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ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY :

To Reduce a Fraction to XII. On the Reproductive

The Eye

33, 65, 97

its Lowest Terms 160 Organs of Plants: the

The Ear

129, 161, 204 To Reduce an Improper

Flower and its Append.

The Organ of Smell 225, 257

Fraction to a Whole

ages

216

The Organ of Taste 289, 321

or Mixed Number 160 XIII, Anatomical Exami.

The Organ of Touch , 353, 385 To Convert a Mixed Num-

nation of a Flower . 213

ILLUSTRATIONS :

ber into an Improper

XIV. Manner in which

Vertical Section of the Hu.

Fraction

16 Flowers are attached 216

To Reduce Fractions to

man Eye in its Socket-

XV. Parts of an Individual

Diagram showing how

Equivalent Fractions

Flower

241

objects are imprinted on

having the same Deno. XVI. Different Forms which

the Retina

33

minator

170 the Calyx and Corolla

Vertical Section of Eye of

Addition of Fractions 170 may assume

241

Soaring Bird - Vertical

Subtraction of Fractions 170 XVII. On the Corolla : its

Section of Eye of Fish 65 Multiplication of Frac-

parts and modifications, 280

Tertical Section of Eye of

tions.

186 XVIII. On Fruits and their

Insect- Front of Head

Division of Fractions 186 Varieties

280

of Dragon-fly- Front of

Decimals-

XIX. The Seed

281

Head of Wasp—Side of

Definitions

187 XX. Further Classification

Caterpillar's Head . 97 To Express a Decimal as

of Vegetables.

305

The Human Ear-Section

a Vulgar Fraction 187 XXI. On the Natural Orders

showing the Hollow of

Addition of Decimals 198 of Flowering Plants—Ra-

the Cochlea – Malleus-

Subtraction of Decimals. 198 nunculaces

347

Incus-Stapes

129 Multiplication of Deci. XXII. Papaveraceæ, or the

The African Elephant 161

mals

222 Poppy Tribe

376

Bone containing Ear of Rab-

Division of Decimals 234 XXIII. Rosacea, or the

bit-Earbone of Whale-

To Reduce a Circulating

Rose Tribo

377, 401

bone Whale - Internal

Decimal to a Vulgar

Fraction

Ear of Bird-Ear of Cod

DRAWING, LESSONS IN :

266

-Ear-stone of Cod-Long

Square and Cube Root-

Introduction—The Arrange-

Antennæ of a Lobster 205

Definitions, etc.

ment of a Drawing.

291

Vertical Section of Human

Extraction of the Square

Arrangement and Method

Head-Framework of the

Root

291

of Drawing Outline

Nose – Muscles of the

Abbreviated process of

Figures in Straight Lines

Nose Septum of the Nose

the Extraction of the

and Curves

and its Nerves

225

Square Root

Elementary Perspective, etc. 71

318

Vertical Section of Head of

Extraction of the Cube

Instructions in Parallel Per.

Porpoise – Vertical Sec-

Root

318

spective.

tion of Rabbit's Head-

Ratio and Proportion 342

Instructions in Angular

Under-side of Head of Concrete or Commercial

Perspective

135

Spotted Dogfish-Nasal

Arithmetic-

The Circle in Perspective-

Sac of Sturgeon

257 Measures of Time. 366

How to draw Objects of

Measures of Length

Human Tongue-Tongue of

366

a Uniform Character 164

Chimpanzee - Circumval.

Measures of Surface . 379

Method of Drawing various

late Papillæ–Fungiform

Measures of Solidity

kinds of Arches-Arches

Papillæ-Filiform Papillæ 289 Measures of Weight

in Perspective.

199

Tongue of a Cat-Filiform

Money-Coinage

395

Geometrical Curves, etc.-

Papillæ of a Leopard-

Angular Measure

Objects in Outline 231

Tongue of a Fieldfare-

Miscellaneous Table

On regulating the Retiring

Tongue of an Ostrich-

Horizontal Distances and

Tongue of a Chameleon , 321 BOTANY, LESSONS IN:

Heights of Objects in

Section of Hairless Skin-

Introduction

23

Perspective

263

Section of Hairy Skin-

I. On the Principles which

On Shading- Broad Sha.

