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the latter was made out of the former a great many centuries after, in the time of Charles V, anno 1350, when the see of Taruanna was divided into three, and translated to Bononia for that part of the diocese which is in France, and to Audomaropolis, or St. Omer, for that part which is in Artois, and to Ipres, [or, more correctly, Ypres,] for the third part in Flanders. 10. Germanica Prima had but four dioceses. ). Moguntia- Of Germa

nica, Prima cum, Mayence or Mentz. 2. Argentoratum, Strasburg. . 3. and SeSpira Nemetum, Spires. 4. Wormacia Vangionum, Worms. cunda. Germanica Secunda had but two. 1. Colonia Agrippina, Colen, (or rather, Cologne.] 2. Tungri, or Aduatuca Tungrorum, Tongres in Brabant; which see was first translated to Trajectum ad Mosam, Maestricht, and from thence to Leodium, or Liege; where it now continues, having the temporal jurisdiction joined to the spiritual, and twenty-four towns or cities subject to its command.

Now I suppose any one that knows any thing of the state of these countries, will easily conclude, that the greatest part of these dioceses were large, as they are at this day; the whole number being but one hundred and twenty-two, when the bounds of France extended much further than they do at present, including some parts of Helvetia, Germania, and Belgium, which are now reckoned distinct countries of themselves.

11. Out of France, passing over the Pyrenean mountains, The ancient we come into Spain, which, with the province of Tingitana, in division of

the Spanish Afric, and the islands called Baleares, made up another great provinces. civil diocese of the Roman empire under the Præfectus-Prætorio Galliarum. The whole country of Spain then was divided only into five provinces, Tarraconensis, Carthaginensis, Bætica, Lusitania, and Gallæcia, and in these provinces there were never above seventy-four or seventy-six episcopal dioceses, when they were most numerous, and they are almost as many at this day. 12. In the large province of Tarraconensis, which lay next Of Tarra

conensis. to France, there were only sixteen dioceses. 1. Tarracona, now Tarragona, the metropolis. 2. Dertosa, Tortosa. 3. Cæsaraugusta, Saragossa. 4. Tyrassona, or Turiasso, now Tarazona. 5. Calagurris, Calahorra. 6. Auca, Oca. 7. Osca, Hu

8. Pampilona, Pampluna. 9. Ilerda, Lerida. 10. Barcino, Barcelona. 11. Egara, Tarrassa, a place near Barcelona,

BINGHAM, VOL. III.

esca.

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about four or six leagues from it, and now united to it. 12. Ausona, or Ausa, Vich de Ausona. 13. Gerunda, Gironne. 14. Emporiæ, Empurias, Cor Ampurias.] 15. Orgellum, Urgel.

16. Velia, now Veleia. Of Cartha- 13. Next to this, on the coast of the Mediterranean, lay the ginensis.

province called Carthaginensis, from the chief city Carthago, Carthagena, which was the ancient metropolis of the province, though Toledo afterward gained the privilege of being a new metropolis, and at last succeeded to the dignity of the whole province. Beside these two Carolus à Sancto Paulo reckons twenty-two more dioceses in this province. 1. Complutum, now Alcala de Henares. 2. Oxoma, Osma. 3. Pallentia, (Palencia.] 4. Voleria, Valera la Vieja. 5. Saguntum, or Segontia, Siguenza. 6. Secobia, Segovia. 7. Arcabrica, Arcas. 8. Oretum, Oreto, 9. Valentia, Valencia. 10. Dianium, Denia. 11. Setabis, Xativa. 12. Basti, Baza. 13. Mentesa, Mentexa. 14. Salaria. 15. Acci, Guadix. 16. Segobriga, Segorbe. 17. Castulo, Gazlona. 18. Bigastrum. 19. Illicias, [or Illici,] which some make the same as Alicante, others Origuela, or Elche. 20. Ergavica, a place of more doubtful situation, some taking it for Alcaniz, near Toledo, others for Penna Escritta, or Santaver.

21. Eliocrota, Lorca. 22. Urci, or Virgi, now Orce. Of Bætica.

14. The next province of Bætica had but eleven dioceses, 1. Hispalis, Seville. 2. Italica, Sevilla la Vieja. 3. Ilipa, [or Elipla,] Niebla. 4. Astygis, Ecija. 5. Corduba, Cordova. 6. Egabrum, Cabra. 7. Eliberis, [or Illiberis,] Elvira. 8. Malaca, Malaga. 9. Asinda, or Assidonia, Medina Sidonia. 10.

