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18. Fundi. 19. Formiæ. 20. Aquinum. 21. Cassinum. 22. Atina. 23. Sora. Of these, as has been observed before, Sub-augusta lay close by Rome; Ostia, sixteen miles from Rome and two from Portus; Gabii, thirteen from Rome and as many from Præneste. Tusculum, which some mistake for Tusculanum, where Cicero wrote his Tusculan Questions, was a city now called Frescati, and Ferrarius says but twelve miles from Rome. Signia, now called Segni, lay between Tusculum and Anagnia, six miles from each, nine from Præneste, and thirty from Rome, as Baudrand 74 informs us from Holstenius. The same author says 75, Ferentinum was but five miles from Anagnia and four from Aletrium; and Ferrarius 76 places Verulæ between Anagnia and Sora, nine or ten miles from each. Lavici is reckoned by Holstenius 77 but fifteen miles from Rome, and yet the diocese of Subaugusta came between them; for it was in the Via Lavicana, the direct way that leads from Rome to Lavici. Albanum and Alba are by some authors confounded together, but Holstenius 78 reckons them distinct cities; and Ferrarius 79

says,

the one was fourteen and the other sixteen miles from Rome. But perhaps the one might only arise out of the ruins of the other, for they were not above two miles

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74 Ap. Ferrar. voce, Signia. (t. 2. ad occasum et Soram ad ortum 1o. p.194.) Signia, Segni, urbs alias Vol.

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passuum. scorum, in Latio, nunc Campaniæ 77' In Cluver. (p. 194.) In Cluv. Romanæ, in ditione pontificia, ducali p. 947. lin. 33. Procedit ad 120 statitulo insignita. Ibi organa inventa dia. Mil. pass. 15. fuere et modulationes, quibus uti- 78 Ibid. (p. 183.) Albanum. Immo tur Romana ecclesia, inquit Pe- jam ante hæc tempora Gregorii M. trarcha : 30. milliaribus distat ab ep. 11. 1. 3. exstat ordini et plebi urbe Roma in ortum, et 9. a Præ- consistenti in Albano scripta, &c. neste in meridiem; estque in summo

Petavii errorem. Levissimus sane erjugo Lepini montis, teste Luca Hol- ror: nam prædia illa et villæ proxistenio.

ma erant ipsi Albæ. 75 Ibid. voce, Ferentinum. (t. 1. p. 79 [Voce, Alba Longa. (t. 1. p.21.) 288.) Ferentinum, Ferentino vel Fi- Alba Longa, Alba adhuc, urbs Latii orentino, urbs est parva, in colle, excisa, antiquior Roma, ab Ascanio tribus milliaribus ab Anagnia in or- an.32. post excidium Trojæ condita, tum Verulum versus, et 6. a Frusi- anno mundi 3066. Manet episcopanone in boream; 4. autem ab Alatro tus cardinalibus tribui solitus, ab in occasum, sub dominio summi urbe Roma 16. mill. passuum. Ilpontificis, et 8. milliaribus a confinio lam circumstant Castra, Albanum, regni Neapolitani.

Savellum, et Gandulphi, ex ruinis 76 Ibid. voce, Verulæ. (t. 2. p.318.) ejus, ut ferunt, constructa. BauVerulum .... Verulæ Frontino, Vé- drand. (ibid.) Alba in ruinis jacet... tuli vulgo, colonia et urbs Latii epi- Distat ab urbe Roma. 14. mill. passcopalis in Hernicis, apud Cosam suum. Grischov.] fluvium, media fere inter Anagniam

from each other. Velitræ was but four miles from Alba and

. twenty from Rome; Antium on the Tuscan shore fourteen from Velitra and twenty from Ostia, as the same Ferrarius 50 informs us. Between Antium and Velitræ lay Tres Taberna, the place whither the Christians came to meet St. Paul from Rome. Carolus à Sancto Paulo thinks it is the same which is now called Cisterna, but Holstenius 81

says,

it was at some distance from it in the Via Appia, so near Velitræ that Gregory the Great united those two dioceses together. Ferrarius 82 says it was but five miles from Velitræ, and twenty-six, or, as Baudrand computes, twenty-one from Rome, five from Aricia, and twenty-two from Appii Forum, the other place whither the brethren came to meet St. Paul. Indeed, neither Aricia nor Appii Forum are mentioned as episcopal sees by any

ancient writer; but Ferrarius 83 seems to make them both so; for he says Aricia was a famous city and a Roman colony, which by the common rule of the Church had thereby a title to an episcopal see. Nor is it any objection against it that it was but sixteen miles from Rome, and four or five from Alba, Tres Tabernæ, and Velitræ; for we have seen already that many cities in this tract were at no greater distance from one another. Of Appii Forum he speaks more positively, and says it was anciently an episcopal see *4, though from what authority he tells us not. But there is some reason to believe it, because it was a city at a good distance from any other; for Tarracina on the east was near twelve miles from it, and Tres Tabernæ westward above twenty; so that either Tres Tabernæ and Tarracina must have dioceses of more than ordinary extent in these parts, or else Appii Forum must come between them. But I let this pass, because in matters of doubtful nature,