Tip of the Forefinger 353 serve for the Classifica-

dows, Cast Shadows, etc.,

Organs of Touch of Ver-

tion of Plants

23

on Flat Surfaces

295

tebrata, Mollusca, Arti-

II. On the Scientific Classi-

Regulation by Perspective

culata, Cælenterata, and

fication of Vegetables 55 of Shadows cast by the Sun 327

Protozoa

III. On the Organs of Ve.

On Shading Rounded Sur.

getables.

56

faces

ARCHITECTURE, LESSONS IN:

359

Introduction

IV. Structure of the Stem On drawing Foliage, the

319

of Vegetables .

81

Buildings in Unhewn Stone 369

Trunks and Branches of

V. Concerning Leaves and

Trees, etc.

391

ARITHMETIC, LESSONS IN: their Uses

82 ILLUSTRATIONS :

Introduction

13 VI. Leaves Considered as

Notation and Numeration

Figs. 1-15. Arrangement of

to their Functions. 127 Straight Lines and Curves 8

Boman Method of Notation 22 VII. On the Form and Mo- Figs. 16–24. Examples in

Addition

22 difications of Leaves 128 Straight-lined and Curved

Subtraetion

VIII. On the Nervation or

Figures.

Multiplication

54 Venation of Leaves; and

Division

Illustrations

Figs. 25–27.

69 the Forms of Leaves

151

of Parallel and Angular

Abridged Methods of Multi- IX. Organs which look like

Perspective

72

plication and Division 95, 110 Leaves, but which are

Greatest Common Measure 126

Figs. 28–34. Examples in

not Leaves

184 Parallel Perspective

Least Common Multiple . 134

73,

X. Metamorphoses or

Fractiong,

104, 105

Changes to which Leaves

Definitions

Fig. 35. Position of Draw.

159

are subject

136

To Multiply or Divide a

ing Board and Copy

XI. Representatives for Figs. 36-41. Examples in

Fraction by a whole

Leaves in Cryptogamic

Number

Angular Perspective, etc. 136,

Plants

215

137

PAGE

Figs. 45–50. Objects of

Uniform Character-The

Circle in Perspective

165

Figs.51–57. Various Forms

of Arches - Arches in

Perspective . 200, 201

Figs. 58-63. Geometrical

Curves, Egg and Pear 232

Fig. 64. Flower-pot, Trowel,

and Knife

233

Figs. 65-70. Diagrams, etc.,

for regulating Retir.

ing Horizontal Distances

and Heights of Objects

in Perspective

264, 265

Figs. 71-75. Examples of

Shading-Flat Surfaces , 296,

297

Figs. 76-81. Regulation of

Cast Shadows.

328, 329

Figs. 82-86. Examples of

Shading-Rounded Sur-

faces

360

Fig. 87. Geranium Leaf

from Cast

361

Figs. 88–97. Examples of

Foliage.

392, 393

Fig. 98. Trunk and Branches

of a Tree without Leaves 392

Fig. 99. Trunk and Branches

of a Tree with Leaves 393

ENGLISH, LESSONS IN:

Introduction

5

Simple Propositions

34

Simple Propositions - The

Parts of Speech

74

Parsing and Composition 107

Saxon Element of the Eng.

lish Language

138

Letters and Letter-writing. 171

Derivation-Prefixes: A to

Anti

194

Prefixes : Apo to Dun. 227

Derivation-Prefixes : E to

Hept

267

Derivation-Prefixes: Hyper

to Meta .

299

Prefixes : Meter

to Octo 326

Prefixes : Olig to Pre . 362

Prefixes: Preter to Seat

ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY:

Introductory

: 117

Justice

199

Truth

332

Temperance

398

FRENCH, LESSONS IN :

I. French Pronunciation-

1. The French Alphabet.

II. French Accents

19

III. Nameand Sound of the

Vowels, 42, 58,77, 86,106, 114

IV. Name and Sound of the

Consonants, 114,131,147, 174

V. Compound Vowels, 182,206

VI. Diphthongs 206, 214

VII. Nasal Vowel Sounds

214, 235, 250

VIII. Liquids

270

IX. Rules for Pronouncing

and Reading French

275

II., III. The Article .

