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dred miles from sea. Zela was as far from Amasea. So that without all doubt these were dioceses of the largest size, since the cities lay so remote from one another.

5. Next to Hellenopontus on the sea-coast lay the province of Paphlaof Paphlagonia, in which Carolus à Sancto Paulo reckons five gonia and

Galatia. bishoprics ; Gangra, the metropolis, Sora, Junopolis, Pompeiopolis, and Amastris. To which Holstenius has added Dadibra (or Dadyra), whose bishop Polychronius subscribed in the Council of Chalcedon 70 by Peter, the metropolitan of Gangra. In the following ages the number decreased; for there is no mention of Pompeiopolis or Amastris in the later Notitia of the Church. Among these, Gangra is noted by St. Basil 71 as a place that had several churches and altars in it. Amastris was a large city, which grew out of four others adjoining to it, Sesamus, Cytorus, Cromna, and Teius, as Ferrarius 72 observes, who makes it to be sixty-eight miles from Heraclea, in the next province of Honorias. And all the rest seem to have been at as great distances from each other.

On the south of Paphlagonia lay Galatia, an inland country, having Cappadocia on the east, and Phrygia on the west. This by the Romans was divided into two provinces, Galatia Prima, and Secunda, or Salutaris. In the first there were seven bishoprics; Ancyra, the metropolis, Tabia, Heliopolis or Juliopolis73, Aspona, Cinna, Berinopolis, and Anastasiopolis. The last of which seems to be erected in the latter end of the seventh century only; for there is no mention of it till the sixth general Council of Constantinople, anno 681. The Greek Notitiæ add but one more, Mizzi, retaining all the other old names ; which shews that little alteration was made in this province for the space of eight ages in the Church. The other Galatia had

70 Act. 6. (t. 4. p. 591 c.) Πέτρος, παρ' εαυτών εγκαθιστώσι πρεσβυτέεπίσκοπος της μητροπόλεως Γαγγρών, ρους και διακόνους και ορίσας υπέγραψα υπέρ Πολυχρονίου 72 Lexic. Geogr. voce, Amastris. επισκόπου Δαδύρων.

(t. 1. p. 32.) Amastris, urbs Paph71 Ep. 73. [al. 226.] ad Monach. lagoniæ in ora maris Euxini, me(t. 3. part. 2. p. 502 a. n. 2.) Ei óp- trop. quæ et Amastrum. Ex quaθόδοξος νυν Βασιλείδης και κοινωνικός tuor urbibus seu pagis proximis, 'Ekdikiou, dia åtrò this Aapdavías Sesamo, Cytoro, Cromna, et Teio, έπανιόντες τα θυσιαστήρια εκείνου έν magnam crevit in urbem ; media xópą Tayyanvar karéotpedov, fere inter Teium et Cytorum, Cromκαι εαυτών τραπέζας έτίθεσαν και διά næ propior, ab Heraclea Ponti ad τι, και μέχρι νύν, επέρχονται ταϊς εκ- 68. mill. pass. in ortum distans. κλήσίαις της 'Αμασίας και Ζήλων, και 73 (Orlliupolis. See Holstein. Ed.]

originally but four dioceses ; Pessinus, Orcistus, Petenessus, and Trochmada or Trochmi. But the number was doubled in afterages, as appears from the Notitia at the end of this Book, which adds Eudoxias, Mericium, and Therma, or Germocolonia, and Justinianopolis, otherwise called Spalea. Now Galatia was a large country, and the dioceses, even when these four last mentioned were added, were still of great extent; for Baudrand 73 observes, that Pessinus was fifty miles from Ancyra and thirty from Therma, by which we may guess at the distance of other places. Carolus à Sancto Paulo places Cinna pretty near Ancyra; but Baudrand 7+ removes it to the southern borders of Galatia nearer Synada in Phrygia. And Ferrarius 75 computes Aspona to be sixty-four miles from Ancyra eastward. Berinopolis and Juliopolis seem to have been almost as much to the west. Which leaves room for the territory of Ancyra to be sufficiently large, though I find no particular account given of it, nor of some other places in these two provinces of Galatia.

6. Next to Paphlagonia on the sea-coast lay the province of Honorias, or Pontus Honorii, so called by Theodosius, the Emperor, in honour of his son Honorius. This was divided from Bithynia by the river Sangarius, and from Paphlagonia by the river Parthenius. Here were anciently five bishoprics, and the later Notitiæ have but six, Claudiopolis, Heraclea, Prusias, Tium, Cratea, Adrianopolis, which last is not to be met with in the Subscriptions of any ancient Council. Of these Tium and Heraclea lay upon the Euxine Sea, thirty-eight miles distant from each other, as Pliny 76 informs us, Claudiopolis was at as great distance from them in the middle of the province; Baudrand 77 says it was above thirty miles from

Of Honorias.

