Sidebilder
PDF
ePub

SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY FOR THE YEAR 1900. 8vo., pp. 642. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Opens with a summary of the Meat Inspection Division, showing the results of forty-five localities where it was made and 148 abattoirs and packing houses which received the benefit of it. The figures show a material increase in all classes of animals inspected, with the exception of hogs, of which the number is notably diminished. Of 999,554 microscopic inspections of pork, 968,405, or 96.88 per cent., were free from all appearance of trichinæ; 11,701 or 1.17 per cent., contained trichinæ-like bodies ; 19,448, or 1.95, contained many trichinæ.

Of tuberculosis, tuberculin tests show that herds of cattle in the United States are far less seriously affected with tuberculosis than are those of European countries, notwithstanding the fact that none of our States seemed able to adopt and enforce systematic and thorough measures for the immediate control of this disease. The proportion of animals inspected in Europe indicates both the danger which threatens our nerds, if the disease is allowed to progress here, and the importance of thorough measures to prevent the introduction of diseased breeding stock from abroad.

Special investigations and reports by D. E. Salmon, the chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry, and by the chiefs of divisions severally, follow, on the extent of animal diseases in the country and the measures practiced for their detection and extermination. Dairy products, poultry raising and wool production are comprehended; altogether a practical fund of knowledge intimately associated with preventive medicine, of interest to all sanitarians.

METABOLISM OF MATTER AND ENERGY IN THE HUMAN BODY, 1898-1900. By W. O. ATWATER, Ph.D., and F. G. BENEDICT, Ph.D., with the co-operation of A. P. BRYANT, M. S.; A. W. SMITH, M. S., and J. F. SNELI., Ph.D. Pp. 147. Bulletin 461, U. S. Department of Agriculture, A. C. True, Director. Washington: Government Printing Office.

The details of experiments in continuation of those published in previous bulletins of the work in co-operation with Storr's Experiment Station and Wesleyan University. As before explained, "the ultimate purpose of experiments with men in the respiration calorimeter is the study of some of the fundamental laws of nutrition, and the whole inquiry is based upon the principie that the chemical and physical changes which take place within the body, and to which the general term ‘metabolism' is applied, occur in obedience to the laws of the conservation of matter and energy.” The experiments herein described have been evidently conducted with rigid scrutiny. The results are carefully tabuiated, and the conclusions seem to be determinate. “It is safe to say that the results thus far obtained fall very little short of definite demonstration of the action of the law of the conservation of energy in the living crganism."

PRINCIPLES or SANITARY SCIENCE AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH WITH SPECIAL. REFERENCE TO THE CAUSATION AND PREVENTION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE. By WILLIAM T. SEDGWICK, Ph.D., Professor of Biology and Lecturer on Sanitary Science and the Public Health in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston; some time Biologist to the State Board of Health of Massachusetts. 12mo., pp. 388. Illustrated. Price $3.00. New York: The Macmillan Company. London: Macmillan & Co., Ltd.

A concise summary of the subject treated by an author practically familiar with its most important details. It is divided into three parts. Part I.—Health and disease, viewed from the standpoint of modern knowledge of the organism in relation with environment; the etiology of the causes of disease, ancient and modern; the germ theory of infectious diseases; the rise and influence of bacteriology; the sanitary aspects of the struggle for existence; the contention of the disease germs with their host when they have entered his body; the effect of the contention commonly being illness of the body, and in the triumph of the germs—death. On the other hand, by the use of antidotal substances, the germs may be paralyzed-killed and cast out, and the patient recovers; and, perhaps, rendered ever afterward immune to future illness from the same species of germ. Part II.-Infection and contagion, what they depend upon; their dissemination and control; the paths and portals by which they enter the body; dirt and disease; sewage, water, ice, milk, and certain uncooked foods, as vehicles of infectious diseases : how they become so, and how they may be prevented from so becoming. Part III.---Appendix-On some popular beliefs as to certain special and particular causes of disease; beliefs about dangers from sewer gas, bad smells, heredity, ice-cream poisoning, canned food dangers, etc.

Altogether a particularly commendable book to sanitary inspectors, engineers and physicians, and to general readers who would be well informed on the common conditions of infectious diseases and how they may be prevented.

THE DIAGNOSES OF SURGICAL DISEASES. By Dr. E. ALBERT, late Director and Professor of the First Surgical Clinic at the University of Vienna, Authorized translation from the Eighth Enlarged and Revised Edition by Robert T. FRANK, A. M., M. D. With Fifty-three Illustrations. 8vo., pp. 427. Price $5.00. New York: D. Appleton & Co.

Surely a most welcome book to the surgeon. For though there is no dearth of books on surgery—books that contain it all—there is none, to our knowledge, that so tersely presents knowledge absolutely essential to successful practice at the outset as this one does, doubtless because of its limited sphere, and for this it becomes a needful introduction to all the rest. It presents to the practitioner the problemıs of diagnosis at the bedside, regardless of theoretical classification of symptoms, and instead groups them according to their general resemblance. Thus the benefit of clinical teaching is most nearly attained; and, by the presentation of a large number of cases and the co-ordination of the symptoms, the advantage of the arrangement and its practical utility is apparent. Moreover, to the student, the book altogether is alike beneficial in laying the foundation of general knowledge by the grouping of its significant details.