IV. The Article used Par.

titively.

19

V. The Negatives, etc. 24

VI. Idiomatic Uses of Avoir 24

VII. Pronouns and Pro-

noun Adjectives

30

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VIII. Deinonstrative Adjec- Discoveries of Eighteenth HISTORIC SKETCHES.

MUSIC, LESSONS IN:

tives and Pronouns

58 Century

167

Magna Charta

9

Introduction - First Prin.

IX, The Plural of Nouns 59 Discoveries of Eighteenth

Tbomas à Becket and the

ciples of Music

27

X. Plurals of Pronouns 77 and Nineteenth centuries 193

Constitutions of Claren.

The Monochord-Notes of

XI. Agreement of Adjec- Discoveries of the Nine-

don

49

the Scale-Great Tone,

tives—Feminine of Adjec-

teenth Century,236, 271,292, 361

Sir

Richard

Grenville,

Small Tone, Tonule, eto.

90

tives

78 Explorations and Discove-

when he cried “No Sur-

The Tetrachords--The Mo-

XII. Agreement of Adjec.

ries in Africa, 1830–1868 . 389

render”.

87 dulato or Pointing

tives-Plural of Adjectives 86 GEOMETRY, LESSONS IN : Charles I., when the Com-

Board-Binary, Trinary,

XIIJ. Place of the Adjec-

Introduction

29 mons cried "Privilege". 120

tives-Relative Pronoun

Quaternary, and Senary

Definitions

The Rising of the Labourers

145

En

Measures, etc

29, 52

86

under Richard II. . 157

Instruments used in Prac-

Exercises in the Measures. 211

XIV. Plan of the Exercises

tical Geometry

William Sautré, Heretic 177

95, 113

The Metronome-Beating

in Composing French-

Simple Geometrical Theo-

King Charles's Veto on

List of Words for Exer-

Time-Notation of the

156

Emigration.

222 Relative Length of Notes

cises in Composing-106, 115,

Problems in Practical Geo: The Gordon Riots

-Notation of Slurs, Re-

131, 147, 174

metry - 156, 191, 209, 255,

The Bloody Assize

278

XV., XVI. Comparison of

peats, and Expressions-

The Knights Templars, or

The Standard Scale 273

287, 308, 337, 384, 411,

Adjectives, etc. 107, 115

Red Cross Knights. 311 The Mamgement of the

XVII. Adverbs of Quan- GERMAN, LESSONS IN:

Simon de Montfort and the

Voice, etc.

339

tity, etc.

116

Introduction

25 First English Parliament 350 Questions and Tests of Pro-

XVIII. The Relative Pro-

I. German Alphabet . 26 The Protector of the Com-

gress

403

noun-Cardinal and Or- II. Sounds of the German

monwealth

372

dinal Numbers, etc. 132

OUR HOLIDAY :

Letters

26 How a London Jury a true

XIX. The Verbs Avoir and III. German Handwriting. 37 Verdict gave, according

La Crosse, the National

Être in reference to Time, IV. The Article and the

15

to the Evidence

409

Game of Canada

Quantity, etc. .

148

Verb

Football

111

37

XX. The four Conjugations V. The Noun: Old Declen:

LATIN, LESSONS IN:

Hockey

207

of Verbs

175

Cricket

sion

61

367, 398

XXI. Idioms followed by

Introduction

14

VI. Demonstrative Pro-

Laws of Double Wicket, 398

the Preposition De 182

Pronunciation of Latin 14

399

Laws of Single Wicket

61

nouns

XXII. Stems and Termina-

VII. Conjugation of the

Preliminary Instructions in Gymnastics.

tions of the Regular Verbs

the Verbs

Present Singular of Gehen

38, 70

The Bag and Ring Exer.