80 Voce, Velitre. (t. 2. p.31.)... hanc ecclesiam desolatam Velitrensi Colonia et urbs Latii episcopalis in conjunxit. Via Appia, a Roma 20. mill. pass. in 82 Voce, Tres Tabernæ. (t. 2. p. eurum, Privernum versus distans, 280.) Tres Tabernæ, Cisterna, urbs Albæ et Ariciæ vicina ad 3. et 4. olim Latii episcopalis ..... inter urmill., &c.

bem Romam 26. et Forum Appii 22. 81 Annot. in Car. a S. Paul. p. 9. mill. pass. ultra Velitras 6. (ap. Car. a S. Paul. p. 51. n. t.) 83 Voce, Aricia. (t. 1. p. 66.)..... Tres Tabernæ, &c. Hoc falsum: Urbs et col. olim clara Latii, &c. Nam Trium Tabernarum vestigia

84 Voce, Forum Appü. (ibid. p. haud procul inde in ipsa Via Appia 295.) Urbs Latii olim episcopalis, conspiciuntur. Gregorius Magnus &c.

where we are destitute of ancient authorities, nothing can certainly be determined. I go on therefore with those that are more certain. From Tarracina to Fundi the modern accounts 85 reckon but ten miles, though the Jerusalem Itinerary calls it thirteen 56, and Antonine’s Itinerary sixteen. From Fundi to Formiæ the same Itineraries reckon twelve and thirteen, which Ferrarius from the modern geographers esteems but ten; cautioning his reader here 87 against a great error in Strabo, who makes it four hundred stadia, that is fifty miles, from Tarracina to Formiæ, when indeed it was not half the distance. If we look a little upward from the sea to the north-eastern part of Latium, there we find Aquinum and Cassinum but five miles from one another, and Atina the same distance from Cassinum, and Sora twelve miles from Atina, twelve from Ferentinum, sixteen from Cassinum, and sixty from Rome. So that in the compass of seventy old Italian miles, which are not quite sixty of the modern, there were betwixt twenty and thirty bishoprics, answerable to the number of cities in Latium in the most flourishing times of the Roman empire.

From Latium we must pass into Campania, where we first meet with Minturnæ, now called Scaffa del Garigliano, not far from the mouth of the river Liris, which Ferrarius 88 computes nine miles from Formiæ, and as many from Sinuessa. A little above these lay Teanum, now called Tiano, eight miles from Suessa, twelve from Capua; and Calenum was the same distance from Capua, and but six from Suessa, and six from Sinuessa, as Ferrarius 89 reckons. Carolus à Sancto Paulo takes Calenum for Cagli, and others for Cales; but Holstenius 90

85 Voce, Fundi. (ibid. p. 304.) ... Teanum, cognomento Sidicinum PliPost Tarricinam 1o. mill. pass. me- nio et aliis, Tiano, colonia et urbs dia inter illam et Formias.

Campaniæ episcopalis sub archiepi86 Holsten. in Cluver. (pp. 217, scopo Capuano, inde 12. mill. pass. 218.) Viæ Appiæ loca et intervalla Casinum versus 20. in colle, inter nostro tempore sic computantur : Cales 4. et Suessam 8.-It. voce, Roma Ariciam, m. p. xii. &c. Ex Calenum. (t. 1. p. 148.) Calenum, Hierosolymitano Itinerario Viæ Ap- Carinola, urbs Campaniæ, in regno piæ: Roma Ariciam, 16.

Neapolitano, in agro Stellate, apud 87 Voce, Formiæ. (t. 1. p. 294.) Ca- Montem Massicum, Suessæ propinvendus est error hic Strabonis, &c. qua ad 6. mill. pass. totidem fere a

88 Voce, Minturnæ. (ibid. p. 485.) Sinuessa urbe excisa, episc. sub ... Inter Formas ad Occasum et archiepiscopo Capuano, inde 12. Sinuessam ad ortum ... 9. mill. pass. mill. Sinuessam versus. &c.

