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gia Pacatiana, or, as some books read it corruptly, Capatiana; and a third, Pacatiana Secunda. In Phrygia Salutaris, Carolus à Sancto Paulo reckons up twenty dioceses. 1. Synnada, the metropolis. 2. Dorylæum. 3. Poly botus. 4. Nacolia. 5. Midaiuin. 6. Hipsus. 7. Prymnesia. 8. Myrum, or rather Merum. 9. Eucarpia. 10. Lysias. 11. Augustopolis. 12. Brysum. 13. Otrum. 14. Stectorium. 15. Cinnaborium. 16. Amadassa. 17. Cotyaium. 18. Præpenissus, (or Præpenessus.) 19. Docimæum. 20. Amorium.

In Phrygia Pacatiana Prima, he recounts twenty-nine. 1. Laodicea, the metropolis. 2. Tiberiopolis. 3. Azana. 4. Itoana, or Bitoana. 5. Aneyra Ferrea, which Holstenius observes to be sometimes attributed to the province of Lydia adjoining. 6. Cidissus. 7. Egara, which Holstenius corrects into Aliana. 8. Pelte. 9. A pira. 10. Cadi. 11. Tranopolis, or Trajanopolis. 12. Sebasta. 13. Eumenia. 14. Temenothyræ. 15. Aliona. 16. Trapezopolis. 17. Silbium. 18. Ilusa. 19. Nea. . 20. Chæretapa. 21. Colossa, [or Colossæ,]now Chone. 22. Sinaus. 23. Philippopolis. 24. Themisonium. 25. Sanis. 26. Acmonia. 27. Theodosiopolis. 28. Bleandrus. 29. Atanassus. Holstenius strikes out one of the number, for Nea is but a corruption of the Greek for Sanæa, or Sanans, as he shows, but he finds out another, called Dioclia, to supply its room.

In Pacatiana Secunda there were but tive dioceses, being by much the least of all the provinces. 1. Hierapolis, the metropolis. 2. Dionysiopolis. 3. Anastasiopolis. 4. Mosynus. 5. Attudi. But, this province being of later erection, these dioceses are more commonly attributed to Phrygia Pacatiana, without any distinction.

Now I observe of Phrygia in general, that some of its dioceses, bordering upon Galatia, were, like those of Galatia and the other Pontic provinces, of a larger extent than the rest about Hierapolis and Laodicea, which two metropolitical sees were not at a very great distance from one another: Ferrarius, in one place 84, says, but six miles; but it seems to be a typographical error, for, in another place 85, he makes Colossæ to be between Hierapolis and

84 (Lexic. Geogr. voce, Hierapolis. Hierapoli Phrygiæ proxima, ad 6. (p. 352.] .. Phrygiæ magnæ urbs .. m. pass. distans, &c. Ed.] proxima Laodiceæ ; ab ea 6. m. 85 Voce, Colossæ. (t. 1. p. 212.) pass. - Voce, Laodicea. (p. 407.) Colossæ, Chone, teste Porphyro

Laodicea, upon the confluence of the rivers Lycus and Mæander, at twenty miles' distance from them both. So that there must be a mistake one way or other. Pliny 85 is very exact in describing the situation of Laodicea, for he says, 'it stood upon the Lycus, and had its walls washed also with the Asopus and the Caprus :' but yet he does not tell us how far the confluence of these rivers was from the confluence of the Lycus with the Mæander, where Colossa stood. But it may be concluded it was at no great distance from it, since all authors agree that Laodicea stood near the Mæander; and these three cities, Colossæ, Hierapolis, and Laodicea, which St. Paul 86 joins together, are said, by Chrysostom, Theodoret, and others, to be very near each other. They who have opportunity to consult Antonine's Itinerary, which at present I have not, may perhaps find them more exactly described, and limited with more certain bounds than I can pretend to assign them. If the first opinion of Ferrarius be true, and agreeable to Antonine, that they lay but six miles asunder; then it will readily be concluded, that the dioceses in this part of Phrygia were comparatively very small, since, by Carolus à Sancto Paulo's description, Itoana, Trapezopolis, Attudi, Mosynus, and Antioch upon the Mæander, in Caria, seem not to have been at much greater distances from

one another. Of Isauria 16. Beside these several provinces of the Asiatic and Pontic and Cilicia. dioceses in Asia Minor, there were also three provinces in it,

which were reckoned to the Eastern diocese and the patriarchate of Antioch, viz. Isauria, Cilicia Prima, and Cilicia Secunda, which must be spoken of in this place.