- Present Indicative 183

First Conjugation

39

and Geben

47

62

cises

XXIII. Irregular Verbs: VIII. Indefinite Article

Second Conjugation

70 Wand Exercises

79

66

their Present Indicative. 206 IX. Declension of Adjec-

Third Conjugation .

70 The Dumb Bells

79

XXIV. Interrogative Form

tives-Old and New De.

Fourth Conjugation

70 Indian Clubs.

80

of Present Indicative 215

clensions

67

Recapitulation

71

143

Jumping and Leaping

XXV. Idiomatic Uses of

X. Declension of Adjectives

Nouns, Substantive and Ad.

The High Leap

143

Verbs

235

jective

98

-Mixed Declensions

The Long Leap

144

67

XXVI. Place of the Pro

Nouds - Concord of Sub-

XI. Formation of Adjectives

Leaping with the Pole 144

nouns

251

stantive and Adjective-

denoting Material .

175

94

The Horizontal Bar

XXVII. Respective Place of XII. The Feminine Gender

Cases of Nouns-Case-

The Parallel Bars

239

the Pronouns

252

endings.

142

of Articles-Nouns, Ad.

The Vaulting Horse 303

XXVIII., XXIX. Use of the

The First Declension.

jectives, eto..

94

Article

PENMANSHIP, LESSONS IN-

271, 276

The Second Declension

XIII. Nouns of the New

202

XXX. Relative Pronouns

11, 21, 36, 60, 68, 93, 109, 117,

294

The Third Declension

Declension

102

. 230,

149, 133, 173, 181, 196, 221,

XXXI. Idiomatic Uses of XIV. Absolute Possessives,

262, 298

Mettre, etc.

229, 244, 261, 267, 301, 317,

294

The Fourth Declension

etc.

103

. 330

XXXII. Unipersonal Verbs 315

The Fifth Declension.

325, 349, 357, 380, 397, 407.

XV. The Plural Number of

. 358

XXXIII. Place of the Ad.

Degrees of Comparison . 388 READING AND ELOCUTION :

Articles, Nouns, Adjec-

verbs

315

tives, etc.

118

The Key to the Exercises given

Punctuation-

XXXIV. The Indefinite Pro- XVI. Use of the Definite

in any Lesson in Latin will be

Characters employed in

noun On, etc.

316

Article : Proper Names,

found at the end of the next

Writing and Printing . 30

XXXV. Reflective Verbs 332

etc., etc.

134

Lesson.

The Period - The Note of

XXXVI, Reflective Pro-

XVII. Personal Pronouns,

Interrogation The

nouns

333

Verbs of the New Conju-

MECHANICS :

Note of Exclamation 51

XXXVII., XXXVIII.' Uses

gation, etc.

150 Force: its Direction, Mag.

The Comma

82

of some Reflective Verbs XVIII. Difference between

nitude, and Application. 17

'The Semicolon

122

334, 342

Verbs of the Old and New Unit of Force-Forces ap-

The Parenthesis, Crotcbets

XXXIX, Reflective Verbs

Conjugations

162

plied to a Point

62

and Brackets The

Conjugated with En 355

XIX. Demonstrative and Forces applied to a Single

Dash.

154

XL, The Past Indefinite

Substantive Pronouns 163 Point-Parallelogram of

The Dash (continued) -

XLI. The Past Participle . 370 XX, Possessive Pronouns

The

179

Hyphen The

Forces

XLII. Use of the Auxiliaries 371 XXI. Relative Pronouns

190

180

Ellipsis

Twisted Polygon - Forces

XLIII. Idiomatic Expres- XXII. The Verb To be, etc. 197

The

applied to Two Points-

The Apostrophe

sions

372 XXIII. Various Idioms 197 Two Parallel Forces 123

Quotation Mark-The

XLIV. Uses of Reflective

XXIV. Conjugation of Verbs 210 Parallel Forces-The Centre

Diæresis-TheAsterisk,

and Unipersonal Verbs 394

XXV. The Infinitive, etc.

of Gravity

187

Obelisk, Double Obe-

XLV. The Passive Verb 404

XXVI.-XXVIII. Separate Finding Centres of Gravity 219

lisk, Section, Parallel,

XLVI. Idiomatic Expres.

Particles

239, 245, 246 Axis of Symmetry-Stable

Paragraph, Index, Ca-

sions

405

XLVII. Unipersonal Verbs

XXIX. Position of the Verb,

aud Unstable Equilibrium

ret, Breve, and Brace . 218

etc.