90 In Cluver. (p. 258. ult. lin.) 89 Voce, Teanum. (t. 2. p. 245.) Ipsam Carinolam olim Celenam vel shows it to be the same with Carinola, which is now a bishop's seat, and as Baudrand computes, but four miles from Suessa, and as many from the Tuscan shore. Next beyond these lay Vulturnum, now called Castel di Bitorno, at the mouth of the river Vulturnus, eight miles from Sinuessa, and nine from Linternum, and ten from Capua. Five miles beyond Linternum, on the same shore, was Cumæ, and three miles below that Misenum, from whence to Puteoli was but three miles likewise, and from Puteoli to Naples six, according to Ferrarius's computation. About eighteen miles beyond Naples was Stabiæ, and six from that Surrentum on the same shore, beyond which was Amalphia and Salernum, the last of which is reckoned by Ferrarius but twenty-four miles from Naples. On the north and east of Naples lay Nola, which could not be above twelve miles from it; for Holstenius 91 observes, that Octavianum, the village where Octavius Augustus died, under Mount Vesuvius, was in the way between them, five miles from Naples, and seven from Nola. Between Nola and Capua lay Acerræ, six miles from Nola, and eight from Naples, and ten from Capua ; for from Nola to Capua was but twenty old Italian miles, as we learn from Paulinus 92, bishop of Nola, who could not be mistaken. Naples and Capua were but sixteen miles asunder, and yet Atella, now called St. Arpino, or St. Elpidio, lay between them, which, Ferrarius 93 says, was eight miles from each. Calatia was but the same distance to the north of Capua ; Venafrum but ten miles from Cassinum. Abellinum was the largest diocese in all Campania, sixteen miles from

Celennam dictam conjicio primum niam in Hirpinis fuit. Julianum ex versu

Virgilii, 1. 7. (v: 739.) vero alicubi in Campania episcopum Quique Rufas [al. Rufras] Batulum. fuisse testatur idem Prosper in epique colunt, atque arva Celennæ.

grammate, quo eumdem Julianum Cum enim Rufæ ... fuerit, ubi nunc perstringit. Presenzanum, Theanensis diæcesis 91 Annot. in Ortel. (p. 133.) Octaoppidum, exstat, Celennam quoque vianum, villa Octavii imperatoris, sub in hac Campaniæ parte ponendam Vesuvio monte 5. m. p. a Neapoli, et existimo, cui planitiem magnam sub- 7. ab urbe Nola, ubi etiam mortuus jectam Virgilius ostendit. Deinde est. quia Julianus, Pelagianus episcopus 92 Ad Cyther. Carm. 13. (p.492.) Campanus, Celanensis episcopus a Ab urbe Capua, quæ locis sedis meæ Beda vocatur, quod ad Virgilii Ce. Bis dena distat millia, &c. lennam non male trahit Rosweidus 93 Voce, Atella. (t. 1. p. 82.)... in notis ad Paulinum. Nam Cela- Media inter Capuam et Neapolim nensis civitas, ut apud Prosperuni 8. mill. pass. utrimque, &c. in Chronicis legitur, extra Campa

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Beneventum, and as much from Nola, Salernum, and Frequentum in the province of Samnium, to which, Baudrand 94 says, it was afterward united.

If now we put all these Italian dioceses hitherto enumerated together, they amount to above one hundred and ten, whereof twenty were in that little part of Tuscia, which is now called St. Peter's Patrimony, twenty in Umbria, eleven in Valeria, nineteen in Picenum Suburbicarium, and forty-three in Latium and Campania. And yet all this country put together was not in the longest part of it above two hundred miles on the Tuscan shore; for from the river Marta, on which lay Tarquinia and Gravisca, to Rome is reckoned fifty modern miles; from Rome to Naples one hundred and twenty-five; and from Naples to Salernum, the utmost diocese in Campania, but twenty-four, according to the computations of Ferrarius. On the Adriatic shore it was only the length of Picenum Suburbicarium, between the rivers Æsis and Aternus, which was not above one hundred and twenty miles. The breadth of it in the widest part of it, from Ancona on the Adriatic Sea to Ostia on the Tuscan Sea, was but one hundred and sixty-four miles, and in the narrower parts, from the mouth of the river Aternus to the mouth of the Liris, not above one hundred and twenty miles; which the curious may divide among one hundred and ten dioceses, and then examine whether they exceed the proportions which I have before assigned them.

6. I will not stand so nicely to examine the rest of the Italian Of Samdioceses, but only recount the number in each province, and nium. make a few remarks upon the largest, as I have hitherto done upon the smallest ; that the reader may pursue this inquiry further at his own pleasure, and see that the greatness or smallness of a diocese anciently bred no division or disturbance in the Catholic Church.

The next province then in order to be spoken of is Samnium, which lay on the coast of the Adriatic Sea, between Picenum Suburbicarium on the west, from which it was divided by the river Aternus, or Pescara, and Apulia on the east, from which it was separated by the river Frenta. In this province Carolus à Sancto Paulo reckons but ten dioceses. 1. Beneventum. 2. Sæpinum. 3. Sulmo. 4. Bovianum, 94 Ut supr. voce, Abellinum. (p. 3.)... Unitus est cum Frequentino, &c. BINGHAM, VOL. III.

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