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pectations of the Americans were raised to the highest pitch, and when they were in great forwardness of preparation to act in concert with their allies, intelligence arrived that Count de Guichen had sailed for France. This disappointment was extremely mortifying.
Washington still adhered to his purpose of attacking New York at some future more favourable period. On this subject he corresponded with the French commanders, and had a personal interview with them on the twenty-first of September, at Hartford. The arrival of admiral Rod. ney on the American coast, a short time after, with eleven ships of the line, disconcerted, for that season, all the plans of the allies. Washington felt with infinite regret, a slice cession of abortive projects throughout the campaign of 1780. In that year, and not before, he had indulged the hope of happily terminating the war. In a letter to a friend, he wrote as follows: “ We are now drawing to a close an inactive campaign, the beginning of which appeared preg. nant with events of a very favourable complexion. hoped, but I hoped in vain, that a prospect was opening which would enable me to fix a period to my military pursuits, and restore me to domestic life. The favourable disposition of Spain ; the promised succour from France; the combined force in the West Indies; the declaration of Russia, acceded to by other powers of Europe, humiliating the naval pride and power of Great Britain ; the superiority of France and Spain by sea, in Europe ; the Irish.claims, and English disturbances, formed in the aggregate an opinion in my breast, which is not very susceptible of peaceful dreams, that the hour of deliverance was not far distant; for that, however unwilling Great Britain might be to yield the point, it would not be in her power to continue the contest. But, alas! these prospects, flattering as they were, have proved delusory; and I see nothing before us but accumulating distress. We have been half of our tiine without provisions, and are likely to continue so. We have no magazines, nor money to forin them. We have lived upon expedients until we can live no longer. In a word, the history of the War is a history of false hopes and temporary devices, instead os system and economy. It is vain, however, to look back; nor is il our business to do so. Our case is not desperate, if virtue exists in Wespeople, and there is wisdom among our rulers. But, to suppose that this great revolution can be accomplished by a temporary army, that this army will be subsisted by state supplies ; and that taxation alone is ade. quate to our wants, is, in my opinion, absurd."
CAMPAIGN OF 1781,
The Pennsylvania line mutinies ....The Jersey troops follow their example, but are quelled by decisive measures....
...Gen. Wash ington commences a military journal, detailing the wants and distresses of his army....Is invited to the defence of his native state, Virginia, but declines ....Rep«iinands the manager of his private estate for furnishing the enemy with supplies, to prevent the destruction of his property ....Extinguishes the insipient flames of a civil war, respecting the independence of the state of Vermont....Plans a combined operation against the British, and deputes Lieut. Col. John Laurens to solicit the co-operation of the French ....l'he combined forces of both nations rendezvous in the Chesapeake, and take Lord Co nwallis and his army prisoners of war....Washington returns to the vicinity of New York, and urges the necessity of preparing for a new campaign.
1780'ended in the northern states with disap pointment, and the year 1781 commenced with mutiny. In the night of the first of January about thirteen hundred of the Pennsylvania line paraded under arms in their encampment, near Morristown, avowing a determination to march to the seat of Congress, and obtain a redress of their griev. ances, without which they would serve no longer. ertions of General Wayne and the other officers to quell
"ex. the mutiny, were in vain. The whole body marched oft
with six field pieces towards Princeton. They stated their deinands in writing ; which were, a discharge to all who had served three years ; an immediate payment of all that was due to them; and that future pay should be made in real money to all who remained in the service. Their officers, a committee of Congress, and a deputation from the cxecutive council of Pennsylvania, endeavoured to cffect an accommodation; but the mutineers resolutely refused all terms, of which a redress of their grievances was not the foundation.
To their demands as founded in justice, the civil authority of Pennsylvania substantially yielded. Intelligence of this mutiny was cominunicated to General Washington at New Windsor, before any accomniodation had taken place. Though he had been long accustomed to decide in hazard. ous and difficult situations, yet it was no easy matter in this delicate crisis, to determine on the most proper course to be pursued. His personal influence had several times exLinguished rising mutinies. The first scheme that presentcd itself was, to repair to the camp of the mutineers, and try to recall them to a sense of their duty ; but on mature reflection this was declined. He well knew that their claims were founded in justice, but he could not reconcile himself to wound the discipline of his army, by yielding to their demands, while they were in open revolt with arms in their nands. Hic viewed the subject in all its relations, and was well apprised that the principal grounds of discontent were not peculiar to the Pennsylvania line, but commop to all his troops.
