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11. In the Isle of Crete, which was the last of the Macedo- Of the Isle
of Crete. nian provinces, Carolus à Sancto Paulo names eleven dioceses. 1. Gortyna, the metropolis. 2. Gnossus. 3. Hierapetra. 4. Lappa. 5. Subrita. 6. Eleuthera. 7. Cherronesus. 8. Cydonia. 9. Cysamus. 10. Citium. 11. Cantanum. The Notitia of Leo Sapiens in Leunclavius makes them twelve, but Hierapetra is there by mistake of some transcriber divided into two, which being corrected reduces them to the same number. Whence I conclude, this was pretty near the standing number for several ages. Now Crete is reckoned by Ferrarius and others, out of Pliny and Strabo, 270 or 300 miles long and fifty broad; which makes these twelve dioceses equal to the rest of the Macedonian provinces, all which appear visibly to be dioceses of great extent, without descending any further to give a more particular account of them.
12. The other civil diocese of Illyricum Orientale went by Of the five the common name of Dacia, consisting of five provinces. i. provinces in Prævalitana. 2. Mæsia Superior. 3. Dacia Mediterranea. of Dacia. 4. Dacia Ripensis. 5. Dardania. Prævalitana lies on the north of Epirus to the Adriatic sea, being part of that country which is now called Albania. Carolus à Sancto Paulo names but two dioceses in it, Scodra, the old metropolis of the province, and Achidra, which was anciently called Prævalis, but afterwards Justinian 6 honoured it with his own name, Justiniana Prima, and advanced it to patriarchal dignity, assigning it all the five provinces of the Dacian diocese, and the two Pannonias in the diocese of Illyricum Occidentale for the limits of its jurisdiction. Besides these two bishoprics Holstenius has found out two more in this province, Rhizinium and Lissus, now called Alessio on the Adriatic sea. Carolus à Sancto Paulo also by mistake places Scodra in the province of Dalmatia, making Justiniana Prima a metropolitan see without any suffragans under it.
13. On the north of Prævalitana to the Danube lay Mæsia of Moesia Superior, between Pannonia on the west, and Dacia on the Superior. east. Carolus à Sancto Paulo confounds the episcopal dioceses of this province and the Dacias together, making Sardica the
Of Prævali. tana.
cyra, .... pass. 97. m. in longitudinem patens.
6 Novel. 131. c. 3. See b. 2. ch. 17. 8. 12. v. I. p. 207. n. 62.
metropolis of them all, and calling them, from that, by the common name of Provincia Sardicensis ; and, beside Sardica, he finds but three more dioceses in the three provinces, Remessiana, Aquæ, and Castrum Martis. But Holstenius is a little more accurate, and treats distinctly of them: he assigns to Mæsia Superior Castrum Martis, and another called Margus, seated on the confluence of the river Margus and the
Danube. Of Dacia 14. To Dacia Mediterranea Holstenius assigns Sardica, the Mediterranea and Da. metropolis, and Romatiana, and Naïssus, which he and Pagi cia Ripen- make to be the birth-place of Constantine the Great. In the
other Dacia, called Ripensis, from its running along the banks of the Danube, between Mæsia Prima and Secunda, he places Aquæ, which is mentioned in the Council of Sardica, in St. Hilary's Fragments 7, and Iscus, or Iscopolis, another city, whose bishop subscribed, out of the same province, in the foresaid Council. In his Annotations also upon Ortelius, he observes two other episcopal cities in this province, one called Martis by Hierocles, or Stramartis by Procopius, and another called Budine, now Bodine, in Bulgaria, upon the Danube. But perhaps these are both modern sees; for he cites no other authority but that of the Notitiæ for them, and Stramartis seems to
be a corruption of Castra Martis. Of Darda- 15. On the south of Dacia, between it and Macedonia, was nia and
the province of Dardania, divided from Macedonia by Mount Gothia.
