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dus, his chorepiscopus, and two hundred and fifty more of the clergy that were under him.' Such a number of clergy, and a chorepiscopus amongst them, seem to bespeak a pretty large diocese; and if the rest were answerable to this, we may con clude the bishops were all of the same species, as we have seen

in all the Eastern nations. Of the Im. 18. Theodorus Lector 10 speaks of another nation converted mireni in Persia, and

to Christianity in the time of Anastasius the Emperor, whom Homeritæ he names Immireni, and says, they were subjects of the Persian in Arabia Felix. empire, and dwelt in the most southern parts of their do

minions. Whether they had above one bishop is not certain ; for only one is mentioned as set over them upon their conversion. And it might be with them, as it was with some other barbarous people, Goths, Saracens, &c., that one bishop served the whole nation. Valesius 11 confounds this people with the Homeritæ, whom Bochart 12 and others more truly place in Arabia Felix toward the south sea. Baronius 13 supposes the Homerites first converted to the Christian faith about the year 354, at the same time that the Indians or Ethiopians were converted in the reign of Constantius. But we have no account then of what bishops were settled among them: but in the beginning of the sixth age, we find the Christian religion in a flourishing condition there, till one Dunaan, an apostate Jew, having gotten the kingdom, raised a great persecution against the Church, especially at Nargan, where one Arethas was a petty king, subject, as many other small reguli were, to the

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10 L. ii. (v. 3. p. 583. 22.) 'Iupipn- vero ad superstitionem Gentilium voi totiv čovos peloûv ÚTÒ IIépoase desciverunt, ut docet Philostorgius, οικούσι δε εν ταις εσχατιαϊς του νότου. 1. 3. Ηist. Ecclesiastice. Ιουδαίοι δε υπήρχον ανέκαθεν, 'Εκ της Geogr. Sacr. 1. 2. c. 15. (p. 98, é dotons apòs Solopârta Baolhidos 40-p.99.) Jam qui sint Homeritæ, του νότου εγένοντο εθνικοί. Οι αυτοί &c. Grischου.] δε επί Αναστασίου έχριστιάνισαν, και 13 An. 354. D. 14. (t. 3. p. 683 e.) επίσκοπον έλαβον.

Homeritæ, ad quos a Constantio 11 [In Theodor. Lect. I. c. (ibid. n. legatum missum esse Theophilum 5.) .... 'Iupepnvoi. Ego Homeritas ait [Nicephorus], jam ante accepeesse existimo. Omnia enim, quæ rant evangelium, nec non alii adja. Immirenis tribuit Theodorus, Ho- centes Indorum populi, prædicameritis plane conveniunt. Etenim tione primum Apostolorum, BarthoHomeritæ ad extremos fines habi- lomæi, Thomæ, ac Matthæi, qui Ætant oceani meridiani, et metropolim thiopibus prædicavit, deinde Panhabent Saba; cujus loci regina olim thạni, ac ‘novissime Frumentii et ad Salomonem visendum profecta Ædisii, qui sub Constantino Indis est. Præterea, origine sunt Judæi, evangelium annuntiarunt. orti ex Chettura Abrahæ. Postea

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kingdom of the Homerites, whom he barbarously destroyed, with all his people. But this cloud quickly blowing over by the assistance of Justin, the Roman emperor, and Elesban, king of Ethiopia, who conquered Dunaan 14, the government fell again into the hands of a Christian king; in whose time Gregentius, 'archbishop of Tephra,' the royal city, is said to have had that famous disputation with Herbanus, the Jew, the result of which was the conversion of an incredible number of Jews in that region. Here I chiefly observe that Gregentius is styled “archbishop of Tephra,' which implies, that he had suffragan bishops under him; and in the relation of his death, at the end 15 of the dispute, it is added, “that both bishops, priests, and deacons were gathered together to attend his funeral:' by which it appears, that the state of that Church, so far as we have any account of it, was conformable to other Churches.

