pubescence; bristles, wool, &c. some of which discharge a. poison, as in the nettle; causing great irritation whenever they are so touched, that their points may wound the skin.

INFLORESCENCE, or the different kinds or modes of flowering, are:

1. Verticillus, a whorl, in which the flowers surround the stem in a garland or ring, as in the mints, dead-nettle, &c.

2. Racemus, a cluster, bears several powers each on its own stalk, like a bunch of currants.

3. Spica, a spike, is composed of numerous crowded flowers, ranged along an upright, common stalk, expanding progressively, as in wheat and barley.

4. Corymbus, a corymb, is a flat-topped spike, as in the cabbage and wall-flower.

5. Fasciculus, a close bundle of flowers, as in the sweet william.

6. Capitulum, a head or tuft, as in the globe amaranthus and thrift.

7. Umbella, an umbel, consists of several stalks, called rays, spreading like an umbrella, as in parsley, carrot, and hemlock.

8. Cyma, a cyme, or stalks springing from a common centre, and afterwards irregularly subdivided, as in the laurustinus and elder.

9. Paniculus, panicle, a loose subdivided bunch of flowers, as in the oat.

10. Thyrsus, a bunch, is a very dense panicle, inclining to an oval figure, as in the lilac.

FRUCTIFICATION. Under this term are comprehended not only the parts of the fruit, but also those of the flower, which last are indispensable for bringing the former to perfection. The parts of fructification are :

1. Calyx, a flower-cup, or external covering of the flower: to which belong the perianthium; involucrum ; amentum, or cat-kin; spatha, or sheath; gluma, or husk; perichetium, or scaly sheath ; and volva, the wrapper.

2. Corolla is situated within the calyx, and consists in general of the coloured leaves of a flower; the petalum or petal, and the nectarium, or nectary, belong to the corolla.

3. Stamina, the stamens, are various in number, in different flowers, and are situated withinside of the corolla. The stamen consists of a filamentum, or filament, and the anthera or anther. The cells of the latter contain the pollen, or fecundating dust.

4. Pistilla, the pistils, stand in the centre of the circle formed by the stamens, and consist of the germen or rudiments of the future fruit or seed; the stile, which elevates the stigma; and the stigma, which is destined to receive the pollen.

5. Pericarpium, the seed-vessel, is formed from the germen enlarged, and is of the following kinds : a capsula, or capsule; siliqua, or pod ; legumen, or legume, the fruit of the pea-kind; drupa, stone-fruit; pomum, an apple; bacca, a berry; and strobilus, a cone.

6. Semina, the seeds, are composed of the embryo or germ, called by Linnæns, corculum, or little heart; the cotyledones, or seed-lobes, almost universally two in nuinber; albumen, the white; vitellas, the yolk; testa, the skin; and hilum, the scar. Seeds are often accompanied by appendages or accessory parts; as, pellicula, the pellicle; arillus, the tunic; pappus, the seed-down; cauda, a tail ; rostrum, a beak.

7. Receptaculum, the receptacle, is the base which receives the other parts of the fructification. It is proper when it supports the parts of a single fructification only; when it is a base to which only the parts of the flower are joined, and not the germen, it is called a receptacle of the flower, in which case the germen being placed below the receptacle of the flower, has a base of its own, which is called the receptacle of the fruit; and it is called a receptacle of the seeds, when it is a base to which the seeds are fastened within the pericarpium. It is termed common when it supports a head of flowers,

CLASSIFICATION. The system of Linnæus, now generally acknowledged and adopted, is founded on the number, situation, and proportion of the stamens and pistils, whose uses and structure have been just explained. The following twenty-four classes owe their distinctions principally to the stamens:

1. Monandria, one stamen. 2. Diandria, two stainina. 3. Triandria, three. 4. Tetrandria, four. 5. Pentandria, five. 8. Hexandria, six.

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7. Ileptandria, seven.
8. Octundria, eight.
9. Enneandria, bine.
10. Decandria, ten.
11. Dodecandria, twelve.

