27. Viscid (viscidus), when the surface is 33. Cinereus; ash color, blackish gray. covered with a viscid juice, which is resinous or 34. Griseus; lively light gray. greasy. Cerastium viscosum.

35. Canus; hoary, with more white than 28. Striated (striatus), when the surface is gray. firely streaked. Aira caespitosa.

36. Lividus; dark gray, running into violet. 29. Furrowed (sulcatus), when the streaks form 37. Lacteus, or Candidus; shining white. small furrows. Umbellæ.

38. Albus; dull white. 186. The following are the principal colors, 39. Albidus; dirty dull white. which are distinguished by name: this part of the 40. Hyalinus; transparent, like pure glass. subject is extremely imperfect; and perhaps from 187. The Root is divided by botanists into its nature will always, like all distinctions de four principal forms, viz. the Rhizoma, or pending upon so uncertain a power as that of dis Roststock, by which is meant the thick fleshy criminating between the delicate gradations o part of a biennial or perennial root; the Fibre, so unmanageable an agent as of light, remain or those parts of the root which have the appearin an imperfect state. The Latin names are ne ance of threads; the Tuber, which is a solid cessarily employed from the want of equivalent fleshy root, furnished with buds on its surface, expressions in the English language

and being in fact a thickened subterraneous 1. Cyaneus; dark blue, like Prussian blue. stem; and the Bulb, which consists only of

2. Cæruleus; sky blue, like the flowers of fleshy imbricated scales, as in the onion. Each Veronica Chamædrys.

of these is subject to a great variety of appear3. Azureus; nearly the same as No. 2, but ances. bright like ultramarine.

1. The Rhizoma is, 4. Cæsius; pale blue, verging towards gray. 1. Wouly (lignosum), composed of a woody

5. Atrovirens; dark green, bordering upon substance and numerous woody fibres; such as dark blue.

that of trees and shrubs. 6. Æruginosus; light bluish green, like ver- 2. Fleshy (carnosum), consisting of a fleshy digris.

substance more or less firm; as Daucus Carota, 7. Prasinus, saturatè virens, smaragdinus; Pastinaca Sativa. grass green, without any tinge of yellow or blue. 3. Hollow (cavum), that is always hollow in

8. Flavo-virens ; green bordering upon yellow. the middle, as Fumaria Bulbosa. 9. Glaucus; green, bordering upon gray.

4. Partitioned (loculosum), an oblong root, 10. Aureus; golden yellow, without any fo- internally furnished with separated cavities; as reign mixture.

Cicuta Virosa. 11. Ochraceus; yellow, with a slight tinge of 5. Entire (integrum), never naturally interbrown.

nally hol.ow, and thus the opposite of the two 12. Pallidè flavens; pale or whitish yellow,

last mentioned. 13. Sulphureus; bright yellow, like the 6. Cylindrical (cylindraceum), that comes flowers of the Hieracium Pilosella.

nearest to a cylindrical figure, and is thick ; as 14. Vitellinus; yellow, with a slight tinge of Dictamnus albus. red.

7. Spindle-shaped (fusiforme) cylindrical 15. Ferrugineus; brown, verging towards above, and tapering to a point as it descends; as yellow.

in Daucus carota, Pastinaca sativa. 16. Brunneus; the darkest pure brown. 8. Bitten (præmorsum), where the principal 17. Fuscus; brown, running into gray. root seems as if it were bitten off, as Scabiosa

18. Badius; Hepaticus; chestnut or liver succisa, Plantago major. brown, bordering on dark red.

9. Worm-like (vermicularis), thick and almost 19. Aurantiacus; orange, or a mixture of yel- cylindrical, but bent in different places; Polylow and red.

20. Miniatus, or Cinnabarinus; deep red, like 10. Turnip shaped (napiforme), bellying out red lead.

above, but below ending in a long taper point, 21. Lateritius; brick color, like the former, Brassica Napa. put duller and verging towards yellow.

11. Roundish (subrotundum, or globosum), 22. Coccineus, or Phæniceus; cinnabar co- that is almost spherical, as Raphanus sativus, for, with a slighit tinge of blue.