Isauria was anciently reckoned only a part of Cilicia ; but, from the time of Constantine, both in the civil and ecclesiastical account, it was esteemed a distinct province. Carolus à Sancto Paulo mentions twenty-two dioceses. 1. Seleucia, the metropolis. 2. Celenderis. 3. Anemurium. 4. Lamus. 5. Antiochia ad Tragum. 6. Selenus, or Trajanopolis. 7. Jotape. 8. Diocæsarea. 9. Philadelphia. 10. Domitiopolis. 11. Titiopolis. genito, urbs Phrygiæ magna, olim noph. cis Celænas 960. episcopalis sub Sardibus, nunc me- 85 L. 5. c. 29. (p. 76. 24.) Celebertropolis ad Lycum fluvium, ubi in riina urbs Laodicea. Imposita est Mæandrum influit, inter Laodicæam Lyco Alumini, latera alluentibus Aet Hierapolim 20. mill. pass. ultra sopo et Capro, &c. Sardes 160. stad. in ort. teste Xe- 86 [Coloss. 4. vv. 13. 15. 16. Ed.]

12. Hierapolis. 13. Nephelis. 14. Dalisandus. 15. Claudi-
opolis, or Isaura. 16. Germanicopolis. 17. Sbide, or Isis.
18. Cestrus. 19. Olbus. 20. Lybias. 21. Hermopolis. 22.
Irenopolis. To which Holstenius adds two more, Charadra and
Lauzada, which is sometimes written corruptly, Vasada and
Nauzada.
In Cilicia Prima there were eight dioceses. 1.: Tarsus, the

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metropolis. 2. Pompeiopolis. 3. Sebaste. 4. Coricus. 5.
Adana. 6. Mallus. 7. Zephyrium. 8. Augusta, added by

. Holstenius, who shows it to be a distinct place from Sebaste.

In the other Cilicia there are reckoned nine. 1. Anazarbus, the metropolis. 2. Mopsuestia. 3. Ægæ. 4. Epiphania. 5. Irenopolis. 6. Flaviopolis. 7. Castabala. 8. Alexandria, now called Scanderoon. 9. Rossus, in the confines of Syria. The greatest part of these were large dioceses, like those of Syria, as any one that computes the distance between Epiphania, Alexandria, Rossus, &c., will easily imagine.

17. Some reckon Lazica, which was anciently called Colchis, Of Lazica, an appendix to Asia Minor, and therefore I mention it in this or Colchis. place. It is all the country on the Euxine Sea, from Trapezus in Pontus, to Phasis, which Strabo reckons near two hundred miles. The modern Notitiæ speak but of five dioceses, but that of Leo Sapiens, in Leunclavius, has fifteen. It was first made a Roman province in the time of Justinian 86, who mentions the cities that were in it, Petra and Justiniana; with four castles, Pityus, Sebastopolis, Archæopolis, and Rhodopolis, which had anciently been in the hands of the Romans; and four other castles, Scandias, Sarapenes, Murisios, and Lusieros, which he had lately taken out of the hands of the Persians. Of these, one is as ancient as the Council of Nice : for Stratophilus, bishop of Ptyusium, or Pityus, subscribes there among the bishops of Pontus Polemoniacus, to which province it was then annexed, as lying in solo barbarico, and not constituting any other province. In the sixth General Council there is

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si Novel. 28. Præfat. (t. 5. p. 221.) Justinianea appellatur. Archæopo.... Post quos tam nostra consti- lis quoque, et Rhodopolis Maxima, tuta est Lazica, in qua urbs Petræon et antiqua castra : in quibus plene est, quæ nostro beneficio et esse et etiam ea castra sunt, quæ nos a nominari urbs cæpit, quam quæ Persis recepimus, Scandias, et Saranostræ pietatis nomine utitur, et panes, et Murisios, ac Lusieros, &c.

BINGHAM, VOL. III,

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mention of Petra and Phasis, the metropolis; and that is all

the account we have of them in the ancient Councils. Of the Isle 18. Another appendix to Asia Minor are the lesser islands of Lesbos, and the

of the Ægean Sea, which constituted a province by themselves. Cyclades. Carolus à Sancto Paulo reckons four dioceses in Lesbos itself. 1. Mytelene. 2. Methymna. 3. Tenedos.

. 4. Poroselene. But Poroselene and Tenedos were distinct islands by themselves, which sometimes had bishops of their own, and sometimes were united to Lesbos. In the Council of Sardica Dioscorus subscribes himself. bishop of the Isle of Tenedos alone;' but, in the second Council of Ephesus, and in the Council of Chalcedon, Florentius subscribes himself. bishop of Lesbos and Tenedos together.' Now, as we must say that Tenedos was but a small diocese by itself; for it was but ten miles in compass, as Ferrarius computes; so, when Lesbos was joined with it, it was a large one: for Pliny 87 says Lesbos alone had nine famous towns, and Straboss makes it eleven hundred stadia, or a hundred and forty miles in compass.

