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be profaned by heretical assemblies, where impiety would be taught for true religion, and blasphemy offered to God instead
of adoration. The cere
5. As to the ceremonies of respect used by them when they washing
entered into the church, we find one of pretty general obsertheir hands, vation, which was the custom of washing their hands and their when they went into face, in token of innocency and purity, when they went to church.
worship God at the holy altar. Which seems to be taken from that of the Psalmist, [26, 6,] “ I will wash my hands in innocency, and so will I compass thine altar.” This custom is frequently mentioned by Chrysostom, Eusebius, Tertullian, Synesius, Paulinus, and others, whose testimonies have been already alleged in the former part of this Book !, where I had also occasion to shew, that fountains and cisterns of water were commonly set in the atrium, or court before the church, for
this very purpose. The cere- 6. Another ceremony used by some few, for it was no putting off general custom, was putting off their shoes, when they went their shoes into the house of God. Cassian observes of the Egyptian used by some; but monks, that they always wore sandals instead of shoes, and this no
those they also put off whenever they went to celebrate or general
receive the holy mysteries 2, thinking themselves obliged to do so, by interpreting literally that intimation of reverence, which was given to Moses and Joshua, “ Put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.” But others did not understand this as an absolute command, obliging all men precisely to use this ceremony of respect, but only where the custom of any nation had made it an indication of reverence, as it was among the eastern nations in the time of Moses and Joshua. Whence we do not find it mentioned as any general custom prevailing among the primitive Christians : unless perhaps it may be thought to have been so in the Ethiopian or Abyssinian Churches; because, as Mr. Mede 3
i Ch. 3. s. 6. p. 56.
ad Jesum, filium Nave: Solve cor2 Instit. 1. 1. C. 10. (p. 12.) Nequa- rigiam calceamenti tui, locus enim, in quam tamen eas (caligas] pedibus quo stas, terra sancta est. inhærere permittunt, cum accedunt 3 Discourse on Eccles. 5, 1. (p. ad celebranda vel percipienda sacro- 348.) Prohibitum est apud nos ne sancta mysteria, illud æstimantes aut gentes aut canes aut alia bujusetiam secundum literam custodiri modi animalia in templa nostra indebere, quod dicitur ad Moysen vel trent. Ita non datur potestas nobis
has observed out of Zaga Zabo's account of them in Damianus à Goes, the same custom continues still among them at this day. Which whether it be derived from ancient tradition of their churches, or be a practice lately taken up among them, is not now very easy to be determined. 7. And I think the same resolution must be given to the Whether
the ancients question about bowing toward the altar at their first entrance
used the into churches. Mr. Mede thinks there is no plain demonstra- ceremony tion of it in the ancient writers, but some probability of such a toward the
of bowing custom derived from the Jews. For he says 4, · What reveren- altar at tial guise, ceremony, or worship they used at their ingress into trance into God's house in the ages next to the Apostles, and some I be- the church. lieve they did, is wholly buried in silence and oblivion. The Jews before them, from whom the Christian religion sprang, used to bow themselves down towards the mercy-seat. The Christians after them, in the Greek and Oriental Churches, have, time out of mind, and without any known beginning thereof, used to bow in like manner, with their posture toward the altar, or holy table, saying that of the publican in the Gospel, God be merciful to me a sinner! as appears by the Liturgies of St. Chrysostom and St. Basil, and as they are still known to do at this day. Which custom of theirs, not being found to have been ordained or established by any decree or canon of any Council, and being so agreeable to the use of God's people of the Old Testament, may therefore seem to have been derived to them from very remote and ancient tradition. Nothing, therefore, can be known of the use of those first ages of the Church, further than it shall seem probable
adeundi templum, nisi audis pedi- God commanded thein to eat with bus : neque licet nobis in ipso tem- their shoes on, and with their loins plo ridere, ambulare, aut de rebus girt, because of the pollution of the profanis loqui, &c. [Conf. Gedde's land. But they are like the Mount Ch. Hist. (p. 91.) It is likewise for- Sinai, where the Lord spoke to Mobidden among us to suffer heathens, ses, saying, “Moses, Moses, put off or dogs, or any other such creatures, thy shoes, for the ground whereon to come within our churches ; nei- thou treadest is holy.” Now this ther is it lawful for us to go into Mount Sinai was the mother of our them otherwise than barefoot; or to churches, from which they derive laugh, walk, or spit, or speak of their original, as the Apostles did secular things, in them. For the from the Prophets, and the New churches of Ethiopia are not like Testament from the Old. Grischov.] the land wherein the people of Israel
4 Discourse on Ps. 132, 7. (p. did eat the paschal lamb, as they 397.) were going out of Egypt, where