Bunium Bulbocastanum. 23. Carneus; flesh color, something between 12. Flat (placentiforme), a thick round root, white and red.

which above and below is compressed, so that it 24. Croceus; saffron color, dark orange. almost resembles a plate ; Cyclamen. 25. Puniceus; fine bright red, like carmine. 13. Jointed (geniculatum), divided into rnem

26. Sanguineus, or purpureus; pure red, but bers, from which the root-fibres proceed; Gratiola duller than the foregoing.

officinalis. 27. Roseus; rose color, a pale blood red. 14. Scaly (s4 iamosum), covered with more or,

28. Atropurpureus; very dark red, almost ap- fewer fleshy scales; Lathræa squamaria. proaching to black.

15. Toothed (dentatus), a fleshy branched 29. Violaceus; violet color, a mixture of root, having teeth-like prolongations ; Corallorblue and red.

hiza innata. 30. Lilacinus; lilac, the former color; but 16. Tufted (comosum), having as it were tufts duller, and verging towards red.

of hair at its points, which are the fragments of 31. Ater; the purest and deepest black. the petioles, divided like fibres ; Aethusa Meum. 32. Niger; black, with a tinge of gray. 17. Many headed (multiceps), divided at top

gonum Bistorta.

into numerous branches, from which new shoots 41. Articulated (articulatum), when one knob spring; as Astragalus, Geranium macrorhizon. grows out of another, so that the whole seems to

18. Simple (simplex), having no branches. consist of connected members.

19. Branching (ramosum), dividing into 42. Necklace-like (moniliforme), when many branches, as all trees, shrubs, and many plants. knobs hang together by a fibrous root, in rows as

20. Perpendicular (perpendicularis), going if they were strung on; as Pelargonium triste. straight down into the earth; Capsella bursa pastoris.

4. The Bulb is, 21. Horizontal (horizontale), running hori- 43. Imbricated (imbricatus, squamosus), when zontally under ground into the earth, but ob- the bulb consists of leaves lying over one anoliquely, as Aethusa meum.

ther, like the tiles of a house; as Lilium bulbi22. Oblique (obliquum), going neither per- ferum. pendicularly nor horizontally into the earth, but 44. Coated (tunicatus), when the bulb is comobliquely; as Aethusa meum.

posed of concentric layers; as in Allium. 23. Creeping (repens), lying horizontally un- 45. Net-like, (reticulatus), when the bulb is der the earth, and extending itself in that direc- entirely composed of reticulated membranes ; tion by means of side-branches; as Rumex as Allium Victorialis. Acetosella.

46. Half-net-like (semireticulatus), when the 24. Ringed (annulatum), furnished on its bulb consists of a firm mass, but the outer memupper surface with alternately raised and de- brane is net-like; as Gladiolus communis.. pressed bands.

47. Solid (solidus), when the bulk consists of 25. Knobbed (tuberculatum), furnished on a firm substance throughout; as Colchicum its apper surface, with protuberances; as Aethusa autumnale. meum, Bunium bulbocastanum.

48. Nestling (nidulans), when small bulbs ap26. Scarred (cicatrisatum), which, upon the pear under the external membrane, and the perishing of the stem, has depressions or chinks bulb seems to be entirely composed of them; on its upper surface; as Polypodium vulgare. as in Ornithogalum spathaceum.

27. Chaffy (paleaceum), covered with mem- 49. Aggregated (compositus, aggregatus), when branaceous scales; as many of the filices. several bulls stand close together, having a con

28. Even (laere), marked on its surface nei- nexion at the base. ther with elevations nor depressions.

50. Two-fold (geminatus), when two bulbs 2. The Fibre is,

are connected by their base; as Fritillaria pyre

naica, Erythronium dens canis. 29. Thread-like (filiformis), consisting of a 51. Doubled (duplicatus), when one bulb single fibre.

stands above another, and grows out of it; as 30. Fibrous (fibrosa), consisting of many fi- Allium sphaerocephalon. brous roots; as Poa annua.

32. Supported (suffultus), when the body of 31. Hair-like (capillaris), consisting of numer- the root stands at a distance, equalling it in size, ous very fine fibres; as Scirpus acicularis. and distinctly separated from it; as Ixia punicea,

32. Velvet-like (velutina), composed of very erecta. tender and hardly visble fibres; as in the Musci 53. Single (solitarius), when neither from the frondosi.

side nor from the base proceeds another bulb. 33. Cleft (fissa), very short, and at the point 54. Central (centralis), when the shoot prodividing into two or three points ; Peltidea ca- ceeds from the middle, as Galanthus nivalis. nina.