259 - Introduction to the

Analysis of the Voice-

and their Uses

406 XXX. Comparison of Adjec:

Mechanical Powers

242

248

Quality of the Voice

GEOGRAPHY, LESSONS IN:

tives

259 The Three Orders of Levers

Due Quantity or Loud-

Early Notions: the Geogra- XXXI. Inseparable Particles 282 - The Common Balance . 283

ness-Distinct Articu-

phy of the Scriptures 3 XXXII. Various Idioms 282

lation - Correct Pro-

The Steelyard

343

Notions of the Poets .

40 XXXIII.-XXXV. Peculiari.

nunciation.

286

To Graduate a Steelyard 344

Notions of the Greeks and

ties in Verbs, etc., 302, 310 The Danish Balance-The

True Time-Appropriate

Romans

75 XXXVI. Impersonal Verbs 310 Bent Lever Balance

306

Pauses

344

Ambian Notions–European XXXVII., XXXVIII. Reflec-

339

Right Emphasis

Further Properties of the

Travels Discovery of

tive Verbs

323 Parallelogram and Tri.

Correct Inflection 378, 406

America

100 XXXIX. XLI. Peculiar

angle

345 RECREATIVE NATURAL HIS

The Geographical Discove.

Idioms

324, 346, 382 The Wheel and Axle :

345 TORY:

ries of the Sixteenth and XLII. Subjunctive Mood. 382 The Compound Wheel and

The Snail

269

Seventeenth centuries 140 XLIII. Idiomatic Phrases. 402 Axle

346 The Mole

834

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THE

POPULAR EDUCATOR.

INTRODUCTION.

At no period in the history of our country was it less | portant events in the history of his country, and to necessary to offer an apology for introducing a national place at the command of the student for the Civil Serwork on Education than at the present time. So keen is vice or University Examinations all the branches of the competitive spirit of the age, that the advantage of education necessary for his advancement, no effort knowledge in the struggle for advancement is apparent will be wanting. Our ambition is to place in every to all. The mighty power of steam applied to railways English Home an Educational Encyclopædia, invaluable and vessels has developed national and international com- as a manual of study and a work of reference, which,

1 munication to a degree not dreamt of at the commence- whilst simple, progressive, and interesting in its style, ment of the century. Telegraphy presents to our view shall be powerful for the improvement and the advance the daily contemporaneous history of the world; and the ment of its students. Press, relieved from those shackles which impeded its In the three great departments of knowledge which action and fettered its influence, has become a powerful this Work will embrace-History, Science, and Lanmedium for the communication of thought between the guages—the end of such instruction, viz., its practical leading minds of the age. In the political condition of our application to the affairs of life, will be kept steadily in own country a change has been wrought, the consequences view. Science will be taught not merely as abstract of which the boldest prophet avows his inability to predict, truth or an interesting intellectual exercise, but as but which all parties agree will be fraught with good or embodying in all its branches those principles, a knowevil, according to the degree in which the new recipients ledge of which will explain the various phenomena of of power may be possessed of the knowledge to use that the world, and enable us to avail ourselves more power aright. The necessity of Education, therefore, intelligently, and therefore more successfully, of all the which was fiercely combated when this work first saw varied material with which Nature has supplied us. the light, is now universally admitted, and the mode Instruction in Languages—whether living or deadand the system alone remain to be discussed. This truth will be so conveyed as to enable the student not only to was fully recognised by no one more than the late Earl of understand a given set of books in any particular tongue, Derby, the illustrious chief of the Conservative party, and but to make him master of the language itself by he was pleased to accept the dedication of this work to gradual and easy, but yet real and tangible stages. himself. Gratifying as is this complimentary recognition The Historic Sketches, by means of which we shall of the services which the original edition of the POPULAR teach History, will, we hope, render that study no longer EDUCATOR bas rendered in the promotion of National Edu- a mere record of battles, an obituary of kings, a mighty cation, we feel that the basis of our present claim upon the chaos of incident; but will illustrate how each nation has co-operation of all the friends of that great movement con- discharged its functions in the world's history-how each sists in this—that our system has been tested, its efficiency epoch has played its part in the drama of a nation's life. has been proved, whilst a sale of 750,000 copies has testi- A reference to our list of contents will show that under fied, on the part of those for whom it was designed, their various heads will be included every branch of study appreciation of the work and their estimate of its value. which can possibly be useful in the varied walks of life.

