they subsist, travel, and are clothed : for, ignorant of luxuries, they are easily satisfied.

Norway. This northern country was formerly a kingdom of itself; it has since been for many years dependent on Denmark, but by a recent arrangement is now ceded to Sweden. It is full of mountains covered with fir-trees, the finest in the world; abounds in rivers and cataracts; and on its coast is that celebrated vortex, Maelstrom, usually called by mariners the navel of the sea, which draws in ships, or whatever comes within its reach. The chief towns are Bergen and Christiana. The Norwegians are an industrious, honest, and frugal people, who, having few corn-fields, subsist chiefly by hunting and fishing. Their principal wealth is derived from their forests and mines.

Denmark. Denmark Proper is a very small kingdom, containing the peninsula of Jutland, the isles of Zealand, &c. The country is mostly flat, and abounds with bogs and morasses. It produces, however, corn, timber, cattle, iron, fish, and different kinds of naval stores. It has the chief command of the Baltic, which gives it some importance. The principal town is Copenhagen, which stands on the island of Zealand. Iceland, Greenland, and the Faro Islands, likewise belong to Denmark. The Danes are a peaceable and hardy race, make good sailors, but possess far less enterprize than their ancestors, who were once the terror of the more southern nations of Europe, and established their rule in Britain. Their religion, like that of the Scandinavian nations in general, is Lutheran.

Sweden. This kingdom, which formed part of ancient Scandinavia, was about 600 miles long, and 500 broad, before it lost Finland in its unfortunate war with Russia. The climate is cold but healthful; and the country mountainous, abounding in lakes, forests, and valuable mines of copper and iron. The mines and forests are the principal sources of its wealth. The seas in the Baltic have no tides. The Swedes are brave and learned ; bat their native energies are repressed by the narrowness of their means, and their neighbourhood to the powerful empire of Russia. The principal towns are, Stockholm, the capital, which stands on some rocky islands, united by wooden bridges ; Upsal, famous for its university, where the great Linnæus developed the laws of nature; Gottenburgh, in Gothland ; Tornea, in West Bothnia; and some others of inferior note.

Russia. The Russian Empire is by far the largest in the world, comprehending all the more northern parts of Europe and Asia. In Europe only it is reckoned 1,500 miles long, and 1,100 broad; but, notwithstanding its extent, it is but thinly peopled in general. In most parts of Russia, the climate is intensely cold, so that icicles are frequently seen hanging to the eye-lashes ; and the drivers of carriages are not uncommonly frozen to death. In the more southern parts, however, neither the climate nor the soil are ungenial. The face of the country is flat, with some mountainous districts. The productions and exports are furs, leather, sail-cloth, sheeting, hemp, flax, timber, iron, copper, pitch, tar, and cordage. The fisheries, likewise, are very considerable. Some of the rivers are navigable, and canals are not unknown. The principal cities and towns are, Petersburgh, the modern capital, built by Peter the Great, who first raised the Russians to the rank of a civilized nation; it stands on the Neva, near the Gulf of Finland ; Moscow, the ancient capital, once adorned with noble edifices, which have since been destroyed in the French campaign in Russia, is situated in the very centre of the empire ; Archangel, on the borders of the White Sea; Cherson, on the Black Sea; Astrachan, near the Caspian ; and Tobolsk, the capital of Siberia.- The Russians possess much passive bravery ; but though civilization has made great progress among them during the last century, the despotism of the government and the civil institutions, retard the progress of the human mind.

Poland. Poland has ceased to be a kingdom, chiefly owing to the effects of its elective government, and is now divided among the neighbouring nations, whose rapacity set the first example of those dreadful revolutions that have since convulsed and deluged Europe in blood. The face of the country is generally fat, the climate is rather cold, but the soil is productive in corn and other articles of export. The principal rivers are the Vistula, and the Neister or Boristhenes. The chief towns are Warsaw, Cracow, and Dantzic. As for the character of the Poles, the nobles are generous and affable, fond of state and high living; but the peasantry are in a state of vassalage.

Prussia. This kingdom, though of modern erection, under Frederic the Great, shewed energies which astonished Europe; as it has done also in its late struggle against the tyranny of Buonaparte. The general face of the country is level; the soil is pretty fruitful in corn, and the climate tolerably mild. The principal towns are, Berlin, the capital, and Koningsberg:- The Prussians have a strong resemblance to their neighbours the Germans; are a manly race, and, when led by able generals, have performed prodigies in war.