55. Lateral (lateralis), when the shoot issues 3. The Tuber, is

from the side; as in Ixia virgata. 34. Knobbed (granulatum), the knobs formed

Besides the above there are a few roots which like small grains of corn; as Saxifraga granu- being referable to none of the foregoing, are lata.

called nothous, or 35. Testiculated (testiculatum), when two,

Anomalous. rarely three, longish depressed knobs hang from the point from which a shoot rises; as in 56. Divided (divisa), that branches out above Orchis.

stones or other bodies, but does not penetrate 36. Palmated (palmatum), when two, rarely into the earth; as Fucus digitatus. three, longish depressed knobs, which are di- 57. Bysus-like (byssacea), that is divided like vided at the point, hang together; as in the last, wool, and has the appearance of a filamentary Orchis.

byssus; as many species of Agaricus. 37. Fingered (digitatum), when a single fleshy 58. Warty (papillosa), consisting of short knob is compressed and divided at the point like wart-like small dots, by which the plant attaches fingers ; Dioscorea alternifolia.

itself to wood or stones, in Lichen. 38. Bundled (fasciculatum), when many cy- 59. Shield-like (scutiformis), when the base lindrical or longish roots hang together from the of the ascending stem spreads itself into a thin point, so as to resemble a bundle; Ranunculus surface, by which the plant is attached to wood Ficaria, Epipactis Nidus avis.

or stones; as Usnea florida, Ceramium filum. 39. Globulated (conglobatum), when several 60. Fading (evanescens), when the descending round knobs sit upon one another; as Helianthus stem penetrates into wood and therein gradually tuberosus.

disappears; as Viscum album. 40. Depending (pendulum), when several 188. The Stem is the prolongation of the knobs hang together from fibrous roots; as Sola- plant above the soil, or above the part which num tuberosum, Spiræa Filipendula.

serves for its support. It is subject to great diversity of forms, and the number of terms used 7. Entire (integer), which is branched, but to distinguish their varieties are numerous. where the principal stem can be traced to the

The stock (cormus), is that part of the plant point. which serves for the support of the whole, and 8. Verticillated (verticillatus), when a number bears the inflorescence, the leaves, the frond, the of branches are formed at the extremity, from flowers and fruit, from it are evolved in most the centre of which the principal stem proceeds, cases all these parts. The following kinds have so that the branches, at certain distances, surbeen distinguished : viz. the stem (caudex), the round the stem in a circular manner; as in trunk (truncus), the stalk (caulis), the straw Pinus sylvestris. (culmus), the scape (scapus), the stipe (stipes), 9. Proliferous (prolifer), where the stem is dithe shoot (sarculus), the sarment (sarmentum), vided into a number of branches, and these and the sucker (stolo).

again likewise divide, but the principal stem 189. The stem (caudex), is a simple peren- does not proceed from the centre of them; as nial shoot, with leaves at its extremity, and is Ledum palustre. peculiar only to the palms and arboreous filices, 10. Dichotomous (dichotomus), when the having no bark, but set round with the remains stem, even to the smallest branches, divides itself of the leaf-stalks. Of this there are the follow- into two; as Viscum album. ing kinds. 1. Ringed (annulatus), when the remains of

In respect of the branches. the leaves at regular distances resemble annular 11. Alternate branches (rami alterni), the elevations; as Corypha rotundifolia.

branches are so placed that between two on the 2. Scaly (squamosus), when the remains of one side there rises but one on the opposite side. the leaves surround the stem irregularly; as in 12. Opposite branches (rami oppositi), when Phænix dactylifera, Chamærops humilis. one branch stands on the opposite side to ano

3. Tessellated (tessellatus), when the leaf or ther, and the bases of each nearly meet together. the base of the stipe does not remain behind, 13. Distichous (distichus), when the branches, but leaves a scar, by which the stem puts on á being opposite to each other, stand on the same tessellated appearance; as Polypodium ar- plane. boreum.

