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which, and many other authorities, Bp. Pearson unanswerably proves, that this India can be understood of no other but the Ethiopic India, whereof Axumis was the metropolis. This the Ancients called India as well as the other: for Virgil says the Nile 30 • flowed from the Blackamoor Indians,' and Procopius Gazensis styles the Red Sea the Indian Sea :1, because it bordered upon this India beyond Egypt. Now, in this country, Frumentius was the first bishop that we read of, being ordained bishop of Axumis by Athanasius and a synod of Egyptian bishops, and sent thither to convert the country, and settle churches among them; which, therefore, we need not doubt were of the same species with those in Egypt and the rest of the world. For Axumis was not the only place that had a bishop; for Palladius 32 mentions one Moses, bishop of Adulis, which was another city of Ethiopia : and, in his Life of St. Chrysostom 33, he also speaks of one of his own name, Palladius, bishop of the Blemyes, which were a people of Ethiopia, adjoining to Egypt, as Strabo 34, and Pliny 35, and other geo

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, graphers inform us. Bp. Pearson gives some other proofs, out of Cedrenus and the Arabic canons of the Nicene Council, and their ancient Liturgies, that they had bishops in that country ever since this their first conversion. But nothing more particular occurring concerning their dioceses, for want of better light, we can give no further account of them.

For the same reason, I must omit several other Eastern nations, as the Parthians, and Indians about Ganges, which were con

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ceptus, ultra annui temporis spatia σα της Ινδικής προς ετών ολίγων debet Alexandriæ de cætero com- petà μακαρίου Μωϋσέως του επιmorari.

σκόπου των 'Aδουληνών. 30 As cited in n. 28, preceding. 33 C. 20. p. 194. (Oper. Chrysost.

31 See n. 28, preceding, and Pro- t. 13. p. 77 b.) saládiov dè Bleucopius, de Bell. Persic. 1. 1. c. 19. μύων, ή Αιθιόπων, εκ γειτόνων φρου(t. Ι. p. 57 a. 7.) Αύτη δε η θάλασσα ρείσθαι Συήνη καλούμενος το χωρίον. έξ "Ινδων αρχομένη, κ. τ.λ.-Conf. 34 [L. 17. p.786. (t. 2. p. 1134 c. 1.) ibid. (p. 58 c. 12.) Πλοία μέντοι όσα Τα δε κατωτέρω εκατέρωθεν Μερόης, έν τε Ινδούς και εν ταύτη τη θαλάσση παρά μεν τον Νείλον προς την Ερυέστιν, κ.τ.λ. [The version in this θράν, Μαγάβαροι, και Βλέμμυες, Αίplace has, In hoc autem atque In- θιόπων υπακούοντες, Αίγυπτίοις δ' οdico mari, &c., but I do not find the mópou. express term 'Ινδική θάλασσα ap- 35 L. 5. c. 8. (p. 69. 11.) Horum plied to the Red Sea. Ed.] oppidum Mavin quidam solitudini

32 De Gent. Ind. [Lond. 1665. bus imposuerunt. Atlantas juxta fol. p. 2.] (as cited by Pearson, Vind. eos, Ægipanas semiferos, et BlemIgnat. p. 332 ; see n. 28, preceding,) myas, &c. Grischov.] 'Εγώ δε εις τα ακρωτήρια μόνον έφθα

verted' by St. Thomas the Apostle; and the Iberians and other nations lying upon the Caspian Sea, which Ruffin 36 says were converted first by a captive woman, in the time of Constantine. Ancient history affords us but slender accounts of the original of these Churches, and less of the constitution and settlement of them. So that, taking our leave of these far distant regions, we will comė next to a part of the world which is better known, which is the patriarchate of Constantinople, under which were anciently comprehended all the provinces of Thrace and Asia Minor, except Isauria and Cilicia, which always belonged to the patriarch of Antioch. I shall first speak of Asia Minor, and then proceed to the European provinces, taking each country as they lie in their natural order.

CHAP. III.
A continuation of this account of the provinces of Asia

Minor.
Of the ex-

1. To understand the state of diocesan churches in Asia tent of Asia Minor, it will be proper, before we descend to particulars, to the number examine the extent of the country in gross, and see how many of dioceses dioceses are to be found in the whole : for by this we may contained therein. make an estimate of them in general, allowing each diocese its

proportion, upon an equal distribution of the country into so many parts as there were dioceses in it. Not that they were really so equally divided ; for, in summing up the particulars, we shall find here were some of the largest and some of the smallest dioceses in the world. But we may conceive them as equal, in order to make a division of the whole country at once

among them.