they might imitate the Jews.' This is spoken according to the wonted ingenuity of that learned person, who never advances a probability into a demonstration. I shall only add one thing out of Chrysostom, to make his opinion seem the more probable, which I note from the observation of Mr. Aubertin 5, who, among some other instances of reverence paid to God at the reading of the Gospel and reception of baptism, takes notice of this, that when the candidates of baptism came near the baptistery, which in Chrysostom's 6 language is the bridechamber of the Spirit and the port of grace,' they were then as captives to fall down before their king, and all to cast themselves together upon their knees. Now if such an act of reverence was performed to God at their entrance into the baptistery, it is not improbable but that some such reverence might also be used at their entrance into the temple. But in matters which have not a clear light and proof, it is not prudent to be
over-bold in our determinations. Kings laid 8. It is more certain, that when kings and emperors went aside their into the house of God, they paid this respect to the place, that guards, they left not only their arms and their guards, but also their when they went into crowns behind them; as thinking it indecent to appear in their the house
regalia in the presence of the King of kings, or to seem to of the King of kings. want arms and guards when they were under the peaceable
roof of the Prince of peace. St. Chrysostom 7 often spends his eloquence upon this custom, and uses it as an argument to persuade all inferiors to a profound reverence, humility, and
5 De Eucharist. 1. 2. (p. 432. ad óoû kai nobelvis kolvußnopas, ás calc. et p. 433.) Idem enim Chry- aixuálwto 7poo TéOTTE tớ Baoilei, sostomus feri debere observat in ρίψατε πάντες ομοίως επί γόνατα. auditione Verbi Dei : Rex ipse, in- [Grischovius gave up this passage quit, incurvat se propter Deum in as an erroneous citation : but I have Sanctis Evangeliis loquentem. Immo found it, as above, in the Benedicet in susceptione baptismi: Post- tine edition, under the title Oratio quam ad thalamum Spiritus perve- Catechetica in dicta Evangelii, &c., neritis, postquam ad porticum gra- as also in Hom. 110, according to tiæ accurreritis, ... et tanquam cap- Savil, t. 5. p.714. 30. Ed.] tivi procideritis coram Rege, omnes 7 Orat. post Redit. ab Exil. t. 4. similiter in genua vos projicite. p. 971. (t. 3. p. 428 c.) Βασιλεύς
6 Ιn illud, Simle est Regnum εισέρχεται και ρίπτει ασπίδα διά. Celor. &c. (t. 8. int. Spuria, p. 104 δημα: συ εισήλθες, και ρόπαλα ήρe.) 'Επειδάν δε καταλάβετε τον νυμ- πασας. Εκείνος και τα συνθήματα της φώνα του Πνεύματος, επειδάν είσδρά- βασιλείας έξω αφίησι συ τα συνθήμητε την παστάδα της χάριτος, επει- ματα του πολέμου ενταύθα εισήνεγκας. δαν πλησίον γένησθε της φοβεράς
peace, when they came into the courts of God, because they had such examples of their kings before them. The Emperor Theodosius Junior also makes use of the same topic in one of his laws 8, which was made to regulate the abuses of some, who fled for sanctuary in the church with their arms about them ; which profanation was not to be endured in any, since he himself always left his arms without doors, and first laid aside his diadem, the badge of imperial majesty, before he went into the ehurch. Nay, Julian himself had regard to this custom, as Sozomeno truly observes out of his Epistle to Arsacius, highpriest of Galatia, where one of the things he would have them imitate the Christians in, was this,—that when they went into
, the temples of their gods, no man of arms should appear among them. And I have already noted out of Leo Grammaticus 10, how Michael, the Greek emperor, in latter ages was censured for presuming to pass the beautiful or royal gates crowned, at which gates it had ever been customary for his predecessors to lay aside their crowns, when they went into the church. 9. Another very usual piece of respect paid to the altar The doors
and pillars and the church, was men's embracing, saluting, and kissing of the them, or any part of them, the doors, threshold, pillars, in church and token of their great love and affection for them. St. Ambrose kissed and takes notice of this in the account he gives of the great con- em
token of sternation they were in at Milan, when the Emperor's orders love and came for delivering up the churches to the Arians. The sol-respect to
them. diers were the men who first brought the welcome news into the church, that the Emperor had revoked his fatal sentence; and they strove who should first get to the altar and kiss it", to signify, that all things now were in peace and safety. He alludes, no doubt, to the osculum pacis, the solemn kiss of peace, which the faithful anciently were used to give mutually
8 Edict. Theod. ad calc. C. Ephes. "Orav els tå iepà poct@vi tøv de@v, (CC. t. 3. p. 1238 d.) Και γάρ ημείς, είσω των προθύρων ηγείσθω δε μη(. t. . d) , ούς αεί το δικαίω της ηγεμονίας πε- δείς αυτών είσω στρατιώτης" επέσθω ριστοιχίζει τα όπλα, και ούς ου πρέ- δε ο βουλόμενος. πει δίχα δορυφόρων είναι, τω του 10 See ch. 5. 8. 1. p. 64. n. 85. θεού ναώ προσιόντες, έξω τα όπλα 11 Ep. 33. [al. 20.] ad Marcellin. καταλιμπάνομεν, αποτιθέμενοι το διά- (t. 2. p. 859 c. n. 26.) Certatim hoc dnja.- Conf. ap. Cod. Theod. l. 9. nunciare milites, irruentes in altaria, tit. 45. leg. 4.
