accounts for the reason of the name in several places of his writings. And upon the like ground one of the churches of Carthage was called Basilica Restituta, from its being rescued out of the hands of the Arians. One of the churches of Alexandria was commonly called Cæsareum 71, which Valesius 72 thinks was for no other reason but because the place before had been called Cæsareum, or the Temple of the Cæsars. As a church of Antioch was called Palæa, because built in that part of the city which they termed malaiàv, or the old city. So St. Peter's at Rome was anciently called Triumphalis, because it stood in Via Triumphali, in the Triumphal Way, leading to the Capitol. And we are assured from St. Jerom 73 that the Lateran Church had its name from Lateranus, the heathen, who was slain by Nero, because it had formerly been that nobleman's palace in Rome.

A thousand observations of the like nature might be made; but these few are sufficient to shew that there were different reasons for giving names to churches ; and that it was no argument of churches being dedicated to saints, because they bare the names of saints; it being otherwise apparent that they were consecrated only to God, and not to any creature.

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σκηνήν επήξαμεν, τεσσαράκοντα έτη t. 5. p. 767 b.) Igitur Petrus Mogπεριφερομένην εν τη ερήμω και πλα- gus ab abbate Amone et Joanne νωμένην. Συ τε ο μέγας ναός ούτος και episcopo Magileos, et ab abbatibus περιβόητος, η νέα κληρονομία, το νύν monachorum inferioris Egypti belμέγας είναι παρά του λόγου λαβών, ον, la passus et seditione ei in Caesarea ‘Ießoüs a pórepov övra, 'lepovoadņu basilica, ut dicitur, facta, anathemaTIETOLÍKajev. — Conf. Carm. 9. In tizavit Synodum Chalcedonensem Somn. Anastas. (t. 2. p. 78 b.) et tomum Papæ Leonis. Εύδον δή γλυκύν ύπνον, Αναστασίαν 72 Not. in Evagr. 1. 2. c. 8. (v. 3. δε τ' όνειρος

p. 298. n. 1.) Magna ecclesia urbis Στησεν εμοίσι φέρων ηματίοισι Alexandrine Cesarea dicebatur, ut πόθοις.

docet Epiphanius in Hæresi Ariano'H apórn Lóyov ainùv évì a potó- ruin ... Causam autem hujus appelδεσσι μένοντα

lationis docet Athanasius in Epist. "Hyayev és kopupiv oŰpeos åkpo- ad Solitarios, eo quod scilicet eccleτάτην.

sia illa constructa fuisset in loco, Τούνεκ'' 'Αναστασίαν μιν επίκλησιν qui Cesarium antea dicebatur, id καλέoυσι

est, Cæsarum templum. Νηον, έμής παλάμης έργον αρισ- 73 Ep. 30. [al. 77.] Epitaph. Faτοπόνου.

biolæ. (t. 1. p. 455 e.) Ut ante diem 71 Vid. Socrat. 1. 7. c. 15. (v. 2. Paschæ in basilica quondam Latep. 361. 17.):.... Kai ék toù dippov rani, qui Cæsariano truncatus est έκβαλόντες, επί την εκκλησίαν ή επώ- gladio, staret in ordine penitentium. νυμον Καισάριον συνέλκουσιν αποδύ- --Speaking of Fabiola doing penσαντές τε την εσθήτα, οστράκοις ανεί

ance there. dov.-Liberat. Breviar. č. 18. (CC.




10. What has been observed of churches is equally true of When al.

tars first bealtars, that they were always dedicated to God alone, and not

gan to have to any other being whatever, even after they began to have a a particular particular consecration with some new ceremonies distinct from

tion with churches; which seems to have begun first of all in the sixth new cere

monies discentury. For the Council of Agde, anno 506, is the first pub-tinct from lic record that we meet with giving any account of a

distinct consecration of altars; and there we find the new ceremony of chrism 74 added to the sacerdotal benediction. And not long after we find a like decree in the Council of Epone 75, 517, 'that no altars, but such as were made of stone, should be consecrated with the infusion of chrism upon them ;' which implies, that at least some altars, if not all, had then the ceremony of chrism in their consecration. But as this ceremony was new, so was the consecration of altars, as distinct from churches, a new thing also; and much more the consecration of communion-cloths, and cups, and images, and crosses, and paschal tapers, and holy water, and beads, and bells, of which the reader may find a particular account in Hospinian 76, with all the new rites of consecrating churches in the Romish Rituals, which it is none of my business here further to pursue. 11. Concerning the ancient consecrations we have further to No church

to be built observe, that by the laws of Justinian 77 no man was to begin to build a church, before he had given security to the bishop crated be

fore it was of a maintenance for the ministry, and the repairs of the endowed. church, and whatever was otherwise necessary to uphold divine service in it. And by a rule of one of the Spanish Councils 78,

or conse


74 C. 14. (t.4. p. 1385 e.) Altaria crum ministerium, et ad incorrumplacuit non solum unctione christ pendæ domus custodiam, et obsermatis, sed etiam sacerdotali bene- vantium alimenta; et, si sufficienter dictione sacrari.

habere videtur, faciat prius donatio75 C. 26. (ibid. p. 1579 c.) Altaria nem eorum, quæ futura sunt depunisi lapidea infusione (al. unctione] tari; et ita domus ædificetur. chrismatis non sacrentur.