Tucci, Martos. 11. Abdara, Adra. Of Lusi- 15. In the province of Lusitania there were but nine diotania.

1. Emerita, Merida, the metropolis. 2. Abula, Avila. 3. Salmantica, Salamanca. 4. Ebora, [or Elbora,] Evora. 5. Cauria, Coria. 6. Pax Julia, Beja, which some by mistake confound with Pax Augusta, now called Badajos, which is but a modern bishopric. 7. Ossonaba, Estoy. 8. Olysippo, [or Olisippo,] Lisbon. 9. Egita, Eidania.

16. Gallæcia, [which is frequently termed Callæcia,] was a large province, and yet never had above thirteen or fourteen dioceses. In the Council of Lucus Augusti, or Lugo, under King Theodimir, anno 569, a complaint was made that the dioceses here were so large, that the bishops could scarce visit

ceses.

Of Gallæ. cia.

them in a year : upon which an order was made, that several new bishoprics and one new metropolis should be erected; which was accordingly done by the bishops then in council, who made Lugo to be the new metropolis, and raised several other episcopal sees out of the old ones, as is declared in the Acts 19 of that Council. Bracara, now called Braga, was the old metropolis, which after the division had no more than seven dioceses subject to it. 1. Dumium. 2. Portus Calensis, now El Puerto. 3. Conimbrica, Coimbra. 4. Viseum, Viseo, [or Viseu.] 5. Lamecum, Lamego. 6. Valentia ad Minium, Valenza al Minho. 7. Legio, Leon. The other metropolis, Lucus Augusti, had but five suffragans. 1. Iria Flavia, El Padron. 2. Auria, Orense. 3. Tude, Tuy. 4. Asturica, Astorga. 5.

. Britonia, (or Britonium,] Bretagna. Of these, Legio and Asturica are thought by many learned men to have been but one diocese in the time of Cyprian, because he joins them together in the same Epistle 20, writing to the Church in both places; but I think the argument is hardly cogent, because he joins Emerita with them in the same inscription.

There is another place, which some say had no diocese but a monastery, that is Dumium, near Braga. But this is a great mistake; for though there be an instance or two in ancient history21 of bishops being ordained in monasteries without any diocese at all, yet we no where read that their monastery was their diocese: and in the present case it was far otherwise ; for, as a learned man 22 has shown, Dumium had another diocese beside the monastery. In the Acts of the Council of Lugo 23 it is said to have familia regia, the king's court, belonging to it; for Martin Bracarensis, commonly called the Apostle of Gallæcia, having converted Theodimir, king of the Suevi, from the Arian heresy, was created bishop in the monastery of Dumium, which he had built, not for the service of the monastery, but the king's court, till he was translated to Bracara or Braga, the

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19 C. Lucens. Gen. (t. 5. p. 875 d.) 21 See b.4. ch. 6. s. 3. v. 2. p. 77. .... Elegerunt in synodo ut sedes 22 Maurice, Defence of Dioces. Lucensis esset metropolitana sicut Episc. (p. 149.) But that he had no et Bracara.... Sicque post hæc pro other, &c. unaquaque cathedra diæceses et pa- 23 (Ubi supr. (t. 5. p. 875 a.) Ad rochias diviserunt, &c.

Dumio familia servorum.-In marg. 20 Vid. Inscript. Ep. 67. al. 68. (ibid.) Ad sedem Dumiensem familia (p. 287.)... Plebibus consistentibus regia. Grischov.] ad Legionem et Asturiæ, &c.

Of the islands

metropolis of the province. And further, in the distribution of dioceses made by King Wamba, the bounds of this diocese are marked, from Duma to Albia, and from Rianteca to Adasa ; which though they be such obscure places, as geographers take no notice of, yet they argue the diocese to be larger than the monastery: or at least this monastery, like that of Sublaqueum in the diocese of Tibur in Italy, had several villages under its jurisdiction; and so it might have a sufficient diocese, though not so large as the rest of the province of Gallæcia, which was so vastly great as to need the wisdom and consideration of a Council to contract it.

17. To these Spanish provinces we must join the Spanish Majorica, islands, Majorica, Minorica, and Ebusus, which Carolus à Sancto

, Minorica, Paulo, by mistake, places with Sardinia as appendants of the and Ebusus.