But some twenty years have elapsed since the POPULAR The great aim and object of this Work is to enable EDUCATOR first issued from the press, and during that the people to educate themselves. We have only to ask period considerable advances have been made in many of them to realise the magnitude and grandeur of the work the departments of knowledge. To perfect the work in in which they will be engaged if they determine to do accordance with all the discoveries up to the present so. Obstacles will be overcome by united resolution. day, we have found it necessary to introduce many new Every difficulty surmounted will be additional strength subjects, and to re-model many of our old lessons, and for further victories. A good education is the best we shall spare no expense in making these changes as legacy we can leave to our children. It is the best complete as possible. To amuse, to instruct, to elevate, investment we can make for ourselves. The educated will be our constant endeavour. To render the work- man in every walk of life carries with him his own man more perfect in his vocation, the soldier and sailor capital—a capital unaffected by monetary crisis-an better fitted for the higher positions of his profession, investment whose interest is not regulated by the the naturalist more conversant with the beauties of success of speculation-a legacy which none can dispute, Nature, the politician further acquainted with the im- and of which none can deprive.

1 VOL. I.

ona

oue

uen.

Ou- &
u-ie

ou

u-eu.

Olen

em

um

yin

am
an

om
on

en

in

מט

ion

uan

ouan

The following ten combinations of three successive vowels aro LESSONS IN FRENCH.-I.

also called diphthongs, namely :IN commencing these Lessons in French, instead of beginning

iai aiu ieu

oui
uui

uei with a long chapter exclusively devoted to the pronunciation of

uie words, and the variations which are caused in the sounds of Towels and consonants by changes in their relative position, we

Theso diphthongs are thus divided into syllables :have thought it best to enter at once into the construction

i-oi i-au
i-eu

ou-i n-ai of the language, and endeavour, without unnecessary delay, in

u-ei as plain a manner as possible, to make our readers familiar with its various idioms and peculiarities. The Section on French

They must, however, be pronounced quickly, and as one syllable. pronunciation will be divided into several portions, one of

Sometimes, also, we find four successive vowels in the same which will be given at the commencement of each lesson in word, namely:French, until the subject is exhausted.

ouai
in the word jou-ai,

jou-eur,
SECTION I.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION.

ouée

bou-ée. I. THE FRENCH ALPHABET.

The first example-ouai, is composed of two compound vowels, 1. A tolerable pronunciation of any spoken language may be viz.: ou and ai. acquired by imitating the sounds of that language, as uttered by The second example-ouen, is also composed of two compound a living teacher. But the reading and writing of any language vowels, viz.: ou and eu. cannot thus be learnt. The pupil must bring into requisi. In the last exampleouée, the final e is silent, and the three tion something else besides his imitative powers, if he would vowels are thus divided, viz.: ou and é. thoroughly comprehend any language. The alphabet of the 13. THE VOWEL Y.—The vowel y is frequently found comlanguage to be learnt must be exhibited and examined, and bined with other vowels, but in such combinations it is never then mastered.

used as a diphthong. Its use in combination is peculiar, and 2. An alphabet is a collection of different characters called will be fully explained hereafter. letters, each of which represents its own peculiar sound. These 14. THE NASAL VOWEL SOUNDS.—There are certain sounds letters differ from each other in name, form, size, and sound. called nasal vowel sounds, produced by the combination of the Used as vehicles of thought, they must not only be familiar vowels with the consonants m and n, namely:to the eye, but their use, both singly and combined, must be

im anderstood.

