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rarius 24 computes, and so they were afterward united together, as the same author informs us. Portus Augusti was bounded on one side with Ostia, which was but two miles from it, as Ferrarius 25 and Cluver inform us; and on the other side with Sylva Candida, which Carolus à Sancto Paulo places about the same distance from it. Faleria, or Phalaris, is reckoned by Cluver 26 about five or six miles from Nepe, and four miles from Hortanum, by Ferrarius ?7, who says, Hortanum lay upon the Tiber opposite to the Ocriculi in Umbria, and not above four miles to the west of it. Holstenius 28 shows out of the Jerusalem Itinerary, that Aqua Viva was but twelve miles from Ocriculi, and Faleria lay between them. Polymartium was but five miles west from Hortanum, as Ferrarius 29 computes, and Ferentium about the same distance from Polymartium; which two last were united into one before the Council of Rome under Martin, anno 649, as Carolus à Sancto Paulo collects from the subscriptions of that Council. Blera was but nine miles from Forum Claudii, as Holstenius 30 shows from the old Itineraries; and Forum Claudii not above five from Sutrium, according to Cluver's reckoning. Lorium was but twelve miles from Rome in the way to Civita Vecchia, as has been showed before. Tarquinia is reckoned by Ferrarius 31

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24 Ubi supr. voce, Nepe. (t. 1. signatum est : p. 517.).... Nepi vel Nepe Hetruriæ Nepe, urbs episcopalis, inter urbem Ro

Faleros, 5. mam et Viterbium ad 20. mill. pass.

Castello Amerino, 12. Sutrio proxima ad 4. mill. passus

Ameria, 9. dissidens. Quarum urbium hodie 27 Ubi supr. voce, Hortanum. (t.i. episcopatus juncti sunt. - Ibid. voce, p. 360.). . Urbs Hetruriæ, in FaSutrium.(t. 2. p. 226.) ... Urbs epi- liscis, apud Tiberim fluvium ex adscopalis .... proxima Nepæ ad 4. verso Ocriculi, ab eo 4. mill. pass. mill. pass. ab urbe Roma 25. distans in occasum. 25 Ibid. voce, Ostia. (t. 1. p. 22.) 28 In Cluver. (p. 80.) Aqua Viva

Colonia et urbs Latii, episcopa- mutatio, m. p. 12. Utriculo civitas, lis, ad ostia Tiberis, e regione Portus m. p. 12. urbis.— Voce, Portus. (ibid. p. 82.) 29 Voce, Polymartium.(t. 2. p. 74.) Portus Augusti, qui et Romanus, ... Inter Hortam 5. et Viterbium vulgo Porto, urbs Hetruriæ prorsus 10. mill. pass. excisa, apud ostia Tiberis, contra 30 In Cluver. (p.47.) A Noris SaOstiam urbem etiam exstinctam batem 3., plus minus, sunt mill. pass. duobus mill. pass. distantem, ab Inde 2. sunt milliaria Oriolum, sive urbe Roma 16. mill. pass. in meri- Forum Claudii. Unde porro Bleram diem.

sunt mill. pass. 9. vel 10. 26 Ital. 1. 2. c. 3. (t. 1. p. 537. 14.) 31 Voce, Tarquinia. (t. 2. p. 239.) Porro reliquum iter a Nepete oppido ... Inter Bracianum io. et Cornuad Ameriam oppidum Umbriæ, ita etum, quod illi in dignitate episcoin supra dicta tabula itineraria con- pali successit, 5.

&c.

mill. pass.