14. Scattered (sparsus), when the branches 4. Aculeated (aculeatus), when the remains stand without order on the stem. of the leaf are set with prickles; as in Cocos acu

15. Close (confertus), when the branches leatus, Polypodium asperum.

stand so thick and without order that no space when the remains of the leaf leave no prickles, branches stand at right angles to each other, or 5. Smooth (inermis), the opposite of the last, remains between them.

16. Brachiate (brachiatus) when opposite as Phenix dactylifera, Polypodium arboreum.

190. The trunk (truncus), is peculiar to trtes cross-ways, and shrubs, and is perennial. The principal

17. Rod-like (virgatus), when the branches stem in these plants has obtained the following are very long, weak, and thin. denominations : its principal divisions are called

18. Panicled (paniculatus), when a stem at branches (rami), and its subdivisions twigs its point is divided into numerous leaves and (ramuli).

flower-bearing branches; as, Rumex acetosella. 1. Tree-like (arboreus); this is simple, and 19. Fastigiate (fastigiatus), when all the forms at top a crowd or crown of branches branches from bottom to top are of such dif(cacumen); it is peculiar to trees.

ferent lengths that they are of equal height. 2. Shrubby (fruticosus), divided below into a 20. Compact (coarctatus), where the tips of number of branches, like all shrubs.

the branches are bent inwards towards the stem. 191. The stalk (caulis), is herbaceous, sel- 21. Spreading (patens), when the branches dom woody, and lasts but one or two years; stand nearly at right angles with the stem. hence it is proper only to herbaceous plants, 22. Diverging (divergens), where the branches however, the term is sometimes applied both to form a right angle. trees and shrubs. The divisions of this are also 23. Divaricated (divaricatus), where the called branches (rami). The kinds are,

branches are so situated that they form an ob

tuse angle above, and an acute angle below. With respect to division.

24. Deflected (deftexus), the branches hang 1. Very simple (simplicissimus), that has no down forming an arch. branches, nor is its flower-stalk divided, conse- 25. Reflected (reflexus), where the branches quently it can have but one flower or spike, and hang so much down that they almost run pano flowers in the axillæ of the branches.

rallel with the stem. 2. Simple (simplex), having no branches, 26. Retroflected (retroflexus), where the but whose flower-stalk may be divided.

branches are bent towards every side. 3. Somewhat branched (subramosus), sometimes without branches, sometimes with one or

In respect of strength.

27. Stiff (rigidus), that will not bend without 4. Branched (ramosus), which is always fur- breaking. nished with branches.

28. Brittle (fragilis), that breaks with the 5. Much branched (ramosissimus), where all smallest force. the branches are not only divided but subdivided. 29. Flexible (flexilis), that can be bent in any

6. Disappearing (deliquescens), branched, but direction without breaking. so divided that the principal stem is no longer 30. Tough (tenax) that can be bent without to be observed, but is lost in the ramitication. breaking, and can be with difficulty torn.


31. Lax (laxus), that is firm, but moves with 54. Scaly (squamosus), covered with scales. the smallest breath of wind.

55. Ramentaceous (ramentaceus), that is co32. Parasitical (parasiticus), that fixes itself vered with dry membranous scales; as Erica by its root on the root or wood of other plants; ramentacea. as Viscum, Monotropa.

56. Stipulate (stipulatus), furnished with sti33. Erect (erectus), when the stem stands pulæ in the axillæ of the leaves; as Vicia sativa. nearly perpendicular.

57. Exstipulate (exstipulatus), without sti34. Straight (strictus), where the stem is per- pulæ. pendicular, and quite straight.

58 Leafy (foliosus), having leaves. 35. Weak (debilis), when the stem is too 59. Perfoliate (perfoliatus), where the stem slender to maintain itself perfectly upright. goes through a leaf; as Bupleurum.

36. Bent upwards (adscendens), when the 60. Winged (alatus), when a leaf-like memstem lies on the ground, but the extremity of it brane runs along the stem. stands erect.

61. Bulb-bearing (bulbifer), having bulbs or 37. Bent downwards (declinatus), when the tubercles in the axillæ of the leaves; as Lilium stem is so bent downwards to the earth that it bulbiferum, Dentaria bulbifera. forms an arch.

62. Prickly (aculeatus), when along the stem 38. Supported (fulcratus), that from above there are pointed protuberances coming off with sends roots down into the earth, which after- the rind. wards change into real stems; as in the Rhizo- 63. Spiny (spinosus), when there are pointed phora.

protuberances on the stem which do not come off 39. Stooping (cernuus), when the point in an with the rind upright stem takes a horizontal direction.