yn. 3. Two objects are to be before the student whilst perusing These sounds will be explained hereafter. these preliminary lessons on French pronunciation, namely :First. The acquisition of the correct pronunciation of the certain sounds called nasal diphthongal sounds, produced by

15. THE NASAL DIPHTHONGAL SOUNDS.—There are also various sounds of the letters of the French alphabet.

Second. - To learn how to combine and use these sounds, the combination of nasal vowel sounds with a vowel, not nasai, in order to read the French language easily, intelligibly, and

before them, namely:profitably.

ian ien

uin

ouin. 4. The first object will be accomplished by the aid of analogous These sounds will also be explained hereafter. English sounds; that is, every sound represented by a letter or combination of letters of the French alphabet, will be unfolded, sonants are called liquids, namely:

16. THE LIQUIDS.--The following combinations of the conanalysed, and defined, as far as possible, by means of analogous sounds of a letter or combination of letters of the English alphabet.

The sounds of these liquids are very common in the French 5. The second object will be accomplished by learning a few language, and will be explained hereafter. brief and simple rules, illustrated and enforced by appropriate examples.

SECTION II.-THE ARTICLE. 6. Diligent attention, patient labour, and a determination to succeed, will enable the learner to overcome every obstacle, and

1. In French the article (S 13 (2)]* has, in the singular, a thus make him master of a languago, not only exceedingly distinct form for each gender, as:difficult for foreigners to acquire, but beautiful in itself, and

Le fils, the son. La fille, the daughter, the girl. 00-existent with the triumphs of civilisation.

Le frère, the brothor. La scur, the sister. 7. The student's attention is next directed to the French 2. Before a word commencing with a vowel or an h mute, the alphabet. While the English alphabet contains twenty-six final e or a of the article le or la is cut off, and replaced by an letters, in the French alphabet there are only twenty-five. It apostrophe, leaving the article apparently the same for both has no letter which corresponds to the English w, though it is genders (S 13 (7)], as :occasionally found in French books. It is used only in foreign

L'aïeul (7(e) aieul], tho grandfather. words, and then pronounced like the English v.

L'aïeule [1(a) aieule), the grandmother. 8. The French alphabet is divided into vowels and consonants.

L'hôte [](e) hôto], the landlord, 9. THE VOWELS.--The vowels are six in number, namely:

L'hôtesso [1(a) hôtesse), the landlady.

3. There are in French only two genders, the masculine and 10. THE CONSONANTS.—The remaining letters of the alpha or inanimate object, belongs to one of these two genders.

the feminine [$ 4]. Every noun, whether denoting an animate bet, nineteen in number, are called consonants, namely:

Masc. L'homme, the man.

FEM. La femme, the woman.
b
f

j
1
Le livre, the beok.

La table, the table.
t

L'arbre, the tree.

La plume, tho pen. 11. THE COMPOUND VOWELS.—There are seven compound

Le lion, the lion.

La lionpe, the lioness. vowels, namely :

4. AVOIR, TO HAVE, IN THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE.

Affirmatively. They are thus called because, being united together, each SING. J'ai,

I have. PLUR. Nous avons,

Wo havo. Tu as [$ 33 (1) (2)]Thou hast.

Vous avez, vowel loses its own simple sound, and helps to form another

You have. He has.

Ils ont, m., new sound. They form but one syllable, and are consequently

They have.
She has.
Elles ont, f.,

They have. pronounced by one emission of the voice. 12. THE DIPHTHONGS.—There are six diphthongs, namely:

* References thus [§ 13 (2)] refer to Sections in Part II. of these

Lessons, but by references in Roman numerals, thus, [Sect. I. 30] the They are thus called because, though pronounced as one learner is directed to Sections in Part I., the portion of our " Lessons syllable, the sound of both vowels is distinctly heard.

in French” which we are now commencing.

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