Germany. Germany may be described as a level country, abounding in pasture and arable, rich in corn and wines, containing several extensive forests, and intersected by some noble,rivers, the principal of which are the Danube, the Rhine, the Maine, and the Elbe. Many changes have lately taken place in this country. Germany, or the Holy Roman Empire, which was formerly divided into nine great circles, and consisted of an infinite number of independent states, all, however, bearing a nominal subjection to its head, the Emperor of the saine name, by the want of unity among the members, and the overwhelming power of France, has been lately parcelled out into the kingdoms of Saxony, Westphalia, Bavaria, and Wirtemberg, belonging to what was called the Confederation of the Rhine; and its Emperor, shorn of his power, and a considerable part of his hereditary dominions, is now styled Emperor of Austria. He still, however, retains a great part of Austria Proper, Hungary, and Bohemia, with some provinces adjoining to Turkey; and by the recent events which have taken place in Germany, will, in all probability, resume his former influence in the scale of nations. The chief cities of Germany are, Vienna, on the Danube, the capital of the Emperor of Austria ; Dresden, the residence of the King of Saxony; Hamburgh, on the Elbe, one of the most commercial cities of Europe ; Leipsic and Frankfort, celebrated for their fairs ; Hanover, Munich, Manheim, Wirtemberg, the capital of the king of the same name; Heidelburgh, Ausburgh, Constance, Prague, Presburg, and Buda; besides the universities of Gottingen, Jena, Halle, and Leipsit, already mentioned.--The Germans are grave and ceremonious, but fair and honest in their dealings; have a genius for mechanics; and possess much passive bravery.

Holland, or Batavia. This country, when it was a republic, displayed prodigies of valour, and extended its commerce and influence to the remotest parts of the globe. The Dutch are a very hardy race, and make excellent mariners. The country exhibits a flat surface of fields and meadows, intersected by rivers and canals, with immense banks or dykes, which protect it from the encroachments of the sea. The principal cities are, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Leyden, Haerlem, and that large and beautiful village, the Hague, which used to be the seat of government, and the residence of the principal people. It should likewise be observed, that a peculiar degree of neatness pervades the towns, which cominonly have canals of communication, not only between the principal streets of each, but between each other.

France. France is bounded on the north by the British Channel, and Holland; on the east by the Rhine, Swisserland, and the Alps; on the south by the Mediterranean Sea and the Pyrenees; and on the west by the ocean ; extending about 750 miles in length, and 600 in breadth, and containing upwards of 30,000,000 of inhabitants. The climate of France is the most agreeable in Europe; the air is generally temperate, the soil is excellent, and, except in some mountainous tracks, which are chiefly on the frontiers, the face of the country is pretty flat, well watered by many fine rivers, of which the principal are the Somme, the Scheldt, the Meuse, the Moselle, the Rhine, the Seine, the Loire, the Garonne, the Charante, and the Rhone. Its chief productions are corn, fruit, oil, wine, and most of the luxuries of life. The wines of Champaigne, Burgundy, and Bourdeaux, are well known. Much brandy is likewise made here.

This country, which was always important in the scale of politics, rendered itself formidable and tremendous, by a revolution which broke out upwards of twenty years ago, the object of which was to establish the reign of liberty; but which, after a vast effusion of blood, and the commission of crimes and cruelties almost unheard of before, ended in a military despotism, and in enslaving other neighbouring nations, which formerly pos. sessed some share of freedom. Situated in the centre of Europe, it has been till lately a volcano, issuing destruction and death on all around; and even the British Islands have felt it severely in its remote consequences, though happily preserved from its overwhelming force.

This system of military despotism, though supported by the immense resources of Buonaparte, is, however, now at an end. Russia, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Austria, and the German States, have at length united with England to crush a power, to which all the former had been nearly, subjected; and we now behold their combined and victorious armies in the very heart of France, accomplishing the downfal of that tyranny which has so long enslaved and oppressed the inhabitants of Europe.

The principal towns of France are, Paris, the capital, which in magnitude and population, is only inferior to London ; Lyons, Marseilles, Bourdeaux, Lisle, and Geneva. The French are lively in conversation, polished, gallant, and brave, but light, inconstant, and unconquerably vain. They love the arts and sciences, yet in general their knowledge is not profound in either.

Swisserland. This country is situated in the Alpine regions, which separate France from Italy, and formerly consisted of thirteen cantons, in some respects independent of each other, but forming one offensive and defensive body. Since the French revolution, however, it has undergone considerable changes. Situated in the Alps, some of whose ridges, such as St. Gothard, and Mont Blanc, are the highest in Europe, it is only in valleys, and on the lower sides of the mountains, that cultivation can take place, or pasturage be found. In this country the Rhine and the Rhone take their rise, flowing in almost opposite directions; while the lakes of Constance and Geneva, are not only among the largest, but the most beautiful in Europe. The Swiss are an honest, simple Tace, fondly attached to liberty and their country, robust in their persons, and courageous in their hearts.

Italy. Except towards the Alps, Italy is wholly surrounded by the sea, and its figure has been aptly compared to that of a boot. It has lately been divided into the kingdom of Italy, of which the late Emperor of France had assumed the rule, andappointed a viceroy; and the kingdom of Naples, which, as far as its continental dominions are concerned, was also under the influence of France; but owing to the recent



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