64. Smooth (inermis), having neither prickles 40. Nodding (nutans), when the point is bent nor spines. down towards the horizon.

65. Barren (sterilis), bearing no flowers. 41. Pendulous (pendulus), when a parasitical 66. Fruitful (fructificans), bearing flowers or plant (No. 32) has its base turned towards the fruit. zenith, and its top towards the earth.

In respect of figure. 42. Procumbent (procumbens, prostratus, humifusus), when the stem lies flat on the ground. 67. Round (teres), that is, quite cylindrioal. 43. Decumbent (decumbens), when the stem

68. Half-round (semiteres), that is, round on is upright below, but above is bent down to- the one side and fat on the other. wards the ground, so that the greater part of it is 69. Compressed (compressus), when the stem bent.

is flat on both sides. 44. Creeping (repens), when the stem lies 70. Two-edged (anceps), when a compressed along, and sends out roots from below.

stem is sharp on both edges. 45. Sarmentose (sarmentosus), when the stem 71. Angled (angulatus), when a stem has lies along, but sends out roots only at certain in- several angles, but the sides are grooved. Of tervals.

this there are several kinds, viz. 46. Rooting (radicans), when the stem stands a. Obtuse-angled (obtuse angulatus). upright and climbs, everywhere sending forth B. Acute-angled (acute angulatus). small roots, by which it holds itself fast; as in y. Three-angled (triangularis). the ivy. Hedera Helix..

o. Four-angled (quadrangularis, &c.) 47. Swimming (natans), lying on the surface e. Many-angled (multangularis). of water; as Polygonum ampbibium.

72. Three-sided, (triqueter), where there are 48. Sunk (demersum), that lies below the sur- three sharp corners, and the sides quite flat. face; as Ceratophyllum demersum, Utricularia. 73. Three-cornered (trigonus), when there are

49. Flexuose (flexuosus), where the upright three round or obtuse edges, but the sides appear stem bends itself in a zig-zag manner, so as to flat. Of this too there are several kinds : form a nuruber of obtuse angles.

7. Four-cornered (tetragonus). 50, Climbing (scandens), a weak stem that

B. Five-cornered (pentagonus). fastens itself to some other body for support; as

7. Six-cornered (hexagonus). the passion-flower, Passiflora cærulea.

8. Many-cornered (polygonus). 51. Twining (volubilis), a weak stem that twines

74. Membranaceous (membranaceus), when in a serpentine form round other plants ; it is of the stem is compressed and thin like a leaf. two kinds.

75. Knotted (nodosus), when the stem is dia. Turning from the right (dextrorsum), when vided by knobs. the stem twines from the right to the left round 76. Knotless (enodis), when it has neither a supporting body; as in the bind-weed, Con- knobs nor joints. volvulus.

77. Articulated (articulatus), when the stem b. Twining from the left (sinistrorsum), when has regular knobs at the joints ; as in Cactus. the stem twines from the left to the right round 78. Jointed (geniculatus), when a stem has a supporting body; as in the hop, Humulus Lu- regular knobs, not seated on the joints. pulus.

In respect of substance.
In respect of clothing.

79. Woody (lignosus), that consists of firm 52. Naked (nudus), having no leaves, scales, wood. or the like.

80. Fibrous (fibrosus), that consists of woody 53. Leafless (aphyllous), without leaves only. fibres, that can be easily separated.



81. Herbaceous (herbaceus), that is weak and

In Fungi. can be easily cut.

6. Fleshy (carnosus), of a fleshy substance. 82. Fleshy (carnosus), that is nearly as juicy

7. Leathery (coriaceous), consisting of a tough and soft as the flesh of an apple.

leather-like substance, as boletus perennis. 83. Firm (solidus), internally hard.

8. Firm (solidus), consisting within of a solid 84. Empty (inanis), filled internally with a soft pith.

9, Tollow (fistulosus), forming throughout a 85. Hollow (fistulosus), without any pith hollow cylinder. within and quite hollow.