19. We have some few intimations also given us of churches Of bishops planted anciently among the Saracens in Arabia, which were Saracens in

among the never under the Roman empire. Hilarion is said by some 16 Arabia. to have begun the conversion of this nation, but it was not completed till Mauvia, queen of the Saracens, made it a condition of her making peace with the Romans in the time of Valentinian, that they should send her one Moses, a famous monk, to be the bishop of her nation; which was accordingly done, and so he became the first bishop of that region of the Saracens, as Ruffin 17 and Socrates 18 and the other historians

14 Act. Mart. Homerit. ap. Baron. fidem : qui quidem nec ipsum Hiann. 522, 523. (t. 7. pp. 80 c, segq.) larionem abire passi sunt ante, quam Qui sequitur, &c.

futuræ ecclesiæ lineam mitteret. Qui 15 Disput. cum Herb. (ap. Bibl. ergo adeo magna ab Hilarione sunt Patr. Gr.-Lat. t. 1. p. 272 d. 7.) 'E- consequuti; eo defuncto, illi parem τάφη δε εν τω κοιμητηρίω της μεγά- quasierunt dari sibi hominem epiλης εκκλησίας, αθροισθέντων εκείσε scopum orthodoxum. At, quomodo επισκόπων, ιερέων, διακόνων, μοναζόν- res se habuerit, Ruffinum audiamus TWY PUplotAnwv étừ kndela aŭtoù, auctorem: Dum, inquit, Lucius, &c. modà Opnvoúvtwv kai ánodupouévov See n. 17, following. την στέρησιν αυτού.

17 L. 2. [al. 11.) c.6. (p. 246 a. 7.) 16 Baron. an. 372. n. 103. p. 344.

Quæ dum Lucius omni arro(t. 4. p. 348 d.) Jecerat jam ante gantia et sævitia ageret, Mauvia, fundamenta fidei apud Saracenos S. Saracenorum gentis regina, veheHilarion abbas, qui (ut testatur S. menti bello Palæstini et Arabici liHieronymus) multos Saracenorum mitis oppida atque urbes quatere, arreptos a dæmone frequenter libe- vicinasque simul vastare provincias ravit, cultuique Veneris addictæ cæpit. Cumque frequentibus bellis gentis illius sacerdotem convertit ad Romanum attrivisset exercitum, et,

inform us.

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Sozomen also adds, that one Zocomos, another regulus, or petty prince, of another region of the Saracens, being converted by a monk, brought over all his subjects to the Christian faith.' Theodorus Lector 19 likewise mentions another of these Saracen princes, named Alamundarus, who embraced the Faith in the reign of the Emperor Anastasius, anno 513. And Cyril of Scythopolis 20, who wrote the Lives of Euthymius and Sabas, takes notice also of a plantation of Saracens under the Roman government in Palestine, over whom one Peter, a converted Saracen, who had before been their captain, was made the first bishop by Juvenal, bishop of Jerusalem, about the middle of the fifth century. Now we are to observe, that as these Saracens were thus divided into little

plurimis peremptis, reliquos vertisset exilium trusi presbyteri, diaconi exin fugam, orata pace, non aliter se tra Christiani nominis habitacula reamplexuram promittit, nisi Moyses legati, bestiis alii, alii etiam ignibus quidam nomine, monachus, gentis traditi. Numquid potest verior esse suæ ordinaretur episcopus : qui in fides, quæ auribus capitur, quam que eremo, partibus suis propinqua, vi- oculis pervidetur? Apud me certum tam solitariam ducens; merito et est, quod, qui Christo recte credunt, virtutibus ac signis, quæ faciebatista non faciunt. Et ita Lucius maDeus per illum, magnifice innotu- jore dedecore deformatus (quoniam erat. Petitio ejus principi indicata perurgebat necessitas reipublicæ conRomano, sine ulla dilatione jubetur sulendi) compuisus est acquiescere, impleri a ducibus nostris, qui ibi in- ut ab episcopis, quos in exilium trufeliciter pugnaverant. Captus Moy- serat, sacerdotium sumeret. Quo ses, ad sacerdotium suscipiendum, suscepto, et gentis ferocissimæ paAlexandriam ex more deducitur. cem tenuit, et fidei Catholicæ cusAdest Lucius, cui ordinandi fereba- todivit intemerata consortia. tur officium. Quo viso, Moyses 18 L. 4. c. 36. tot. (v. 2. p. 257. præsentibus ducibus, qui perurge- 25.)-Conf. Sozom. 1. 6. c. 38. ab bant, et populis, ait : Ego quidem init. ad med. (ibid. p. 275. 1.), me non esse dignum tanto sacerdotio Theodoret. l. 4. c. 23. tot. (v. 3. p. judico : verum tamen si aliqua in me,

182. 1.) licet indigno, divina dispensatio pu- 19 L. 2. p. 564. (v. 3. p. 579. 32.) tatur explenda, Deum nostrum, cæli 'Alauovvôápov toù ovlápxou Eapaac terra Dominum testor, quod Lu- Knvwv Xplotiavicovtos, K.7.1. cius sanctorum sanguine pollutas et 20 Vit. Euthym. ap. Baron. an. cruentas super me non injiciet ma- 420. p. 481. (t. 5. p. 487 b.) Cum

