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and singing : a wretched printing office, in which religious French books are printed in a rude style. Learning is almost wholly neg. lected.”
“ The village of Sandwich lies opposite Detroit, about one and a half miles below Detroit garrison, and is siluated on the bank of Detroit river. The country is settled along the river from lake St. Clair (ten miles above Sandwich) to Malden or Amherstburg, sixteen miles below. This part of the country is liandsomely situated : the land good and unbroken, with excellent roads. Fort Maiden is situated on a point of land at the mouth of Detroit river, and commands a view of lake Erie and the main channel of the river. (Here were built most of the king's armed vessels for lakes Erie and Huron.) It is a port of considerable importance, and it is believed the only fortification place between fort St. Joseph's, near the mouth of St. Mary's river, (outlet of lake Superior) and fort Erie. There is also a considerable settlement on the river of Thames, which empties into lake St. Clair, from the northeast, about 30 or 30 miles above Sandwich, composed principally of persons who have fled from the United States to escape justice. There are several settlements on the north side of lake Erie, but none of any importance except those about Long Point.
“ The land from Detroit to lake Erie, (on the American side) along Detroit river, is low and marshy, and mostly uninhabited. There are several isiands in Detroit river, some of which are inhabited.
“ The distance from Detroit through Canada (from Sandwich to fort Erie) must be about 300 miles. The roads are tolerable, though the country is new. Formerly people travelling from Detroit to the eastern states, went this route in preference to going on the south side of lake Erie.
“A considerable proportion of the inhabitants opposite Detroit are French, with some English, Scotch, Irish, &c.”
The army had arrived at Springwells, otherwise Bellefontaine, 3 miles below Detroit, on the 5th of July. On the 6th or 7th the whole army marched through Detroit in the morning, and returned in the afternoon.....on the same day marched from Springwells-on the 8th or 9th marched with baggage and camp equippage, and encamped in the rear of the town of Detroit, and there remained until the 12th, when the whole army crossed into Canada. As it approached Sandwich, the peasantry there fled, and General Hull here erected the standard of the United States amid his troops of more than 2000 men, and issued the following proclamation :
“ Inhabitants of Canada ! ..... After thirty years of peace and prosperity, the United States have been driven to arms. The injuries and aggressions, the insults and indignitics of Great Britain have once more left them no alternative but manly resistance, or unconditional submission. The army under my command has invaded your country : the standard of the Union now waves over the territory of Canada. To the peaceable unoffending inhabitants, it brings neither danger nor difficulty. I come to find enemies, not to make then. I come to protect, not to injure you.
“ Separated by an immense ocean and an extensive wilderness from Great Britain, you have no participation in her councils, no interest in her conduct. You have felt her tyranny, you have seen her injustice. But I do not ask you to avenge the one, or to redress the other. The United States are sufficiently powerful to afford every security consistent with their rights, and your expectations. I tender you the invaluable blessings of civil, political, and religious liberty, and their necessary result, individual and general prosperity ; that liberty which gave decision to our councils and energy to our conduct in a struggle for independence..... which conducted us safely and triumphantly through the stormy period of the revolution.....the liberty which raised us to an elevated rank among the nations of the world ; and which afforded us a greater measure of peace and security, of wealth and improvement, than ever fell to the lot of any people. In the name of my country, and the authority of government, I promise you protection to your persons, property and rights : remain at your homes; pursue your peaceful and accustomary avocations ; raise not your hands against your brethren. Many of your fathers fought for the freedom and independence we now enjoy. Being children, therefore, of the same family with us, and heirs to the same heritage, the arrival of an army of friends must be hailed by you with a cordial welcome. You will be emancipated from tyranny and oppression, and restored to the dignified station of freedom. Had I any doubt of eventual success, I might ask your assistance ; but I do not. I come prepared for every contingency. I have a force which will break down all opposition, and that force is but the vanguard of a much greater.....If, contrary to your own interest, and the just expectation of my country, you should take part in the approaching contest, you will be considered as enemies, and the horrors and calamities of war will stalk before you. If the barbarous and savage policy of Great Britain be pursued, and the savages let loose to murder our citizens, and butcher our women and children, this war will be a war of extermination. The first stroke of the tomahawk.....the first attempt with the scalping knife, will be the signal of one indiscriminate scene of desolation. No white man frund fighting by the side of an Indian will be taken prisoner..... instant death will be his lot. If the dictates of reason, duty, justice and humanity cannot prevent the employment of a force which respects no rights, and knows vo wrong, it will be prevented by a severe and relentless system of retaliation. I doubt not your courage and firmness.....I will not doubt your attachment to liberty. If you tender your services voluntarily, they will be accepted read. ily. The United States offer you peace, liberty, and security. Your choice lies between these, and war, slavery and destruction. Choose then, but choose wisely ; and may he who knows the justice of our cause, and who holds in his hand the fate of nations, guide you to the result the most compatible with your rights and interests, your peace and happiness."
Such, however, was the eventual influence of Gen. Hull's proclamation, that the greater part of the Canadian militia, in that vicinity, having at his approach fled to swamps, morasses, and forests, yet afterwards having acquired confidence that they were to enjoy protection, deserted their allegiance and many of them united under the American standard. The Indians there seemed, as usual, to await the display, and the certainty of superior power, that at last they might be found with the conquerors.
The American troops, impatient to march into Malden, and irritated from delay, soon ceased to conceal their ardor from their general.....he was insulted to bis face.
Col. M'Arthur was detached with about 150 men to the river Thames,* otherwise La Trenche, which discharges ils waters into lake St. Clair, about 9 miles above, and E. N. E. from Detroit, where, unopposed, he captured a considerable quantity of provision, blankets, arms, and ammunition. Another detachment, without obstruction, captured some hundreds of merino sheep, reputed to be of the property of the Earl of Selkirk.