Now Dr. Heylin, in his Geography 37, reckons the length of Asia Minor, from the Hellespont to the river Euphrates, to be

36 L. 1. [al. 10.] c. 10. (p. 226 a. 5.) giles exhiberet, in admiratione esse Per idem tempus Iberorum gens. ipsa rei novitas barbaris cæpit, et quæ sub axe Pontico jacet, verbi quid hoc sibi velit curiosius perDei fædera et fidem futuri susce- quirebant. Illa, ut res erat, simperat regni. Sed hujus tanti boni pliciter Christum se Deum hóc ritu præstitit causam mulier quædam colere fatebatur, &c. captiva, quæ apud eos reperta, cum 37 Cosmograph. b. 3. (p. 3.) So fidelem et sobriam satis ac pudicam having cleared our way in regard of duceret vitam, totisque diebus et the name, &c. noctibus obsecrationes Deo pervi

630 miles, and the breadth, from Sinus Issicus in Cilicia, to [Trapezus, or] Trebizond in Pontus, to be 210 miles. The ancient geographers, Strabo 38 and Pliny 39, make it almost 200 miles more in length. But then their accounts are taken from some ancient Periplus, or Sea-Voyage, which never proceeds in a direct line, but takes in the bendings and windings of the sea, which may easily stretch from 600 to 800 miles : so that the accounts may be the same, when allowance is made for the excesses of one way

of measuring above the other. As to the breadth, Pliny's account is rather less: for he 40 makes it but barely 200 miles from Sinus Issicus to the Euxine sea. But then he

says, this was the narrowest part of it, where the two seas almost made it a peninsula. And it is certain in other parts it was much broader : for Strabo 41 reckons the breadth of Cappadocia only, from Pontus to Mount Taurus, 1800 stadia, which is above 200 miles : and yet Casaubon 12 supposes, that

: by Pontus he does not mean the Pontus Euxinus, but the province of Pontus, which was to be added to the breadth of Asia, on one side of Cappadocia, as Cilicia was on the other. So that we can hardly suppose the breadth of Asia, taking one part with another, to be less than 300 miles. Now this was

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38 L. 12. pp. 547, 548. (t. 2. P: 40 L. 6. c.2. (ibid. 24.) Ejusdem824 c. 12.) Οι σύμπαντες από του que nominis sinus tanti recessus, ut ιερού μέχρι Φάσιδος περί οκτακισχι- Asiam pene insulam faciat 200. m. λίους σταδίους εισίν, ή μικρό πλείους passuum haud amplius per contiή ελάττους.

nentem ad Issicum Ciliciæ Sinum. [Hæc 8 millia stadiorum ita col- 41 L. 12. p. 539. (t. 2. p. 813 d. 2.) liguntur ex Strabonis descriptione: Μέγεθος δε της χώρας κατά πλάτος A Fano Sinopen usque,stad. 3500 μεν, το από του Πόντου προς τον A Sinope Amisum, stad...

900 Ταυρον, όσον χίλιοι και οκτακόσιοι Inde Trapezuntem, stad...

στάδιοι. Trapezunte ad Phasin, stad. 1400 42 In loc. supr. citat. (ibid. 3.)

Falsum hoc: nam libro secundo, Summa 8000 p. 73, docuit nos, Bagadoniam, par

tem Cappadocia inter Argæum et

Grischov.] Taurum, distare a Ponto stadia 3000. 39 L. 6. c. 2. (p. 82. 18.) Mons Putabam legendum, ogov dioxiacou Cytorus a Tio 63. m. pass. . Promon- kai ókt. orað. Verum auctor Epitorium Carambis vasto excursu, abest tomes retinet vulgatam lectionem: a Ponti ostio 315.m. pass. vel, ut aliis quam si probamus, non erunt illa placuit, 350. m. Tantumdem a Cim- verba årò lóvrov, de ipso Ponto et merio, aut ut aliqui maluere 312. mari Euxino intelligenda, sed de reM.D. Fuit et oppidum eodem no- gione Ponto, quam separant a relimine, et aliud inde Armene, nunc qua Cappadocia montes Tauro paest, colonia Sinope, a Cytoro 164. m. ralleli. Sic non erit discedendum a ... Amisum liberum, a Sinope 130. vulgata lectione. m. passuum.