MORPHINISM AND NARCOMANIAS FROM OTHER DRUGS: THEIR ETIOLOGY, TREATMENT AND MEDICO-LEGAL RELATIONS. By T. D. CROTHERS, M.D., Superintendent of Walnut Lodge Hospital, Hartford, Conn.; Editor of the "Journal of Inebriety”; Professor of Mental and Nervous Diseases, New York School of Medicine, etc. 12mo, pp. 351. Price $2.00. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders & Co.

The purpose of this book prefatorily is "to give a general preliminary survey of this new field of psychopathy, and to point out the possibilities from a larger and more accurate knowledge, and to indicate the degrees of curability which are at present unknown,” for implied default of medical colleges having "not yet introduced this study into their curriculuin.” It begins with a succinct history of opium and morphine, its chief derivative, their manner of use and dangers thereof. Who are morphinists, how they so become, etiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment follow, comprehending about half of the book. The remainder is devoted to the consideration of the effects of "other drugs," including the relations of their use to crime and responsibility; the treatment and care of narcomaniacs from whatever cause.

Though based upon "over a quarter of a century of active treatment and care of narcomaniacs” and deductions from the writings of many cited authorities whose sphere of study, for the most part, has been similar to his own, some of the author's premises, as well as some of his conclusions, do not agree with observations from a different field of view. Inferentially, the alleged default in the curriculum of medical colleges is, that what is there taught on psychopathy does not entirely accord with what the author would have taught; perhaps more particularly with regard to the irresponsibility of drunkards and drug-addicted criminals. Nevertheless, the book is replete with knowledge of a subject that is not only unexceptional but of practical utility to all physicians, and which all medical students should acquire.

SAJOUS' ANNUAL AND ANALYTICAL CYCLOPEDIA OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE. By Charles E. DE M. SAJOUS, M. D., and one hundred Associate Editors, assisted by Corresponding Editors, Collaborators and Correspondents. Illustrated with Chromo-Lithographs, Engravings and Maps. Vol. VI. Large 8vo., pp. 1050. Philadelphia, New York, Chicago: F. A. Davis Co., Publishers.

“This volume is the last of the first series of the present work.” -R. Z. Of all the medical annuals received at our table, this one is the most comprehensive. Literally cyclopedic in letter and detail; essays by distinguished authors, comprising the gist of volumes on the distinctive specialties of the medical profession, interspersed with wisely chosen excerpts from a universal field of current medical literature. The index to this concluding volume of the series is, in effect, an index to the medical sciences, indicating a complete book of reference on all subjects.

CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE.

THE KING OF SPAIN. From an article on “The King of Spain and the Spanish Court,” in “The Outlook" for May, by General Stewart L. Woodford, our former Minister to Madrid.

His life was studious and his training severe. He was not quite twelve. His education in books had to be forced and practically finished before the age at which young men are usually fitted to enter the gymnase. He rose at seven each morning. After coffee he was with his tutors until noon. He had daily military drill and took daily rides on horseback. He was trained especiaily in mathematics, of far higher range than young lads are usually given, and was kept at constant practice in the modern languages. On one occasion, when a reception to all the high functionaries, army, navy, clerical, and civilian, was held at the palace, just before the Lenten season began, all the Diplomatic Corps were present, being formed opposite the throne. He sat at his mother's right upon the royal dais. As the long train of officials swept by, saluting as they passed, he bore it patiently and recognized the salutes with such grave dignity that I was heartily glad when at last the boy grew tired and mischievously kicked away the cushion placed for his foot-rest. When the procession had passed, the Queen came to the line of ambassadors and ministers and greeted them in stately, ceremonious fashion. The young King acconpanied her and gave brief salutation to each of us. I found that he had his mother's rare gift for language and spoke naturally and easily in French, German, Italian and English. His English pronunciation was simply perfect, and did great credit to the cultivated English lady who had long been his personal governess. He looked, as when I had seen him first at San Sebastian, pale, delicate, precocious.

LONGEVITY DEPENDENT ON PERSONAL HiPits. Those who live to an extreme old age are probably the result of a long series of selected lives, further fortified by exemplary personal habits, like the Jews, who, for two thousand years, have been compelled to live in crowded quarters of cities, with a minimum of air and light, until nature's selective processes, together with their rigid adherence to the admirable sanitary code of Moses, have produced a stock that can endure almost anything with little apparent injury. The Ghetto in Rome was the healthiest quarter of the city, and at the present day the Jewish quarter of New York, the most crowded and, until recently, the cirtiest part of the town, has the lowest death-rate. Persons with such constitutions, being, in a large measure, proof against morbific influences, are generally injured only by their own excesses, and it will be found, as a rule, that centenarians have been persons of this class, who have seldom been ill in their lives, who have had the contagious diseases of childhood lightly, if at all, who have always been temperate in all things, light eaters and drinkers, slow to wrath, able to control their passions and emotions, and usually leading a placid, uneventful life. Such conditions can be brought about by sanitary

« ForrigeFortsett »