12. Icosandria, twenty or more stamina, inserted into the calyx.

i3. Polyandria, all cibove iwenty inserted into the receptacle.

14. Didynamia, four stainina, two long and two short. 15. Tetrudynamia, six siamina, four long and two short.

16. Monadelphia, the stamina united into one body by the filaments.

17. Diadelphia, the stamina united into two bodies by the filaments.

18. Polijadelphia, the stamina united into three or more bodies by the filaments.

19. Syngenesia, anthers üdited into a tube.

20. Gynandria, stainens inserted either upon the stile or germen.

e]. Monoecia, stamens and pistils in separate flowers, but on the same plant.

22. Dioecia, stamens and pistils, like the former in separate flowers, but on two separate plants.

23. Polygamia, stamens and pistils separate in some flowers, united in others, either on one, two; or three distinct plants.

24. Cryptogamia, stamens and pistils, either not well ascertained, or not to be numbered with certainty. The orders, or subdivisions of the classes are generally marked by the number of the pistils, or by some other circumstances equally intelligible. The names of these, as well as of the classes, ate of Greek derivation, and desiguate the functions of the respective organs.

The student in bolany has a rich source of innocent pleasure. He would find himself, says Dr. Smith, neither solitary nor desolate, had he no other companion than a “ mountain daisy," that "modest crimson-tipped flower," so sweetly sung by one of pature's own poets. The humnblest weed or moss will ever afford hiin soinething to examine or illustrate, and a great deal to adınire. Introduce him to the inaguificence of a tropical forest, the enamelled meadows of the Alps, or the wonders of New Holland, and his thoughts will not dwell much upon riches or literary honours. Whether (adds the same author) we scrutinize ag


the damp recesses of woods in the wintry months, when the numerous tribe of mosses are displaying their minute, but highly interesting structure ; wheiher we walk forth in the early spring, when the ruby tips of the hawthorn bush give the first sign of its approaching vegetation; or a little after, when the violet, welcomes us with its scent, and the primrose with its beauty, we shall always find something to study and admire in their characters. The yellow blossoms of the morning that fold up their delicate leaves as the day advances; others that court and sustain the full blaze of noon; and the pale night-scented tribe which expand and diffuse their sweet fragrance towards evening; all have peculiar charms. The more we study the works of the Creator, the more wisdom, beauty, and harmony, become manifest, even to our limited apprehensions, and while we admire, it is impossible not to adore,

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THOUGH the duties of religion are equally binding on both sexes, yet certain differences in their natural character and education render some vices in women particularly odibus. While, on the other hand, the natural softness and sensibility of their dispositions particularly fit them for the practice of those duties where the heart is concerned. And this, together with the natural warmth of their imagination, renders them peculiarly susceptible of the feelings of devotion.

The important and interesting articles of religion are sufficiently plain. They should fix their attention on these, and noi ineddle with controversy. If they plunge into that, they will plunge into a chaos from which they will not easily extricate themselves. It frequently spoils the temper, and has no good effect on the heart.

Let them avoid all books, and all controversies, that tend to shake their faith on those great points of religion, which serve to regulate their conduct, and on which their hopes of future and eternal happiness depend.

Let them never indulge themselves in ridicule on religious subjects, nor give countenance to it in others, by seeming diverted with what they say. This, 10 people of good breeding, will be a sufficient check.

Let them go no further than the Scriptures for their religious opinions. In them we have eternal life, and they testify of the Saviour of the world.

Let them read only such religious books as are addressed to the heart, such as inspire pious and devout affections, such as are proper to direct them in their conduct, and not such as tend to entangle them in the endless maze of opi. nions and systems.

Let them be punctual in the stated performance of their private devotions, morning and evening. If they have any sensibility or imagination, this will establish such an intercourse between thein and the Supreme Being, as will be of infioite consequence to them in life. It will communicate an babitual cheerfulaess of temper, give a firmness and

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