78 C. Bracar. 2. [al. 3.) c. 5. 76 De Templis, 1. 2. c. 2. (p. 373.) (t. 5. p. 897 d.) .... Unusquisque De Origine Dedicationum et Con- episcoporum meminerit, ut secrationum, &c.- Conf. ibid. cc. prius dedicet ecclesiam aut basili

cam nisi 378 Novel. 67. c. 2. (t. 5. p. 318.) Obsequium ipsius per donationem Deinde non aliter quempiam eccle- chartulæ confirmatum accipiat.— siam ex novo ædificare, priusquam Vid. C. Tolet. 3. c. 15. (ibid. p. loquatur ad Deo amabilem episco- 1012 d.) Si qui ex servis fiscalibus pum, et definiat mensuram, quam ecclesias fortasse construxerint, easdeputat, et ad luminaria, et ad sa- que de sua paupertate ditaverint,


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a bishop was not to consecrate a church before the donation of its maintenance was delivered to him in writing confirmed by law. Which were necessary rules to preserve churches from falling to ruin, and their ministry and service from con

tempt and disgrace. Yet bishops 12. But beyond this suitable provision and settlement for not to demand any

the service of the church, the bishop was not to exact or dething for mand any thing further of the founder ; but it being part of tion.

his ordinary office to consecrate churches, he was obliged to do it without requiring any reward for his service; unless the founder thought fit to make him any voluntary oblation, in which case he was at liberty to receive it. So it is determined in the foresaid Spanish Council of Bracara 79, and for the French churches in the second Council of Chalons so, and

others in the time of Charles the Great. Consecra. 13. As to the time of consecration, they did not anciently tions per confine themselves to perform it only upon Sundays, but all differently days were at first indifferent both for this and the ordinations upon any day.

of the clergy likewise. Which is an observation frequently made by the learned Pagi 87 in his critical remarks upon the chronology of the ancient Church. Particularly he observes, that Constantine's famous dedication of the church of Jerusalem in a full synod of bishops, anno 335, must needs have been upon a Saturday; for all writers agree that it was upon the Ides of September, that is, upon the 13th day of September, which according to the exact rules and method of the cycle must fall upon a Saturday that year. Whence Pagi rightly concludes, that the custom had not yet prevailed which confined consecration of churches to the Lord's-day.

hoc procuret episcopus prece sua chrisma accepturi dent. auctoritate regia confirmari.

81 Crit. in Baron, an. 335. n. 4. 79 Ibid. (p. 897 d.) Placuit ut quo- (t. 1. p. 431.) Initio Septembris, ut ties ab aliquo fidelium ad conse- minimum, Eusebius et reliqui epicrandas ecclesias episcopi invitan- scopi, Tyro relicta, Hierosolymam tur, non quasi ex debito munus ali- petierunt, quem die decima tertia quod a fundatore requirant; sed si Septembris basilicæ Hierosolymiipse quidem aliquid ex suo voto ob- tanæ encænia celebrarint.-Ibid. n. tulerit, non respuatur.

6. (p. 431.) Idus Septembris, seu 80 C. 16. (t. 7. p. 1275 e.) .... dies 13. illius mensis, concurrit hoc Omnes uno consensu statuimus, ut anno cum sabbato, ut methodus cysicut, pro dedicandis basilicis et clica docet. Quare nondum mos dandis ordinibus, nihil accipiendum invaluerat, ut ecclesiæ die dominica. est; ita etiam pro balsamo, sive lu- dedicarentur. minaribus emendis, nihil presbyteri


14. I have nothing further to remark upon this head, save the day of only that the day of consecration was in many churches

tion usually solemnly kept and observed among their anniversary festivals : celebrated for Sozomen 92 gives us this account of the dedication of the

among their

anniversary church of Jerusalem, ‘that in memory of it they held a yearly festivals. festival, which lasted for eight days together, during which time both they of the church, and all strangers, which flocked thither in abundance, held ecclesiastical assemblies, and met together for divine service. To this Gregory the Great seems to have added a new custom here in England, which was, that on the annual feast of the dedication the people might build themselves booths round about the church, and there feast and entertain themselves with eating and drinking, in lieu of their ancient sacrifices while they were Heathens. Which is related by Bede 83, out of Gregory's Letters to Austin, and to Mellitus, the first bishop of the Saxons. And from this custom it is more than probable came our wakes, which are still observed in some places, as the remains of those feasts of dedication of particular churches.