73 Ap. Ferrar. ibid. voce, Pessinus. sub archiepisc. Ancyrano, inde 64.m. (t. 2. p. 51.) Pessinus urbs erat pass. in ort. Parnassum et ArcheGalatiæ, ad affluentes Galli Auvii laidem urbem Cappadociæ versus. in Sangarium. Vix 50. mill. pass. ab Ep.] Ancyra in meridiem distat uti 30. a 76 L. 6. c.1. (p. 82.13.) Oppidum Therma, teste Philippo de la Rue. Tium, ab Heraclea 38. m. pass.

74 Ibid. voce, Cinna. (t. 1. p. 196.) 77 Ap. Ferrar. ut supr. voce, ClaudioCinna, urbs Galatiæ meridionalis, polis. (t. 1. p. 200.) Claudiopolis urbs prope Ascanium lacum et in limite fuit Ponti, ad Elatam fluvium.... Phrygiæ, longe ab Ancyra in aus Longe distat a Sangario fluvio in trum, Synnadæ propior, in Asia ort. ; 30. autem milliaribus ab ora Minori.

Ponti Euxini et paullo amplius ab 75 [Voce, Aspona. (ibid. 79.) As- Heraclea Ponti in Austrum. pona urbs fuit Galatiæ episcopalis,

Prima and
Secunda.

Heraclea. So that we may judge of Cratea, otherwise called Flaviopolis, and of Prusias, by what we have discovered of the former. All these cities are sometimes reckoned to Bithynia, because Honorias was anciently part of Bithynia, till Theodosius made a distinct province of it.

7. But after the separation was made, Bithynia was again of Bithynia divided into two provinces. In the first of which Carolus à Sancto Paulo reckons fourteen dioceses; 1. Nicomedia, the metropolis. 2. Chalcedon. 3. Prusa ad Olympum. 4. Prænetum. 5. Helenopolis. 6. Basilinopolis. 7. Apollonias. 8. Hadriana. 9. Cæsarea, ór Smyrdiana. 10. Arista. 11. Patavium. 12. Dablis. 13. Neocæsarea. 14. Cius. In the other Bithynia only four; Nicæa, where the famous Council of Nice was held, the metropolis of this province, Apamea, Linoe, Gordus. And the later Notitia of Leo Sapiens makes but one more in both provinces, though some new names of places are inserted. Among these I observe the city of Nice had a large diocese; for several regions belonging to it are mentioned in the Council of Chalcedon 78, in a famous dispute between the two metropolitans of Nicomedia and Nice, both laying claim to the diocese of Basilinopolis, as one of their suffragans. Anastasius, bishop of Nice, pleaded, “that Basilinopolis was once but a region belonging to Nice, as Tacteus and Doris then were, till Julian or some other Emperor made it a city, setting up a curia, or civil magistracy therein, upon which it became also a bishop's see, according to the known rule and practice of the Church. So that the diocese of Nice

' was once so large, as to have another diocese taken out of it, and yet there remained several regions belonging to it. The like may be collected from its distance from other places. Pliny 79 says, it was twenty-five miles from Prusa ; and Fer

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78 Act. 13. ap. Crabb. t. Ι. p. 918. λείψη εν Βασιλινουπόλει πραγμαSicut Tacteus et Doris regiones sunt τευόμενος, από Νικαίας πέμπεται εκεί sub Nicea, εic fuit ante hoc Basili- και πάλιν από Βασιλινουπόλεως μεnopolis sub Nicea, &c. (ap. Labb. θίσταται εν Νικαία και η πρότερον t. 4. p. 71ο e.) "Ωσπερ Ταττάϊος ούσα ρεγεών πάλιν μετά ταύτα εγένετο και Δωρίς ρεγεωνές εισιν υπό την πόλις. 'Εξ εκείνου φαίνεται ο Νικαίας Νίκαιαν, ούτως ήν προ τούτου και επίσκοπος χειροτονήσας εκεί και άπαξ Βασιλινούπολις υπό την Νίκαιαν. Βα- και δεύτερον. σιλεύς τις Ιουλιανός, ή ουκ οίδα τίς 79 L. 5. c. 32. (p. 81. 10.) Nunc πρό αυτού, εποίησεν αυτήν πόλιν και reliqua in ora, a Cio intus in Bithyλαβών από Νικαίας πραγματευομέ- nia Prusa, ab Annibale sub Olympo νους, κατέστησεν εκεί. Και το έθος condita : inde Niceam 25. m. pass. από τότε έως νυν τουτο κρατεί εάν interveniente Ascanio lacu.

