Exploring Polar Frontiers: A Historical Encyclopedia
ABC-CLIO, 2003 - 797 sider
Covers the entire history of Arctic and Antarctic exploration, from the voyage of Pytheas ca. 325 B.C. to the present, in one convenient, comprehensive reference resource.
* 511 A-Z biographical, geographical, and subject entries on polar exploration such as dogs, man-hauling, Elephant Island, South Georgia, and major explorers such as Sir John Franklin, Fridtjof Nansen, and Richard Byrd
* Extensive collection of photographs, many taken by expedition participants
* Vivid illustrations, including woodcuts and drawings
* 20 maps detailing Arctic and Antarctic regions
* Chronology of expeditions beginning with the voyage of Pytheas in 325 B.C. through the present
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At least equally serious grounds for skepticism relate to Peary's navigation. This
is a highly technical subject, and whereas some (e.g., Thomas Davies 1989 and
William Molett 1996) argue that his methods were adequate to locate the Pole, ...
Within three centuries, celestial navigation enabled latitude to be determined. Yet
navigation devices remained crude—an astrolabe or cross-staff to measure star
altitude, a compass to register heading, and a plumb line to sound depths.
The problem of ground truth remained but was resolved by the advent of
navigation satellites. In Antarctica, Doppler satellite positioning was combined
with international logistics to establish a network of ground stations enabling
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MacMillan Donald 18741970
Fiala Anthony 18691950 222
Malygin Stepan d 1764
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