place by a tramp from Massachusetts; and i at Auburn direct from Virginia. There were 51 deaths during March from smallpox; 3 at Bangor, I each at Binghamton, Wellsville and Albany, and 44 in New York City. There were reported about 300 cases in New York City during March and relatively at the same rate of prevalence since.

CALIFORNIA.—San Francisco, 360,000. Report for March: Deaths, 640; death rate, 21.3; deaths under five, 96; deaths from specific febrile diseases, 39; from diphtheria, 28; consumption, 69; other tubercular diseases, 16; pneumonia, 22; other diseases of the respiratory system, 26; cancer, 13.

San Francisco, April 20.—Another case, the 54th, of bubonic plague in the city. Dr. W. S. White, M. H. S., in charge of Plague Laboratory, reports to the president of the San Francisco Board of Health "the provisional diagnosis in the case of Chin Suey Kim, autopsied to-day, is bubonic plague. The following history has been obtained by me: Age 30 years ; late resident of Davisville, Cal., from which city he arrived in San Francisco on the evening of April 17, and took quarters at the undertaking establishment of Man Fook, 838 Clay street, where he died at five o'clock to-day."

Los Angeles, 120,000; report for April: Total deaths, 172; under five years, 25; annual death rate, 14.33; deaths from specific infectious diseases, 60. There were 49 deaths from tuberculosis, divided as follows: “Natives of Los Angeles, 2; natives of the Pacific Coast outside of Los Angeles, 3; from other parts, 44; of the 49 deaths from tuberculosis, 19 had lived here less than three months, 3 between three and six months, 3 between six and twelve months, 6 between one and five years, 6 between five and ten years, II over ten years, 1 life, unknown, o.”

COLORADO.—Denver, 133,859. Reports of Bureau of Health for January and February: Deaths in February, 227; 21 under five; death rate, 18.08. Deaths from phthisis, 60; 55 contracted elsewhere. Diphtheria, 49 cases, 4 deaths; scarlet fever, 98 cases, 7 deaths; smallpox, 17 cases, no deaths.

CONNECTICUT.—State Board of Health report for 1901, with registration report for 1900, relating to births, marriages, deaths and divorces: Special gratification is expressed at the evidences of marked and continued improvement in the progress of sanitary work attributable to the change in the mode of appointment and tenure of office of the health officers, and the improved co-operation of the people as the result of taking the administration of public hygiene out of politics; since the health officer no longer depends upon the uncertainty of the popular vote and brief tenure of office, but instead, now holds his office for a term of four years, and his services are recognized and appreciated by reasonable compensation. This change has elevated the standard of official capacity and sense of personal responsibility among health officers almost universally throughout the State. It is echoed in the report all along the line, not only by the joint work of the Board, but by the members severally, and by the town and city health officers' reports. Greatly improved and effective regulations have been adopted requiring the prompt reporting of first cases of infectious and contagious diseases; against the danger of delayed burial of corpses, the toleration of nuisances and expectoration upon the floors of public buildings, or upon the floor or platform of trolley cars; requiring prompt correction of house and soil drainage when reported dangerous by health officers ; against keeping swine, fowls or goats in such a place or manner as to become a nuisance; for the cleanliness of markets and proper disposal of butchers' offal; against the accumulation of garbage in or around the immediate vicinity of any dwelling house or place of business ; the regulation of bone boiling and other animal matter rendering works; the prompt segregation of persons affected with contagious diseases, and, as soon as practicable, the cleaning and disinfecting of premises and effects occupied and used by all such persons; in short, such regulations as imply constant vigilance and aggressive work against the conditions promotive of sickness. Several legislative enactments adding force to these regulations follow. The practical sanitation of public schools has been introduced and followed by gratifying results. Vaccination is urged as the prime necessity for the prevention of smallpox, compared with which all other methods or efforts for securing immunity from, cr arresting the spread of, smallpox are but temporary at most and the end worthless. Nevertheless, “Connecticut is to be congratulated that with a population of over 908,000 there have been only forty-eight cases of smallpox; at a time, too, when it is prevailing so exten

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