Cumque Lucius tam gravi usque adeo multiplicarentur filii A. nota inustum se videret in oculis gar et ad veram traducerentur nobiplurimorum, Quare, inquit, o Moy- litatem, et in diversas excrescerent ses, tam facile condemnas eum, cujus copias ; mittit divinus Euthymius fidem ignoras ? Aut si tibi aliquis ad Juvenalem patriarcham Hierosode me aliter indicavit, audi fidem lymitanum, postulans, ut eis ordimeam et tibi ipse magis quam aliis naretur episcopus. Ille vero mittit crede. Tunc ille : Desine, inquit, ad eum Petrum, patrem Terebonis o Luci, dolosis tuis me quoque ima- ut qui esset idoneus præesse animaginibus aggredi. Bene mihi nota est bus et deducere ad salutem.... Pefides tua, quam protestantur servi trus ergo sic primus ordinatur epiDei per metalla damnati episcopi, in scopus, qui erat in Palæstina.

nus.

nations, after the manner of the Arabians, and had each their regulus, or petty prince : so they seem each to have had their proper bishop, one to a nation, and no more. And therefore in Councils we find them usually subscribing themselves rather by the title of their nation, Episcopus Gentis Saracenorum, than any other way; which I take to be an indication, not that all the Saracens in the world had but one bishop, but that every petty nation had a bishop of its own, though it is hard to distinguish sometimes which family or tribe of them is meant by that general title. In the second Council of Ephesus 21 one Auxilaus is styled Episcopus Saracenorum Faderatorum, among the bishops of Palestine, whence it is easy to conclude, that there the same Saracens are meant as Cyril speaks of, who were confederate with the Romans, or under the Roman government. But in other places we are left to guess what Saracens may be meant, since they were divided into several petty nations, and more than one nation of them, as we have seen, were converted to the Christian faith.

20. There is one Eastern country more, famous for its con- Bishops of version by Ædesius and Frumentius, in the time of Athanasius ; the Axu

mites, or but yet learned men are not agreed where to place it. The Indians be.

yond Egypt. ancient historians, Ruffin 22, Socrates 23, and the rest that relate the story, commonly call it India Ulterior, the Inner India : whence Carolus à Sancto Paulo 24, and Baronius 25,

25, and

many

21 Αp. Act. I. C. Chalced. (t. 4. νισμός έπλατύνετο τηνικαύτα γάρ Ινp. 117 e.).... Και Αυξιλάου Σαρακη- δων τε των ενδoτέρω και 'Ιβήρων τα νων των υποσπόνδων. [The citation έθνη, προς το Χριστιανίζειν ελάμβανε in the text is according to the ver- την αρχήν τίνος δε ένεκεν τη προσ. sion of Dionysius Exiguus.-Vid. θήκη των ενδoτέρω έχρησάμην, διά .-.

, Ed. Crabb. t. 1. p. 830. Ed.] βραχέων έρώ. Ηνίκα οι Απόστολοι

22 L. 1. [al. 10.] c. 9. (p. 224 b. κλήρω την εις τα έθνη πορείαν εποι18.) Metrodorus quidam philoso- oύντο, θωμάς μεν την Πάρθων απο)

, phus, inspiciendorum locorum et στολήν υπεδέχετο Ματθαίος δε την orbis perscrutandi gratia, ulteriorem Αιθιοπίαν Βαρθολομαίος δε εκληρουdicitur Indiam penetrasse. Cujus το την συνημμένην ταύτη Ινδίαν" την exemplo etiam invitatus Meropius, μέντοι ενδoτέρω 'Ινδίαν, ή προσοικεί quidarm Tyrius philosophus, simili βαρβάρων έθνη πολλά, διαφόρους χρώ,

, ex causa adire Indiam voluit, ha- μενα γλώσσαις, ουδέπω προ των Κωνbens secum duos puerulos, quos σταντίνου χρόνων και του Χριστιανισliberalibus literis utpote propinquos μου λόγος έφώτιζε, κ. τ.λ. instituebat. Quorum unus, qui erat 24 Geogr. Sacr. [1.8. n. 8. ]p. 268. junior, Edesius, alter Frumentius (p. 258.) Quod autem ad Indiam, vocabatur, &c.

scilicet interiorem, pertinet, nam ex23 L. 1. c. 19. (v. 2. p. 49. 31.)