The other islands, called Cyclades, were divided into eleven distinct dioceses. l. Rhodus, the metropolis. 2. Samos. 3. Chios. 4. Coos. 5. Naxos. 6. Paros. 7. Thera. 8. Delos. 9. Tenos. 10. Melos. 11. Carpathus. Now the largest of these, Rhodus, Samos, and Chios, were about a hundred or a hundred and twenty miles in compass, as Pliny 89 informs us. But the lesser sort of them, Tenos and Thera, were not above fourteen or fifteen miles long, or forty in compass. So that among these we find dioceses of different extent, as in the rest of Asia, but all agreeing in the same species of episcopal government, and some of them, as Lesbos, having their chorepiscopi, but none so small as to be confined to a single congregation.

87 (L. 5. c. 31. (p. 80. 13.) Cla- ram, circuitu 87. m. passuum : aut, rissima Lesbos, a Chio 65. mill. pas- ut Isidorus, centum. .... Par clarisuum. Hemerte, et Lasia, Pelasgia, tate ab ea distat 93. m. passuum, Ægira, Æthiope, Macaria appellata cum oppido Chios libera, quam Æfuit, octo [al. novem] oppidis inclyta. thaliam Ephorus prisco nomine ap

88 L. 13. p.616. (t. 2. p.916 c.9.) pellat ; Metrodorus et Cleobulus Oőons tñs trepiétpov otaðiwv y diwr Chiam, a Chione nympha, aliqui a εκατόν, κ. τ.λ. Grischου.]

nive, et Macrin, et Pityusam. Mon89 L. 5. c. 31. (p. 79. 23.) Pul- tem habet Pellenæum, marmor Chicherrima et libera Rhodus, circuitu um. Circuitu 125. mill. pass. colli130. m. passuum, aut, si potius Isi- git, utveteres tradidere; Isidorus 9. doro credimus, 103.... Samon libe- millia adjicit.

And so we have gone over all the provinces of the East under the civil government of the Præfectus-Prætorio Orientis, except the six provinces of the Thracian diocese ; which, because they are European provinces, we will consider as such among the provinces of Europe, and give them the first place in the following chapter.

CHAP. IV.

A continuation of the former account in the European

provinces. 1. In pursuance of the former inquiry, we are led out of of the six Asia Minor into the provinces of Europe, where the six pro- of Thrace.

provinces vinces of the Thracian diocese, Europa, Thracia, Hæmimontis, And first,

of Scythia. Rhodope, Mæsia Secunda, and Scythia, first offer themselves to consideration. This was all the country from Macedonia and the river Strymon to the Danube, which is now Romania and Bulgaria. A country extending from Constantinople to Sardica, above three hundred miles one way, and from the Ægean Sea to the Danube, almost as much the other. In all these provinces the dioceses were very large. For in Scythia, the most northern province, there was but one bishopric, though there were many cities. For the bishop of Tomi was the sole bishop of this whole region, as is noted by Sozomen 90 and Theodoret 91, and other ancient writers, by whom he is sometimes called the bishop of Tomi,' and sometimes the bishop of Scythia,' as being the only superintendent of all the churches in that Scythia which was made a province of the Roman empire.

2. The province of Europa had also large dioceses ; for Of Europa. several cities were under one bishop. We find in the Acts of the Council of Ephesus 92 a petition offered to that Council by

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90 L. 6. c. 21. (ν. 2. p. 244. ΙΙ.) ένα πάντες επίσκοπον έχουσιν. Μητρόπολις δε εστι Τόμις, πόλις με- 91 L. 4. C. 35. (vol. 3. p. 190. 4.) γάλη και ευδαίμων, παράλιος, έξ ευω- Και Βρετανίων παντοδαπή μεν λαμνύμων είσπλέοντι τον Εύξεινον κα- πρυνόμενος αρετή, πάσης δε της Σκυλούμενον Πόντον. Εισέτι δε και νυν θίας τας πόλεις αρχιερατικώς ιθύειν έθος παλαιόν ενθάδε κρατεί, του παν- πεπιστευμένος, κ. τ.λ. τός έθνους ένα τας εκκλησίας επισκο- 92 Part. 2. Act. 7. (t. 3. p. 810 b. Treiv.-L. 7. c. 19. (ibid. p. 307. 5.) Vetus mos viget, &c. 'Αμέλει Σκύθαι, πολλαι πόλεις όντες,

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