10. Pitted (lacunosus), having depressions on 86. With separations (septatus), where either the outside; as Helvella sulcata. the pith or the hollow space is divided by thin

11. Scaly (squamosus), covered with firmly partitions.

attacked scales, 87. Cork-like (suberosus), when the outer

12. Squarrose (squarrosus), covered with scales rind is soft and spungy: as in the ulmis sube- which are turned back at the points.

13. Raised (peronatus), that from the bottom 88. Rifted (rimosus), when there are in the to the middle is laid thick over, with a woolly rind thin clefts or chinks.

substance ending in a sort of meal. 89. Scarred (cicatrizatus), having scars formed 14. Bellying (ventricosus), thicker in the unidby the falling off of the leaves.

dle than at either end. 192. The straw (culmus) is proper only to the 15. Bulb-like (bulbosus), that is thick imgrasses. The kinds of it are nearly the same mediately above the root. with those of the stem. The following, how- 195. The shoot (surculus), is a term applied ever, may be distinguished in addition.

to the stem which bears the leaves of the mosses. 1. Knotted (nodosus), furnished with enlarged Of this there are the following varieties. joints, as most of the grasses.

1. Simple (simplex), having no branches; as 2. Knotless (enodis), without any such en- in the Polytrichum commune. larged joints. Juncus, Carex, Scirpus.

2. Branched (ramosus), dividing into branches; 3. Simple (simplex), having no branches. as in Mnium androgynum. 4. Branched (ramosus), furnished


3. With hanging branches (ramis deflexis), branches.

when the stem is branched but all the branches 5. Leafy (frondosus), furnished with irregular hang down; as in Sphagnum palustre. branches, and particularly with small leaves; as

4. Irregular (vagus), branched, but the branches Restio.

set on without order. 6. Sheathed (vaginatus), that is covered with

5. Intricate (intricatus), branched, and the a foliaceous vagina.

numerous protuberant branches running into one 7. Naked (nudus), having neither a foliaceous another. vagina nor any leaves.

6. Tree-like (dendroides), standing erect, and 8. Erect (erectus), standing quite upright.

at the point a crowd of thick branches like the 9. Geniculated (geniculatus or infractus), when top of a tree. the first and undermost joint lies prostrate, and 7. Pinnated (pinnatus) having at two opposite the rest stand upright, so that by this fexure sides simple branches, of nearly the same length, nearly a right angle is formed ; as in Alopecurus at equal angles with the stalk. geniculatus.

8. Doubly pinnated (bipinnatus), having the 10. Oblique (obliquus), having such a di- habit of the last, only that its branches are again rection as to be intermediate between perpen- divided like those of the principal stem; as HypJicular and horizontal; as Poa annua.

num parietinum. scape (scapus) is an herbaceous stem

9. Trebly-pinnated (triplicatio pinnatus), like that bears flowers, but not leaves, and proceeds the last, but the secondary branches are also pinfrom the descending, or intermediate, but never nated; as Hypnum recognitum. from the ascending stem.

10. Proliferous (prolifer), when, in either of It is proper to the lilies, and is sometimes the two last kinds, there shools forth a new stem found in other plants ; but in this last case it ought out of the old; as in Hypnum proliferum. to bear more than one flower, for had it but one

11. Erect (erectus), which rises perpendiHower it would be called pedunculus radicalis. cularly ; as in Polytrichem commune. It is only when this single flower sits on a flower

12. Prostrate (procumbens), lying along. stalk proceeding immediately from the ground that it is called scape.

13. Creeping (repens), the same with the last,

but the branches constantly lengthening and 194. The stipe (stipes). This term is applied putting forth small roots. only to Filices, Fungi, and Palms. The fol

14. Floating (fluitans), swimming under water lowing are the kinds of it.

in a perpendicular direction, and attached to In Filices.

some fixed body; as Fontinalis antipyretica.

196. The sarment or runner (sarmentum), is 1. Chaffy (paleaceous), when it is covered a filiform stem, springing from the root and with dry membranaceous scales.

shooting from the point, so sending forth roots 2. Scaly (squamosus), when it is covered with and producing a new plant of the same kind; as foliaceous scales.

Saxifraga sarmentosa, Fragaria. 3. Naked (nudus), without any covering. 197. The sucker (stolo), is a foliaceous creeping 4. Prickly (aculeatus), having prickles. stem, springing from the root, covered on its 5. Smooth (inermis), without prickles. under surface with small roots, but at the point

193. The

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