Roman diocese. Majorica, the largest of the Baleares, was one hundred and ten miles in circuit, yet it never had above one episcopal diocese, whose chief seat was Palma, now called Mallorca, which is the name that the inhabitants at present give to the whole island, by others called Majorca. Minorica, Minorca, is sixty miles in compass, and anciently enjoyed a bishop of its own, whose see was Jamna, now called Citadella, the capital city of the island. Ebusus, now called Yvica, was less than these, yet large enough to make a distinct diocese, being fortytwo miles in compass, having a city of the same name with several villages under its jurisdiction. So that in all the Spanish provinces the dioceses were generally very large, and not one among them whose bounds did not far exceed the limits of a

single congregation. The state 18. And that this was the true state of the Spanish Church of the

in ancient times, appears from some of her most early Councils. Spanish Church The Council of Eliberis, which was held anno 305, in the beevidenced from some

ginning of the Diocletian persecution, has a canon which plainly of her most supposes the dioceses to have country-parishes, when it says 23, ancient Councils. • If any deacon, who has the care of a people, shall baptize

any one without a bishop or presbyter, the bishop shall consummate him by his benediction. The same is more plainly intimated by a canon of the first Council of Toledo 24, anno

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23 C. 77. (t. 1. p. 978 e.) Si quis zaverit, episcopus eos per benedicdiaconus, regens plebem, sine epi- tionem perficere debebit. scopo vel presbytero aliquos bapti- 24 C. 20. (t. 2. p. 1226 d.)... Pla

and Scotland.

400, which directs the presbyters of every church throughout each diocese to send to the bishop before Easter for chrism,' to be used in baptism at Easter, and other solemn times, when baptism was to be administered.' This supposes the Spanish dioceses to have country-parishes, where presbyters and deacons resided without the bishop; and it serves to confirm the account that has been given of the original state and division of those Churches.

19. Out of Spain, we come at last to the British Isles, part of Ireland of which only was under the Roman government, and called the Britannic diocese; for Ireland and the greatest part of Scotland never eame under that denomination. Yet in our passage it will not be amiss to say something of them, as well as England, if it were for no other reason but to set aside and censure some fabulous reports that are made of them.

When Ireland was first converted, or by whom, is not very material here to be inquired, since before the time of St. Patrick, anno 433, there is little mention of bishops or dioceses in this kingdom; and after him the accounts of them are so uncertain and dark, that Carolus à Sancto Paulo does not pretend to give any other catalogue of them but what he has from Camden and the Provinciale Romanum, both of which are modern accounts; for they make mention of the diocese of Waterford, which, as Dr. Cave 25 and other learned men have observed out of Eadmerus 26, was not erected till the year 1097, when

cuit, ex hac die nullum alium nisi mine, et Dofnaldus episcopus cum episcopum chrisma conficere, et per cæteris episcopis, et quique nobiles diæcesim destinare; ita ut de singu- cum clero et populo ipsius insulæ, lis ecclesiis ad episcopum ante diem miserunt nuntios ac literas ad AnPaschæ diaconi destinentur, qui con- selmum, innotescentes ei, civitatem fectum chrisma, ab episcopo desti- quandam, Wataferdiam [al. Waternatum, ad diem Paschæ possint ad fordiam] nomine, in una suarum tempus deferre.

provinciarum esse, cui ob numero25 Hist. Liter. (v. 2. p. 372.) Hi- sam civium multitudinem expediret bernicum (Concilium) anno 1097, episcopum institui; simulque petenloco incerto habitum : In quo Mur- tes, ipse quatenus primatus, quem chertacus rex, ejusque clerus et po- super eos gerebat, potestate, et qua pulus, ab Anselmo Cantuariensi, fungebatur vicis apostolicæ auctoritanquam primate suo, petunt, ut tate, sanctæ Christianitati ac necesoppidum Waterfordiense in episco- sariæ plebium utilitati instituendo palem sedem erigatur, &c. See the eis pontificem subveniret. Jam enim next note.

sæcula multa transierant, in quibus 26 Hist. 1. 2. p. 36. (ad calc. t. 2. eadem civitas, absque providentia et Oper. Anselm. p. 62. summ.) cura pontificali consistens, per diRex Hiberniæ Murchertachus no- versa tentationum pericula jactaba

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