rarius reckons forty-four miles from Nicomedia, but sets
Helenopolis, or Drepanum, in the middle way between them.
Basilinopolis, by mistake, is set by Carolus à Sancto Paulo at
a greater distance from it, between Nicomedia and Chalcedon;
but it must be nearer, having been once a part of its diocese,
as was observed before. For other places I find little account
of them in particular, save only that Strabo makes it 300
furlongs, or thirty-seven miles from Nicomedia to the mouth
of the river Sangarius, whereabout Cius stood, and Ferrarius so
computes sixty from Nicomedia to Chalcedon; in all which
tract there were but these three dioceses, and one more called
Prænetum : so that if we had a particular account of Nico-
media and Chalcedon, we might perhaps find them to have
had dioceses of as great extent as any other. But Apamea and
Prusias, Baudrand 51 says, were but nine miles distant from
one another. For these lay in the southern parts of Bithynia,
and were some of the last in the Pontic civil diocese toward
the Asiatic diocese, where, as I observed before, the cities
were more numerous and thicker set together, and con-
sequently the episcopal dioceses were generally less than in
the other provinces, as will appear by taking a distinct view of

them in order as they lay.
Provinces 8. In the Asiatic diocese, the first province next adjoining
in the Asia-
tic diocese. to Bithynia was Hellespontus, so called from the straits of the
Hellespon- sea named Hellespont, which was its western border. It was

anciently part of Mysia and Phrygia Minor, bordering on
Phrygia Major eastward, and Asia to the south. In this
province Carolus à Sancto Paulo has observed nineteen dio-
ceses in the ancient Councils. 1. Cyzicus, the metropolis.
2. Germa. 3. Pemanium. 4. Occa. 5. Bares. 6. Adri-
anotheræ. 7. Lampsacus. 8. Abydus. 9. Dardanum. 10.
Ilium. 11. Troas. 12. Melitopolis. 13. Adriana. 14. Scep-
sis. 15. Pionia. 16. Præconnesus. 17. Ceramus. 18. Pa-

tus.

80 Ubi supr. voce, Nicæa. (t. 1. p. sub archiepiscopo Nicomediensi,
519.) Nicæa .... inter Nicomediam media fere inter Nicomediam ad
ad boream 44. et Prusam in eurum boream et Nicænam ad meridiem.
25. mill. pass. dissita.-Conf. ad 81 Ap. Ferrar. ut supr. voce, Apa-
voc. Drepanum. (p. 254.) Drepa- mea. (t. 1. p. 49.) Apamea Bithyniæ
num, urbs .... in Bithynia, ad si- sedet prope Cianum sinum 9. mill.
num Astacenum, postea Helenopo- pass. a Prusa in Africam, et 50. a
lis, in honorem Helenæ, Constantini Cyzico in ortum.
Magni matris, appellata; episcopalis,

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rium. 19. Thermæ Regiæ. But the last of them Holstenius thinks is mistaken for Germa, by a corrupt reading of the ancient Subscriptions. The Notitia of Leo Sapiens has but thirteen of these, so that five of them were sunk and united to others in the eighth century. The greatest distance, that I can find, of any of these cities, was not above twenty miles from one another. Which was the distance between Cyzicus and Parium, and Lampsacus and Abydus. But then, Dardanum was but seventy furlongs, or eight miles, from Abydus ; Ilium, but thirteen miles from Dardanum ; Troas, but twentyseven miles from Abydus, though Pionia, Ilium, Bares, and Dardanum, lay between them. So Præconesus was but a very small island, and Pemanium, a castle once belonging to the territory of Cyzicus, as Ferrarius has noted out of Strabo, Stephanus, and other ancient writers. 9. The two next provinces I join together, because we some- Asia Ly

diana, or times find them under the common name of Asia Lydiana or

ProconProconsularis, under which title Bp. Usher has a most accurate sularis. dissertation 82 upon them, where he distinguishes the several acceptations of the name Asia, either for the Greater Asia, or Asia Minor, or Asia properly so called, which was the Romans' first conquests in Asia, containing the provinces of Phrygia, Mysia, Caria, and Lydia; or lastly, for Asia Lydiana or Proconsularis, which was those two provinces, which in Constantine's division are called distinctly Asia and Lydia, as we here now take them. In this sense we may call the former Asia most properly so called, which is bounded on the north by the province of Hellespontus, on the east by Phrygia and Lydia, on the south by the river Mæander, which separates it from Caria, and on the west by the Ægean Sea. In it

82 Disquisit. Geograph. de Asia pertinebant, eas in provinciæ forLydiana, 8. Proconsulari. (juxt. Ed. mam redegerint; quam magnæ ConLat. Lond. 1687. 8vo.) 'Ut Asia tinentis nomine vocabant Asiam. Minor (nunc Natolia, seu Anatolia Hæc distinguitur a Cicerone in redicta) pars majoris erat, et Asia giones quatuor : Phrygiam, Myproprie sic dicta pars illius mino- siam, Cariam, Lydiam, &c. [Anris; sic Lydiana, sive Proconsularis glice, Works, v. 4. p. 3. Dubl. 1847. Asia, pars erat Asiæ proprie sic 8vo. The Treatise, as as well as the dictæ. * Ut autem res plenius intel- Original of Bishops and Metropoliligatur, in memoriam revocandum tans, was first published in English, est, quod Romani, quum posses- Oxf. 1641. See Watt’s Bibliotheca sionem caperent earum regionum, Britannica. Ep.] quæ prius ad Pergamenos reges

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