about five miles from Cornetum, and about the same distance from Gravisca, by Cluver's Tables; which is the more probable, because Holstenius 32 observes, that these three dioceses were at last united into one. Centumcellæ, or Civita Vecchia, lay upon the sea, twelve miles from Gravisca, as appears from the Jerusalem Itinerary in Holstenius 33. Tuscania, and Volsinium, and Urbs Vetus, now called Orvieto, and Balneum Regis, had much about the same distances from one another; and all these lay within that little compass of land, which is now called St. Peter's Patrimony, hemmed in on the east and north with the river Tiber, on the west with the river Marta, and on the south with the Tuscan Sea,-a country that is not much above fifty miles square, as Cluver rightly describes it. For from Rome to Centumcellæ, or Civita Vecchia, which lies but ten miles from the river Marta, which now divides St. Peter's Patrimony from Castro Ducato, Cluver and Holstenius 34, out of Antonine's Itinerary, in the direct course of the Via Aurelia, reckon but forty-seven miles, which do not exceed forty miles, according to the present estimation. So that there being in this compass twenty bishoprics, including Rome in the number, if we will suppose all the dioceses to be equal, each diocese will be about ten or twelve miles square; which confirms the account that has been given of the distance of the several cities from each other : and hence it appears that, as in some parts of the kingdom of Naples dioceses have been multiplied above what they were in former ages, so in this and other parts of the Pope's dominions they have as strangely decreased; for now there are not near half the number, there being sometimes two or three or four united into one. For Ferrarius 35 informs

32 Annot. in Car. a S. Paul. (ap. Castrum Novum, m. p. 8. Oper. C. a S. P. p. 49. n. 5.) Hæc Centumcellas, m. p. 5. civitas conflata est ex Tarquiniis et — Procopius, de Bell. Goth. l. 2., Gravisca.

(p. 405.) reckons it 280 stadia, or 35 33 Annot. in Cluver. (p. 80.) miles. Πόλιν επιθαλασσίαν, λόγου Centumcellas, posit. m. p.5. πολλού άξίαν, Κεντουκέλλας όνομα, Algas, posit. m. p. 3.

των επιτηδείων σπανίζοντες, υπό τον Rapinium, posit. m. p. 3.

αυτόν χρόνον έξέλιπον έστι δε ή πόλις Graviscas, posit. m. p. 6.

μεγάλη και πολυάνθρωπος, ες τα Ρώ34 Ibid. (p. 78.)

μης προς εσπέραν εν Τούσκοις κειμένη, Via Aurelia per Tusciam :

σταδίοις αυτής ογδοήκοντα και διαLorium, m. p. 12.

κοσίοις απέχουσα. Ad Turres, in. p. 10.

35 (Voce, Ferentia. (t. 1. p. 288.) Pyrgos, m. p. 12.

Ferentia, Ferentium Plinio et aliis

us, that Viterbo was raised, anno 1074, out of the ruins of three old ones, Ferentum, Tuscania, and Polymartium. So Citta Castellana arose from the decay of Faleria and Hortanum. Sutrium was united to Nepe, Tarquina and Gravisca to Cornetum, not to mention any more of this kind, which concern not the present inquiry. As to those dioceses which lay in the western part of Tuscia, now called the Dukedom of Tuscany, they were much larger in proportion than the former ; for excepting Fæsulæ, which lay but three miles 36 from Florence, all the other dioceses were of greater extent. Of which I need only give this evidence, that this part of Tuscia is reckoned 37 above 200 miles in length, and near 100 in breadth, excluding the Pope's dominions; which, being divided among fifteen or sixteen dioceses, will afford a large territory to every

so that it is needless to look further for a particular account of them.

But if we return back again into Umbria, nearer Rome, there we shall find dioceses of the same size, and as thick as in the Patrimony of St. Peter; for it was but a little tract of ground, bounded with the rivers Nar and Tiber, and the Appennine Hills, and only a part of the old Umbria, which reached beyond the Appennine to the Adriatic Sea. In the present Umbria, Carolus à Sancto Paulo reckons eighteen bishoprics. 1. Ocriculum. 2. Narnia. 3. Tuder, now Todi. 4. Mevania, Bevagna. 5. Tifernum Tiberinum, Citta di Castello. 6. Interamnia, Terni. 7. Ameria, Amelia. 8. Trebia, Trevi. 9. Spoletum, Spoleto. 10. Fulginum, Fulgino. 11. Camerinum. 12. Hispellum. 13. Assisium. 14. Forum Novum, Vescovio. 15. Forum Flaminii, For Flammo. 16. Vettonium,

one:

.... urbs Hetruriæ olim episcopalis, voce, Tuscia. (t. 2. p. 296.) .... Tuexcisa, cui Viterbium ad 5. mill. pass. scia, sive Thuscia, (utroque enim distans successit in episcopali cathe- modo scribitur,) quæ et Etruria, sive dra, a Viterbiensibus, anno salutis Hetruria, la Toscana, provinciæ 1074, ob hæresim eversa. Gri- Italiæ nobilissima, et antiquissima, schov.]

peramplaque, inter Liguriam ad oc36 Vid. Cluver. Ital. 1. 2. C. I. casum Macra [al. Marta vel Martha] (t. 1. p. 425. 13.) Apud Fæsulas fu- fluvio divisa, et Latium Umbriamisse, quod oppidum, 3. millia a Flo- que ad ortum Tiberi discreta, ad rentia dissitum, vulgo etiamnunc Arctos monte Appennino a Gallia Fiesole, infra in hujus descriptione Togata separata, ad meridiem pepatebit.

lago Thyrrheno definita, longa 284. 37 Vid. Ferrar. Lexic. Geogr. mill. pass. lata nullibi 100.

Bittona. 17. Nuceria, Nocera. 18. Eugubium, Gubbio. To which Holstenius 3 adds Tadinum and Martula.

Now five of these, Fulginum, Hispellum, Assisium, Forum Flaminii, and Mevania, lay so close together, that none of them was above ten miles distance from any of the other. Fulginum had on the north, towards Nuceria, Forum Flaminii to bound it, which Ferrarius:9 says, was but three miles removed from it. Hispellum was but the same distance in the way to Assisium. Trebia, on the east, was but six miles from Fulginum, and nine from Spoletum, as Ferrarius 40 also informs us, who says also it was but fifteen miles from Fulginum to Spoletum ; so that Trebia must lie exactly in the way betwixt them. On the south, Fulginum was bounded again with Mevania, which was but six miles from it 41. On the west lay Assisium, famous in modern stories for the birth of St. Francis, the father of the Franciscans; and this, Ferrarius 42 says, was but ten miles from Fulginum, and about twelve from Perusia, in Tuscia. If we look a little more northward, from Forum Flaminii to Nuceria is computed nine miles by Ferrarius 43. From

a

versus.

38 [Annot. in Car. a S. Paul. p. 9. nium, Fulginia Silio, (Foligno vel (ap. Oper. C. a S. P. p. 51. in text.) Fuligno,) urbs Umbriæ episcopalis, Tadinum. Laurentius, Tadinatis ec- ad Tiniam fluvium intermeantem clesiæ episcopus, subscripsit Synodo inter Perusiam ad occasum, 18. et Romanæ Symmachi Papæ, et apud Spoletium in eurum, 15. mill. pass. Gregorium M. lib. 7. Indict. 2. Epp. Ibid. voce, Hispellum. (P-357.) 89. et 90.: Tadinatis ecclesiæ va- Hispellum, urbs Umbriæ olim cantis visitatio committitur episcopo episcopalis, nunc oppidum amplum Eugubino.-In Cluver. (p.98.) Fa- in colle, apud Fulginium, inde 3. num Martis. Oppidum episcopale mill. pass. in occasum Perusiam deinceps fuisse existimant, cui S. Brictius episcopus Martanus præ- 41 Ibid. voce, Mevania. (p. 481.) fuerit. Vide Donnolæ Apolog. c. Mevania, Bevagna, urbs olim epi37. et 39. ; Martyrologium Roman. scopalis Umbriæ, ad Clitumnum (Par. 1607. p. 263.) 9. Julii, S. Brictii Auvium.... a Fulginio 6. mill. pass. episcopi memoriam ponit Martulæ, distans, a Perusia 12. &c. Grischov.]