If force was requisite, he had none to spare without hazarding West Point. If concessions were unavoidable, they had better be made by any person than the commander in chief. After that due deliberation which he always gave to matters of importance, he determined against a personal interference, and to leave the whole to the civil authorities, which had already taken it up; but at the same time prepared for those measures which would become necessary, if no accommodation took place. This resolution was communicated to General Wayne, with a caution to regard the situation of the other lines of the army in any concessions which might be made, and with a recommendation to draw the mutineers over the Delaware, with a view to in
crease the difficulty of communicating with the enemy in New York.
The dangerous policy of yielding even to the just demands of soldiers with arms in their hands, soon became apparent. The success of the Pennsylvania line induced a part of that of New Jersey to hope for similar advantages, from similar conduct. A part of the Jersey brigade rose in arms, and making the same claims which had been yielded to the Pennsylvanians, marched to Chatham. Washington, who was far fuom being pleased with the issue of the mutiny in the Pennsylvania line, determined by strong measures to stop the progress of a spirit which was hostile to all his hopes. Gen. Howe, with a detachment of the eastern troops, was immediately ordered to march against the mutineers, and instructed to make no terms with them while they were in a state of resistance; and on their surrender lo seize a few of the most active leaders, and to execute them immediately in the presence of their associates. These orders were obeyed; two of the ring. leaders were shot, and the survivors returned to their duty.
Though Washington adopted these decisive measures, yet no man was more sensible of the merits and sufferings of his army, and none more active and zealous in procuring them justice. He improved the late events, by write' ing circular letters to the states, urging them to prevent all future causes of discontent by fulfilling their engagements with their respective lines. Some good effects were produced, but only temporary, and far short of the well founded claims of the army.
Their wants with respect :0 provisions were only partially supplied and by expedients, from one short time to another. The most usual was or. dering an officer to seize on provisions wherever found.This differed from robbing only in its being done by autho. rity for the public service, and in the officer being always directed to give the proprietor a certificate of the quantity and quality of what was taken from him. At first, some reliance was placed on these certificates, as vouchers to support a future demand on the United States; but they soon became so common as to be of little value. Recourse was so frequently had to coercion, both legislative and military, that the people not only lost confidence in public credit, but became impatient under all exertions of autho
rity for forcing their property from them. About this time Gen. Washington was obliged to apply nine thousand dollars,sent by the state of Massachusetts for the payment of her troops, to the use of the Quarter Master's department, to enable him to transport provisions from the adjacent states. Before he consented to adopt this expedient, he, had consumed every ounce of provision which had been kept as a reserve in the garrison of West Point, and had strained impress by military force to so great an extent, that there was reason to apprehend the inhabitants, irritated-by such frequent calls would proceed to dangerous insurrections. Fort Schuyler, West Point, and the posts up the North River, were on the point of being abandoned by heir starving garrisons. At this period there was little or no circulating medium, either in the form of paper or specie, and in the neighbourhood of the American army, there was a real want of necessary provisions. The defi. ciency of the former occasioned many inconveniences, but the insufficiency of the latter had well nigh dissolved the army, and laid the country in every direction open to Briish excursions.
On the first of May, 1781, Gen. Washington commenced a military journal. The following statement is extracted from it. "I begin at this epoch a concise journal of military transactions, &c. I lament not having attempted it from the commencement of the war in aid of my memory ; and wish the multiplicity of matter which continually sure rounds me, and the embarrassed state of our affairs, which is momentarily calling the attention to perplexities of one kind or another, may not defeat altogether or so interrupt my present intention and plan, as to render it of little avail.
- To liave the clearer understanding of the entries which may follow, it would be proper to recite in detail, our wants and our prospects; but this alone would be a work of much time and great magnitude. It may suffice to gire the sum of them, which I shall do in few words ; viz.
“ Instead of having magazines filled with provisions, we have a scanty pittance scattered here and there in the dis
• Instead of having our arsenals well supplied with miliary stores, they arc poorly provided, und the workmen all eaving them. Instead of having the various articles of