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divided by the Romans into two large civil dioceses, the Asiatic and the Pontic, each of which had ten or eleven provinces in them, and every province several cities and episcopal dioceses, beside those of Isauria and Cilicia, which are reckoned to the Oriental diocese, and were under the patriarch of Antioch. Christophorson, in his translation of Theodoret 43, makes a strange mistake concerning these bishoprics ; for, whereas Theodoret +4 says, that Asia, or the Asiatic diocese, was útò évòeka åpxóvtwr, under eleven civil prefects, he translates it undecim antistites; as if there had been but eleven bishops in all the Asiatic diocese, and only as many in the Pontic diocese; because Theodoret says, it had ίσαρίθμους ηγουμένους, the same number of governors : whereas Theodoret is not speaking of ecclesiastical governors, but civil governors of provinces, whereof there was the number Theodoret speaks of in each of those dioceses. But bishoprics were abundantly more numerous ; for some single provinces had above forty; and, in the whole number, they were, according to Carolus à Sancto Paulo's reckoning, 388, viz. in Asia, 42; Hellespont, 19; Phrygia Pacatiana Prima, 29; Pacatiana Altera, 5; Phrygia Salutaris, 20; Lydia, 24; Caria, 25; Lycia, 28; Pamphylia Prima, 12 ; Pamphylia Secunda, 24; Pisidia, 19; Lycaonia, 19; Cappadocia Prima, 6; Cappadocia Secunda, 6; Cappadocia Tertia, 5; Armenia Prima, 5; Armenia Secunda, 10; Galatia Prima, 7; Galatia Secunda, 4; Pontus Polemoniacus, 6; Hellenopontus, 6; Paphlagonia, 5; Honorias, 5; Bithynia Prima, 14; Bithynia Secunda, 4; Cilicia Prima, 7; Cilicia Secunda, 9; Isauria, 23. In the latter Notitia, which the reader will find at the end of this Book, the number is a little increased to 403 ; for though some provinces decreased, yet others increased in their numbers : so that, in the eighth century, we find fifteen dioceses more than were in former ages, which is no great alteration in such a multitude, considering what great additions have been made in some other countries in comparison of

43 [Colon. Agripp. 157ο. (p. 716.) ηγεμονίας διήρηται· και της Ασίας

Et cunctæ etiam Asiæ, quæ un- όλης, υπό ένδεκα δε και αύτη αρχόνdecim habet antistites. Ed.] των, ιθύνεται και μέντοι και την Πον

44 L. 5. c. 28. (ν. 3. p. 230. 16.) τικήν τούτοις κατεκόσμει τους νόμους Και ταύτην εποιείτο την προμήθειαν, ίσαρίθμους δε και αύτη έχει της Ασίας ου μόνης εκείνης της πόλεως, αλλά και τους ηγουμένους. της Θράκης απάσης" εις εξ δε αύτη

this. Now then, supposing 400 dioceses to have been in a country 600 miles in length, and 300 in breadth, let us examine how much, upon an equal distribution, will fall to every diocese. And it appears, upon an exact computation, that, supposing there had been 450 dioceses, there would have been twenty miles to each diocese; and, consequently, there being not so many by fifty, every diocese must have so much the more, upon an equal distribution. But then it must be owned, that the distribution was generally unequal in this country; for the bishoprics of the Pontic provinces were, for the most part, very large, and those of the Asiatic provinces consequently the smaller

upon that account, and abundantly more numerous : so that here the reader may view the largest and smallest dioceses in the world together, and yet the same species of episcopacy maintained in all, without distinction.

2. To begin with the Pontic provinces. Cappadocia was a of Cappavery large country, and had but few bishoprics. Strabo 4: docia and reckons it 3000 stadia in length, that is, 375 miles. But then Minor. he takes it in a larger sense than we do now, as including all from the provinces of Lycaonia and Phrygia to the Euphrates, which takes in Armenia Minor as well as Cappadocia ; for anciently they were all one kingdom, though afterwards divided into five provinces, three Cappadocias, and Armenia Prima and Secunda. But, now, in all these five provinces there were not thirty dioceses at first, and some of those were newly erected in the fourth century, as Sasima, where Gregory Nazianzen was made bishop, which before belonged either to Cæsarea, the metropolis of Cappadocia Prima, from which it was 100 miles distant; or to Tyana, the metropolis of Cappadocia Secunda, from which it lay thirty-two miles, as Ferrarius 16 computes. This shows that these dioceses were of great extent: but we have still more certain evidence of the thing ;

45 L. 12. p. 539. (t. 2. p. 813 d. 2.) 2. p. 164.) Sasima, Sasum, teste Μέγεθος δε της χώρας Καππαδοκίας Leunclavio, urbs Cappadocia epiκατά πλάτος μεν, το από του Πόντου scopalis sub archiepiscopo Cesariπρος τον Ταύρον, όσον χίλιοι και οκ- ensi, inter Cesarearm ad arctos, et TAKÓOLOL otáðloi uskos dè útrò rñs Tyana ad meridiem, 32. mill. pass. Λυκαονίας και Φρυγίας, μέχρι Ευφρά- ultra Ancyrarm in ortum supra 200. του προς την έω και την Αρμενίαν, Cujus urbis divus Gregorius Naziπερί τρισχιλίους.

anzenus episcopus fuit. 46 Lexic. Geogr. voce Sasima. (t.

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