Col. Cass was, on the 15th of July, detached with 280 men to recoumoitre the enemy's advanced posts. A bridge over Aux Canards, otherwise duck river, 5 miles above Amherstburg, was found occupied by the enemy, The colonel having examined the enemy's position, ascended the river five miles to a ford, thence descended on the south side of the river, and on the 17th attacked and drove him. This is recorded as the first time since the revolutionary war, that American militia had fought British regulars. Our men attacked with great spirit.
Three times the enemy formed, and as often retreated. Night compelled our troops to relinquish the pursuit. They encamped, during the night, on the ground where they had fought. Col. Cass, the next day, led thein uomolested, to the American camp. The enemy must have feared to renew the conflict. He could not have confided in his force, or fort Malden, a principal depository, in this quarter, of men and munitions of war, and within five miles, as Col. Cass would have disturbed his repose. Col. Cass, as a luminous body, shone from behind the cloud which hung in the west. He marked its confines, while his brightness displayed the adjacent darkness with greater horrors. Other small detachmeuts were afterwards occasionally sent to the river Aux Canards, further to discover the force of the enemy, and the position and strength of his works. Hence there was frequent skirmishing in the vicinity of fort Malden. The Americans at one time had seven menkilled, and ten wounded. A horse of Col. M'Arthur was shot under him. The Queen Charlotte, at anchor off the mouth of Aux Canards, fired several broadsides at our troops. On one of these reconnoitering excursions Col. M'Arthur and Capt. Puthoff very narrowly escaped an ambush of the Indians.
his river in Canada, is a fine stream, navigable or ressels of considerable bunden, after the passage of the bar ar jis mouth over wbicle there is generally sev*n fert of water.
The gun-boals ascended 12 mils from its mouth.
On the 4th of Aug. Maj. Van Horne, with 200 men, principally riflemen, was detached to march to the river Rasin, to escort a convoy of provisions to the army. At Brownstown, nearly opposite fort Malden, and near the mouth of the river Rasin, a large body of Indians had ambushed, and, at the short distance of fifty yards, fired upon this detachment, which was thrown into disorder, and thus retreated. Major Van Horne attempted, but in vain, to rally them.
He lost seventeen of his party, of whom four 'were captains, and three lieutenants.
This attempt having been unfortunate in its result, Col. Miller, on the 8th of Aug. with 600 men, was sent to protect the same provisions in transportation, under the insufficient escort of Capt. Brush. This detachment was composed of regular troops, and of volunteer militia from Ohio and Michigan.
On the 9th, about 4 o'clock, P. M. the vanguard, commanded by Capt. Snelling, was fired upon by an extensive line of British troops and Indians, at the lower end of the village of Magaugo, 14 miles from Detroit. At this time the main body were marching in two columns, at the distance of half a mile. Capt. Snelling maintained his position in a most gallant manner, under a very heavy fire, until the line was formed and advanced to his relief, when the whole, except the rear guard, was brought into action. The enemy were formed behind a brest-work of felled trees, which they had been, during several days preparing. The moment Col. Miller had brought up his troops in line, the enemy sprung from their hiding places, and for med in line of battle. A scene that would appal the stoutest heart now presented itself. The Americans had to contend with a force one third greater than their own. Five hundred Indians almost entirely naked, were fighting on almost every side, led on and encouraged by British officers and savage chiefs.
But American valour rose superior to every thing. Our troops charged and drove the enemy inch by inch, two miles, to the village of Brownstown, where the British took to their boats, and the Indians to the woods. When the enemy were in full rout, Col. Miller directed a troop of cavalry to charge and cut them up.... but they could not be made to advance, although Capt. Snelling offered to head them in person. This cowardice of the cavalry alone saved the enemy from total destruction, for the British were in complete disorder, and their guns uploaded.
Col. Miller having thus opened the way, was determined to push on to the river Rasin, but received a preremptory order from Gen. Hull to return to Detroit, which he obeyed the day after the battle. On their return towards Detroit, our troops were frequently fired upon from the brig Hunter, which took several positions for that puroose ; even the wounded who were conveyed in waggons, were inhumanely fired upon.
The allies lost in the battle of Magaugo, about 100 killed and twice that number wounded. They were commanded by Maj. Muir of the British regulars, who was wounded. Tecumseh, Marpot, and Walk-in-the-water, directed the Indians.
The Americans had 18 killed, and 58 wounded : thus was much blood spilt without achieving the object of the detachment. Too much praise cannot be bestowed on the officers and men generally, engaged in that conflict. Col. Miller proved himself by his courage and judicious arrangements, equal to a more responsible command. Capt. Baker was wounded in the leg. Lieut. Larabee lost an arm. These officers distinguished themselves. Capts. Delandre and Brevoort, of the Michigan volunteers conducted in a brave and soldier-like manner.
On the 8th of Aug. Gen. Hull retreated from Canada to Detroit : on the 15th he was challenged by Gen. Brock to surrender, and on the 16th he surrendered himself, his army, fort Detroit, and the Michigan Territory, according to the articles of capitulation.....and under the circumstances detailed in his letters, and that of Col. (now Gen.) Cass, all which, as public documents, are here subjoined.
CAPITULATION. Article 1st. Fort Detroit, with all the troops, regulars as well as militia, will be immediately surrendered to the British forces under the command of Maj. Gen. Brock, and will be considered prisoners of war, with the exception of such of the militia of the Michigan territory, as have not joined the army.
Article 2d. All public stores, arms and public documents, including every thing also of a public nature, will be immediately given up.
Article 3d. Private property and private persons of every description will be respected.
Article 4th. His excellency Brig. Gen. Hull having expressed a desire that a detachment from the state of Ohio on its way to