42 Baudrand, ap. Ferrar. voce, 39 Lexic. Geogr. voce, Forum Fullinum, s. Fulginum. (t. 1. p. 303.) Flaminii. (t. 1. p. 296.) A Fulgino, Fulginum urbs est parva Umbriæ, quod illi in episcopali honore suc- sed culta in valle, ad radices montis cessit, 3. mill. pass. Nuceriam ver- Appennini: 20. milliaribus distat a

Perusia, et 10. ab Assisio.- Ibid. 40 Ibid. voce, Trebia. (t. 2. p. 279.) voce, Perusia. (t. 2. p. 50.).... Urbs .... Urbs Umbriæ de

qua mox...

est Italiæ .... 12. milliaribus distat episcopalis olim, nunc oppidum ab Assissio in occasum. Trevi, in colle, inter Fulginium 6. 43 Voce, Nuceria. [The citation is et Spoletium, 9. mill. passuum. incorrect. Compare Nuceria, (t. 1. Ibid. voce, Fullinium. [al. Fulginium p. 296.) and Forum Flaminii. (ibid. et Fulginum.) (t. 1. p. 303.) Fulli- P. 531.) Ep.]

sus.

Nuceria to Tadinum, (the remains of which, Holstenius 44 says, are yet to be seen in the Via Flaminia, near Gualdo, on the top of the Appennine,) is computed no more than eight miles by Holstenius 45 and Baudrand; and from Tadinum to Eugubium must be about thirteen. But here the dioceses began to enlarge toward the western parts of this province, as was observed before of Tuscia; for westward of Eugubium there was no city betwixt it and Tifernum Tiberinum, which was twenty miles from it. Nor had Tifernum Tiberinum any nearer neighbours than Aretium, which is reckoned eighteen, and Callium twenty-two, and Perusia twenty-four miles from it, as Baudrand and Ferrarius 46 have computed. But then if we look towards Rome again, and descend from the Appennine to the southern parts of this province, towards the rivers Nar and Tiber, we there first meet with Martula, on the river Nar, which Holstenius 47 assures us was but six miles to the east of Spoleto. Down the same river lay Interamnia, about the same distance from Martula. And below that was Narnia, which Cluver 48, from the Jerusalem Itinerary, reckons to be nine miles from Interamnia; but Holstenius 49, who was at the pains to measure it, says; it was but five miles and two-thirds from the gate of the one city to the gate of the other. A little to the west of Narnia. lay Ameria, which Ferrarius 50 says was not quite six miles from it. And to the south of Narnia, more down the river Nar, to

44 Annot. in Car, a S. Paul. p.9. 47 In Cluver. (p. 98.) Oppidurn (ap. Oper. C. a S. P. p. 51. in text.) episcopale deinceps fuisse existiEjus vestigia visuntur in via Fla- mant, cui S. Brictius episcopus Marminia, &c.

tanus præfuerit:.... Locus autem, 45 In Cluv. (p. 86.) Abest autem ubi S. Brictius oratorium habebat, a Gualdo 2. circiter m. pass. &c. vocabatur Sallustrianus in iisdem

46 (Voce, Tifernum. (t. 2. p. 268.) Actis [Brictii], quæ 6. milliariis SpoTiberinum cognomine, ... urbs epi- leto eum abfuisse scribunt, &c. scopalis in planitie, non procul a 48 Ital. I. 2. c. 3. (t. I. p. 526. 20.) Tiberi Auvio, a quo denominatur,

Urbe Roma vulgo Citta di Castello, a Perusia fere 24. mill. pass. in Boream et

Utriculo, 12. Cæciam, ab Eugubio 20. in occasum

Narnia, 12. Aretium versus.- -Conf. Baudrand.

Interamna, 9. addit. in ead. voc. (ibid.) Tifernum 49 In Cluver. (p. 95.) Sunt enim, Tiberinum, urbs est ditionis ponti- a Narniensi porta ad portam Interficiæ, regiunculæ cognominis caput, amnii, cannæ Romanæ 3760, quæ ad Tiberim fluvium, et in limite sunt 5. mill. pass. Etruriæ, uti ducatus Urbini. Distat 50 Voce, Ameria. (t. 1. p. 34.) 10. mill. pass. a Burgo S. Sepulchri Ameria, Amelia, urbs episc. Umbriæ in meridiem, et 18. ab Aretio in or- antiquissima, .... ab ea vix 6. mill. tum, Calium versus 22. estque satis pass. Hortam versus distans. munita. Grischov.]

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