by geographical discriminations; northern and southern; Atlantic and western : whence designing men may endeavour to excite a belief that there is a real difference of local interests and views. One of the expedients of party te. acquire influence, within particular districts, is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts. You cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and heartburnings which spring from these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien to each other, those who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection. The inhabitants of our western country have lately had a useful lesson on this head. They have seen, in the negociation by the execalive, and in the unanimous ratification by the Senate, of the treaty with Spain, and in the universal satisfaction at that event throughout the United States, a decisive proof how unfounded were the suspicions propagated among them of a policy in the general government, and in the Atlantic states, unfriendly to their interests in regard to the Missis, sippi. They have been witnesses to the formation of two treaties, that with Great Britain and that with Spain, which secure to them every thing they could desire, in respect to our foreign relations, toward confirming their prosperity. Will it not be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of these advantages on the union by which they were procurcd? Will they not henceforth be deaf to those advisers, if şuch there are, who would sever them from their brethren and connect them with aliens ?

“ To the efficacy and permanency of your union, a government for the whole is indispensable. No alliances, however strict, between the parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions which all alliances in all times have experienced. Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay, by the adoption of a constitution of government, better calculated than your former, for an intimate union, and for the efficacious management of your common concerns. This government, the offspring of our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed; adopted upon full investigation and mature deliberation, completely free in its principles ; in the distribution of its powers uniting security with energy, and containing within itself a provision for its own amendments, has a just claiin ta Jour confidence and your support. Respect for its autho

ily, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty. The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of government. But the constitution which at any time ex-ists, until changed by an expllcit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and the right of the people to establish a government, pre-supposes the duty of every individual to : obey the established government.

“ All the execution of the laws, all combinations and associations, under whatever plausible characicr, with the real design to direct, controul, counteract, or awe the regular deliberations and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal tendency. They serve to organize faction; to give it an artificial and extraordinary force; to put in the place of the delegated will of the nation, the will of a parly, often a small, but artful and enterprising minority of the community, and according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make the public adıninistration the mirror of the ill-concerted and incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome plans, digested by common councils, and modified by mutual inlerests.

« However combinations or associa!ions of the above de. scription may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by which cunning; ambitious, and unprincipled men, will be enabled to subvert the power of the peo«." ple, and to usurp for themselves the reins of government; destroying afterward the very engines which have listed them to unjust dominion.

" Toward the preservation of your government, and the permanency of your present happy state, it is requisite not only that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to its acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care the spirit of innovation upon its principles, however specious the pretexts. One method of assault may be to effect in the forms of the constitution alterations which will impair the energy of the system, and thus to underminé what cannot be directly overthrown. In all the changes to which you may be invited, remember that time and habit



are at least as necessary to fix the true character of governo ments, as of other human institutions ; that experience is the surest standard, by which to test the real tendency of the existing constitution of a country; that facility in changes upon

the credit of mere hypothesis and opinion, exposes to perpetual change from the endless variety of hypothesis and opinion ; and remember, especially, that for the efficient management your common interests, in a country so extensive as ours, a government of as much vigour as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty, is indispen. sable. Liberty itself will find in such a government, with powers properly distributed and adjusted, its surest guardi

It is, indeed, little else than a name, where the government is too feeble to withstand the enterprises of facrion, to confine each member of the society within the limits prescribed by the laws, and to maintain all in the secure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and property.

“I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the state, with particular references to the founding of them on geographical discriminations. Let me now take a more comprehensive view, warn you in the most solemn manper against the baneful effects of the spirit of party, generally.

“ This spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable from our nafure, having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind. 'It exists under different shapes in all governments, more or less stifled, controlled, or repressed ; but in those of the popular form, it is seen in its greatest rankness, and iš truly their worst enemy.

6 The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism, But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism. The disorders and miseries which result, gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual ; and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of public ti


« Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind, which nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight, the common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party, are sufficient to make it the interest and duty of a wise people to discourage and restrain it.

" It serves always to distract the public councils, and enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the community with ill founded jealousies and false alarms; kindles the animosity of one party against another ; foments occasional riot and insurrection. It opens the door to foreign influence and corruption, which find a facilitated access to the government itself, through the channels of party passions. Thus the policy and the will of one country, are subjected to the policy and will of another.

“ There is an opinion that parties in free countries are useful checks upon the administration of the government, and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty. This, within certain limits, is probably true ; and in governments of a monarchical cast, patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favour, upon the spirit of party. But in those of the popular character, in governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to be encouraged. From their natural tendency, it is certain there will always be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose. And there being constant danger of excess, the effort ought to be, by force of public opinion, to mitigate and assuage it. A fire not to be quenched, it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a fame, lest instead of warming, it should consume.

“It is important, likewise, that the habits of thinking, in a free country, should inspire caution in those intrusted with its administration, to confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in the exercise of the powers of one department to encroach upon another. The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of power, and pruneness to abuse it, which predominate in the human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this position. The necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise of political power, by dividing and distributing it into different depositories, and constituting each the guardian of the public weal against invasions of the others, has been evinced by experiments ancient and

modern; some of them in our country and under our own eyes. To preserve them must be as necessary as to insti. lute them. If, in the opinion of the people, the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers, be in any parlicular wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the constitution designates. But let there be no change by usurpation; for though this, in one instance, may be the instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed. The precedeut must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil, any partial or transient benefit which the use can at any time yield.

“Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribule of patriotism, who should labour to subvert these great pillars of human happiness; these firmest props of the duties of men and civi. zens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and cherish them. A volume could not trace all their connexions with private and public felicity, Let it simply be asked, where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths, which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice? And let us with caution indulge the supposition, that morality can be maintained without reli. gion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principles.

“It is substantially true, that virtue or morality is a ne. sessary spring of popular government. The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to every species of goverit. ment, Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric ?

“Promote, then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of kuowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to pub. lic opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be eno lightened,

“ As a very important source of strength and security, cherish the public credit. One method of preserving it is to u se it as sparingly as possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace ; but remembering also, that

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