osculis significare pacis insigne. 9 L. 5. c. 16. (v. 2. p. 204. 37.)
to each other in the communion-service, as a testimony of their cordial love and affection for one another. And therefore it cannot be supposed that such salutations of the church or altar were intended as acts of religious worship, but only as civil indications of their love and respect for them. And by this rule we are to interpret all other places of ancient authors, which frequently speak of this custom, as Sidonius Apollinaris 12, Paulinus 13, Prudentius 14, Chrysostom 15, Athanasius 16, Cassiodore 17, and the author of the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy 18 under the name of Dionysius the Areopagite, and several others, who wrote before the superstitious adoration of images had gained any credit in the church : the like respect to this having been also shewed to the book of the Gospels, without
any suspicion of adoring the materials of it. Churches 10. I think it not improper also to observe under this head, used for
that churches were many times chosen as the properest places private meditation and for private devotion and prayer upon extraordinary occasions. prayer, as well as
Theodoret 19 observes of Theodosius the Emperor, 'that the public.
night before he was to engage Eugenius the Tyrant, was by him wholly spent in an oratory, which happened to be in the place where he had pitched his camp.' And in like manner both Athanasius 20 and Socrates 21, and the other historians,
12 L. 1. Ep. 5. (p. 28.) Triumpha- 499 b. sub fin.),... Ipocróvte libus Apostolorum liminibus affu- αγίω θυσιαστηρίω, και μετά φόβου
και χαράς ασπαζόμενοι. 13 Natal. 6. Felic. (p. 569.)
1^ Hist. Tripart. 1. 9. c. 30. (t. 1. Sternitur ante fores, et postibus os- P. 309.) Imperator [Theodosius], incula figit,
gredi limina præsumens, non stans Et lachrymis rigat omne solum, pro Domino supplicavit, neque genua limine sancto
flexit, sed, pronus in pavimento jaFusus humi.
cens, Davidicam proclamavit vo14 Peristeph. Hymn. 2. in Lau- cem, Adhæsit pavimento anima mea, rent. (v. J. p. 210.)
&c. Apostolorum ac martyrum
18 Eccles. Hierarch. c. 2. part. 2. Exosculantur limina.
n. 4. p. 252. (t. 1. p. 168 d.).... 15 Hom. 29. [corrige, Hom. 30.] Kai jetà toûto, Thv lepày đotagáuein 2 Cor. (t. 10. p. 650 d.) Tà toi- νος τράπεζαν, προς τον άνδρα παρόντα
πρόθυρα φιλούμεν του ναού, και πρόεισι, κ.τ.λ. Tņu eioodov. k. 7.1. [Conf. Hom. 26. 19 L. 5. c. 24. (v. 3. p. 227. 11.) in 2 Cor. (ibid. p. 625 b.) where he ... Ευρών οικίσκoν ευκτήριον εν τη speaks of the Emperor himself as του όρους ακρωνυχία, ενώ το στρατό
, kissing the tombs of the martyrs- πεδoν ήν, πάννυχος διετέλεσε τον των Και γάρ αυτός, και την αλουργίδα περι- όλων Δεσπότην αντιβολών. κείμενος, απέρχεται τα σήματα εκείνα 20 Ep. ad Serapion. p. 671. (t. 1. περιπτυξόμενος, κ. τ.λ. ED.]
part. I. p. 270 b. n. 3.) O Toivuv '16 Hom. Adv. eos, qui in homine éTIOKOTOS 'Alé&avòpos árovoas raïspem tgunt. t. 2. p. 304. (t. 2. p. τα, και πάνυ λυπηθείς, εισελθών εις