Scardus, and from Thracia by part of Mount Hæmus. It is now part of Servia, and was anciently a part of Mæsia, as Dacia also was, till the Daci, passing over the Danube, got themselves planted in the middle of Mæsia, which, from that
7 [Ex Oper. Histor. Fragm. 2. Ancestor makes the statement in the (t. 2. p. 632 b.) Vitalis a Dacia Ri- text: Iscus Daciæ Ripensis Hieropensi de Aquis : but Iscus or Isco- cli. Valens de Isco Sardicensi subpolis is not mentioned there. Neither scripsit, qui et Iscopolitanus. Ed.] is it found in Crabbe's edition of 8 (P. 116.) Martis fuit civitas epithe Councils (t. 1. pp. 333-335:) scopalis Daciæ Ripensis. [Among where the first mentioned place is the Subscriptions in the Council of termed Aquiripensis in one word. Sardica (ap. Labh. t. 2. p. 663 a.) See Labbe's edition (t. 2. p. 662 e.) we have Calvus ab Achaia Ripensi Vitalis a Dacia Ripensi de Aquis. de Castra Martis.- See Car. d Sanct. But no mention of Iscus or Isco. Paul. (p. 202.) Castrum Martis, Sopolis, as above. See Holstein, (in zomeno, 1. 9. c. 5. Mæsiæ civitas, Geogr. Sacr. Car. a S. Paul. p. 202.) vulgo Marota. Ed.] upon whose authority my learned
time, was called Dacia Nova, as the other beyond the Danube was called Dacia Antiqua, and Gothia. In this province of Dardania, Carolus à Sancto Paulo finds four dioceses. 1. Scupi, the metropolis. 2. Ulpianum, otherwise called Justiniana Secunda. 3. Diocletiana, which, at the time of the Council of Sardica, was reckoned a city of Macedonia. 4. Nessyna, or Nessus. Holstenius adds another, called Pautalia, which Hierocles, in his Notitia, reckons among the cities of Dacia Mediterranea, and Stephanus and Ptolemy among the cities of Thracia, as lying in the confines of those provinces.
Besides these five provinces of the Dacian diocese, on the south side of the Danube, there was another on the north side out of the bounds of the Roman empire, called Dacia Antiqua, and Gothia, from the time that the Goths seated themselves in it. Epiphanius 9 speaks of one Silvanus, bishop of Gothia, beyond Scythia, taking Scythia for the Roman Scythia, on this side the Danube, whereof Tomi was the metropolis. Whence Holstenius rightly concludes, that Gothia was (either] that region which is now called Transylvania, or (that which is now] Wallachia. But what episcopal sees they had, or whether they had, in all this region, any more than one bishop, as the Scythians, and Saracens, and some other such barbarous nations had, is uncertain. Carolus à Sancto Paulo thinks Zarmizegethusa was the seat of their bishop, because Ptolemy makes it the royal seat and metropolis of the kingdom. And this he supposes to be the same with Gothia, mentioned in the Notitia of Leo Sapiens among the autocephali, or such bishops as had no suffragans under them. But these being matters involved in obscurity, I leave them to further inquiry.
16. Out of the Illyricum Orientale, we pass next into the of the six civil diocese of Illyricum Occidentale, which was under the provincesin
the diocese government of the Præfectus-Prætorio of Italy. In this dio- of Illyricum
Occidencese were six provinces. 1. Dalmatia. 2. Savia. 3. Pan
. nonia Superior. 4. Pannonia Inferior. 5. Noricurn Medi- Dalmatia. terraneum. 6. Noricum Ripense. In Dalmatia, Carolus à Sancto Paulo reckons four episcopal dioceses. 1. Salona, the metropolis. 2. Jadera, now called Zara. 3. Epidaurus, now
9 [Hær. 70. Audian. n. 15. (t. 1. του εκ Γοτθίας τελευτην, πολλοί διp. 828 a.) Μετά δε την των επισκόπων ελύθησαν, κ. τ.λ. ED.] αυτών τούτων Ουρανίου και Σιλουανού
Ragusa. 4. Scodra, or Scutari. But Scodra is wrong placed in Dalmatia; for, as has been noted before, [in the twelfth section,] it was rather the metropolis of Prævalitana. But Holstenius adds two more in the room of it, Doclea and Senia,
now called Segna, a city upon the Liburnian shore. Of Savia. 17. The next province to this was Savia, which seems to be
so named from the river Savus running through the middle of it. It is sometimes called Pannonia Sava, being part of Pannonia on the Savia, and sometimes Pannonia Sirmiensis and Cibaliensis, from the cities Sirmium and Cibalis, which lay in this part of it. But here we consider it as a distinct province from Pannonia, from which it was separated by the river Dravus, and is what we now call Sclavonia, and part of Bosnia and Servia. In this province were six episcopal dioceses. 1. Sirmium, the metropolis, near the confluence of the Savus and the Danube. 2. Singidunum. 3. Mursa, now called Essek.