Of the respect and reverence which the primitive Christians

paid to their churches. 1. Next to their adorning and consecration of churches, it Churches

never put will be proper to examine what respect and reverence they

to any propaid to consecrated places, after they were once set apart for fane use,

but only divine service. They then used them only as the houses of sacred and God, for acts of devotion and religion, and did not allow of religious any thing to be done there that had not some tendency towards piety, or immediate relation to it. They might be used


82 L, 2. c. 26., (v. 2. p. 81. 30.) Ut die dedicationis vel natalitiis 'Εξ εκείνου δε ετήσιον ταύτην εορτήν sanctorum martyruin, quorum illic λαμπρώς μάλα άγει ή των Ιεροσολύ- reliquiae ponuntur, tabernacula sibi μων εκκλησία ως και μυήσεις εν αυτη circa easderm ecclesias, que ex fanis τελείσθαι, και οκτώ ημέρας εφεξής commutate sunt, de rarmis arborum εκκλησιάζειν" συνιέναι τε πολλούς faciant, et religiosis conviviis Soσχεδόν εκ πάσης της υφ' ήλιον, οι lemnitatem celebrent, nec Diabolo kad' iotopíay tớv iepôr TómWv táv- jam animalia immolent, et [al. sed] τοθεν συντρέχουσι κατά τον καιρόν ad lauderm Dei in esu suo animalia ταύτης της πανηγύρεως.

occidant, et Donatori omnium de 83 Hist. 1. 1. c. 30. (p. 71. 18.).. satietate sua gratias referant.

for religious assemblies, for the elections of the bishops and clergy, for the sitting of councils, for catechetic schools, for conferences and collations about religion; but not be put to the use of common houses, to eat, or drink, or lodge in : and therefore, though the law allowed men to take sanctuary in the church, as we shall see in the next chapter, yet it did not allow them to have their meat and lodging there.

When some abused the catechumenia, which I have shewed before 82 to be places within the church for men and women to hear divine service in, and turned them into rooms to lodge in, the Emperor Leo made a decree 93, that all such should be expelled from their habitations in the church. The case was different when men spent whole nights in the church in watching and prayer, as they did frequently both in their public and private vigils ; such pernoctations in the church were allowed, because they were but necessary circumstances of divine service. Only women were forbidden by the Council of Eliberis 84 to keep private vigils in the church, because many times, under pretence of prayer, secret wickedness was committed. And for the like reason their agapæ, or feasts of charity, which were originally an apostolical practice, and kept in the church, were afterwards prohibited, or at least discouraged, for the excess and consequent profaneness that attended them. The Council of Laodicea 85 peremptorily forbids them under that name of charity-feasts, and commands that no one should eat, or prepare beds or tables for that purpose, in the house of God.' And the third Council of Carthage 46 forbids all feasting in the church in general to the clergy, except in case of necessity, when they were upon a journey, and could not otherwise be

82 Ch. 5. 6. 7. of this Book, p. 73, και εν τω οίκω του θεού εσθίειν και preceding

ακούβιτα τρωννύειν. 83 [Novel. 73. (ad calc. t. 2. Corp. 86 C. 30. (t. 2. p. 1171 d.) Ut Jur. Civ. Amstel. 1663. p. 264.) nulli episcopi vel clerici in ecclesia TIepi toù undéva év tois twv ékkln- conviventur, nisi forte transeuntes σιων υπερώοις συνοίκειν γυναιξίν. See hospitiorum necessitate illic refcibefore, ch. 5. 6. 7. p. 73. n. 24. Ed.] antur. Populi etiam, quantum fieri

84 C. 35. (t. 1. p. 974 d.) Placuit potest, ab hujusmodi conviviis proprohiberi, ne fæminæ in cæmiterio hibeantur.- Vid. Cod. Afric. c. 42. pervigilent, eo quod sæpe sub ob- (ibid. p. 1070 d.) "Qote éTLOKÓTOUS tentu religionis scelera latenter com. ή κληρικούς εν τη εκκλησία μη συμmittant.

πoσιάζεσθαι· ει μηδ' αν τυχόν ανάγκη 85 C. 28. (ibid. p. 15οι b.) "Οτι ου ξενίας διαβάντες εκεί καταλύσωσι και δεί εν τοις κυριακοίς, ή εν ταις εκκλη- οι λαοί των τοιουτοτρόπων συμποσίων, σίαις, τας λεγομένας αγάπας ποιείν, όσον δυνατόν έστι, κωλυθώσιν.

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