teriorem Antiocheno paruisse cerΑυθις ούν μνημονευτέον και όπως επί tum est, &c. των καιρών του βασιλέως ο Χριστια- 25 Not. ad Martyrol. Rom. die 27.

others, take it for granted that they mean India within the Ganges, the other part, without the Ganges, having been converted before, as they think, by the Apostle St. Bartholomew. But Holstenius 26 and Valesius 27 correct this mistake, and Bp. Pearson 28 has more fully proved, that the India they speak of was no part of the East Indies, but India beyond Egypt, which was part of Ethiopia, whereof Axumis was the metropolis. This lay not far from the mouth of the Red Sea, over against the country of the Homerites, in Arabia ; whence Constantius, in one of his laws 29, joins these two nations together : from

Octobr., Ad verba, Apud Indos Indiam eam fuisse Ægypto proxisancti Frumentii episcopi. (p. 418.) miorem et Æthiopiæ partem. Indi Vixit iisdem temporibus alius Fru- enim Æthiopes anti quitus appellamentius, episcopus Auxumeos in bantur, ut apud Virgilium de Nilo: Ægypto, ordinatus a S. Athanasio, Usque coloratis amnis devexus ab confessione clarus : multa enim pas- Indis. sus est ab Arianis ob tuendam Ca- Ad hanc autem Indiam Frumentholicam fidem.

tium primo pervenisse constat: ex 26 Not. in Car. a S. Paul. Geogr. illa Alexandriam rediit, in eamdem Sacr. p. 171. (ap. Oper. Car. a S. P. rursus etiam missus est, et ab Athap. 258. n. 2.) Fallitur, fallitque in nasio ordinatus episcopus Axumeos. hujus Indiæ nomine et situ expli- Erat autem Axumis Æthiopum mecando, sicuti etiam Baronius ad tropolis. Stephanus de Urbibus : Martyrologium Romanum, die 27. 'Αξουμίτης, αρσενικώς, μητρόπολις Octobris. Nam India illa, in quam Aidiór wv. Apud Arrianum in PeFrumentius missus fuit a S. Atha- riplo Maris Erythræi, quod Proconasio, est Æthiopia sub Ægypto, pio Gazensi θάλασσα Ινδική vocacujus metropolis celeberrima fuit tur : 'Από δε ταύτης εις αυτήν την Axumis, et sic Indiaim illam Ethio- μητρόπολιν, τον 'Αξωμίτην λεγόμενον, piæ finitimam vocat Socrates, quæ άλλων ημερών πέντε. Νonnosus atoto cælo ab Asiatica, sive Gange- pud Photium: “Η δε "Αξουμα πόλις tica distat.

εστί μεγίστη, και οίον μητρόπολις της 27 Not. in Socrat. 1. 1. c. 19. (v. 2. όλης Αιθιοπίας. Εt clarius adhuc Prop. 51. n. 2.)... Baronius, in annota- copius, Persicorum l. 1. c. 19. (t. 1. tionibus ad Martyrologium Roma- p. 58 b. 5.): “Ομηριτών δε κα

καταντικρύ num, Frumentium hunc Auxumis μάλιστα εν τη αντιπέρας ηπείρω Αίepiscopum distinguendum esse du- θίοπες οικουσιν, οι Αύξωμείται επικαcit ab altero Frumentio Indorum λούνται, ότι δε αυτοίς τα βασίλειά episcopo; de quo Ruffinus et So- cori év autóuide Tródet. Erat igitur crates loquuntur. Ego vero unum Axumis metropolis Æthiopiæ, et in eumdemque Frumentium esse con- ea Æthiopum regia posita fuit. Ad tendo, eum, qui Auxumis, et eum hanc igitur Axumim, et hanc Inqui Indorum episcopus dicitur. Au- diam, quæ pars est Æthiopiæ Æxumis enim metropolis est Æthio- gypto proxima; non ad Indiam inpiæ. Æthiopes autem ab antiquis tra Gangem, aut ad Axumim illam, confundi solent cum Indis, &c. quam ad latus orientale Indi fluvii

28 Vindic. Ignat. part. 1. c. !I. constituit Ptolemæus, Frumentium (Cotel. v. 2. p. 332.) Etsi enim missum fuisse a S. Athanasio creRuffinus (See 11. 22, preceding.] dendum est, &c. ita historiam pertexat, quasi in In- 29 Cod. Theod. I. 12. tit. 12. leg. diam ulteriorem et Orientalem Fru- 2. (t. 4. p. 582.) Nullus ad gentem mentius perrexisset; constat tamen Auxumitarum et Homeritas ire præ

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