4. Cibalis. 5. Noviodunum. 6. Siscia. Of Panno- 18. Between the river Dravus and the Danube lay the two nia Supe- Pannonias, Superior and Inferior, which are now the southern
part of Hungary. In the former of these Carolus à Sancto Paulo 11 out of Lazius [in his Catalogue of Bishoprics of Nlyricum] speaks of four dioceses. 1. Vindobona, or Vienna. 2. Sabaria. 3. Scarabantia. 4. Celia (or Celeïa). To which Holstenius adds Petavia, now called Petow, (or Petau,] which the other confounds with Patavia or Batava Castra in Noricum, now called Passau in Bavaria. Victorinus Martyr, [who flourished about the year 270,] was bishop of this city, though Baronius, [Bellarmin,) and many others commonly style him Pictaviensis, as if he had been bishop of Poictiers in France, whereas he was bishop of this city in Pannonia Prima, called Petavia, as is observed by Spondanus, and Pagi, and Du Pin, in their critical remarks upon the life of that ancient writer, [as well as by Launoy 10, who wrote an entire dissertation on the subject.] In Pannonia Inferior there were but three
. dioceses. 1. Curta. 2. Carpis. 3. Stridonium, the birth
. place of St. Jerom.
10 See Du Pin, Biblioth. (Paris. M. de Launoi a fait une dissertation 1683. v. I. p. 194.) Victorin, évêque exprés, qu'il n'a point été évêque de Petay, ville de l'ancienne Pan- de Poitiers en France, mais d'une nonie, située sur le Drave en Styrie, ville de Pannonie appellée Petovio &c.—See ibid. (n. a.) Le sçavant ou Petabio. Il fait voir, &c.
19. More westward from Pannonia was the province of Of Noricum Noricum, confined on the north with the Danube, and on the Mediterra. south and west with Venetia and Rhætia, two Italic provinces. Ripense. This the Romans divided into two, Noricum Mediterraneum, and Ripense, in both which Lazius mentions but four dioceses. 1. Laureacum, now called Lork. 2. Juvavia, or Salsburg. 3. Ovilabis. 4. Solva. Carolus à Sancto Paulo by mistake adds a fifth, Petavia, Petow; but that, as was said before, belongs to another province. And the rest were not erected till the sixth century, when that part of Germany was first converted, which is now Carniola and Carinthia, with part of Bavaria, Stiria, Tyrol, and Austria. By which it is easy to judge of what vast extent those dioceses anciently were, as they are now at this day ; two of them, as I observed, being as large as ten or twenty in some other parts of the world, particularly in Palestine and Asia Minor, which have been already considered; and the observation will be more fully verified by taking a particular view of Italy, whose episcopal dioceses come now in order in the next place to be considered.
CHAP. V. A particular account of the dioceses of Italy. 1. Italy, in the sense we are now to speak of it, as it was of the extaken for the whole jurisdiction of the Præfectus Urbis and tent of the Vicarius Italiæ, under the Roman emperors, was of some- of the what larger extent than now it is; for not only the islands of Rome.
bishop of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica were taken into the account, but also Rhætia Secunda, which is that part of Germany that lies from the Alps to the Danube. In this extent it was divided into two large civil dioceses, containing seventeen provinces of the Roman empire, as has been shown before 13; and in these provinces there were about three hundred episcopal dioceses, the names of which are still remaining, but the places themselves many of them demolished or sunk into villages, and other new bishoprics set up in their room.
I shall not concern myself with the number or extent of the modern dioceses, but only those that were ancient, and erected within the first six hundred
years; of which I am to make the same observation in general, as I have done upon those of Palestine and Asia
13 See ch. 1. s. 5. of this Book, p. 222.