famous monk, who came out of Ireland in the time of Justin Junior, anno 565, to preach the Gospel to them, as Bede informs us in the same place. So that it would be in vain to search after episcopal dioceses, before we have any certainty that Christianity was planted among them. In the following ages we have no particular account of any other diocese, save this of Candida Casa, in Bede or any other authentic writer. For though they speak of bishops both among the southern and the northern Picts, yet they take no notice of the names of their Whence some have concluded, that the Scottish bishops had no proper sees, but were ordained at large for the whole country; and others, that there was but one bishop for all the region. The first of which opinions is incredible, because it is against the known rule of the Catholic Church, which forbad any bishop to be ordained at large: and the other is expressly refuted by Bede31, who speaks of several bishops in the province of the northern Picts; and by the writer of the Life of Ninias in Bp. Usher's Antiquities 32, who says, “that Ninias, having converted the southern Picts, ordained them presbyters, and consecrated them bishops, and divided the whole region into certain parochiæ or dioceses, and so returned to his own church again,' meaning Candida Casa before mentioned. Whence it is evident there were bishops both among the northern and southern Picts, though the names of their dioceses be not mentioned.

As for the diocese of Candida Casa, bishop Usher truly observes, that it was not properly in any part of the Picts' dominions, but in that part or province of the Romish Britain which was called Valentia, and afterwards Bernicia by Bede, when it was under the dominion of the Saxons. Bishop Usher 33 thinks


31 Ibid. 1. 3. C. 4. See before, b. 2. lore appellatione retenta, Whit-herne ch. 4. s. 2. v. 1. p. 88. n. 50.

nominato. Unde ad ecclesiam Glas32 P. 350. (Works, v. 6. p. 207.) cuensem in Glottæ sive Cluidæ fluHic vero ordinavit presbyteros, epi- vii, qui ditionis Romanorum et rescopos consecravit, et totam terram lictorum ab eis Britonum extremus per certas parochias divisit, confir- erat terminus, ripa sitam, a Kentimatisque in fide omnibus, ad eccle- gerno translata fuisse videtur. Glassiam suam est regressus.

cuensem enim diæcesim eo tempore 33 Ibid. p. 249. (p. 205.) Illud in- eosdem cum Cambrensi illo regno terim certum est, inter Britannos limites habuisse, et ad murum illum suos sedem episcopalem constituisse celebratissimum protensum fuisse, Ninianum, in loco olim Candida et, quod hinc est consequens, CanCasa, hodie, a candido quoque co- didam Casam complexu suo conti

The dioceses


it was also sometimes called the kingdom of Cambria or Cum-
berland; and that the diocese of Casa Candida was some time
of equal extent with that kingdom, reaching from Glasgow on
the river Clota or Clyde, to Stanemore-Cross in the borders of
Westmoreland; and that in the time of Kentigern the see was
removed to Glasgow. But when the Irish-Scots had seized
this country, and given it the name of Galloway, this and the
neighbouring regions were all subjected to the bishop of So-
dora, whose residence was in the Isle of Man; till Malcolm
the Third, King of Scots, made Candida Casa a bishop's see
again, and assigned it the country of Galloway for its diocese,

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nuisse, in Kentigerni Vita pariter didæ Casæ episcopatum semper fulegimus. Ulterius etiam, ejus ver- isse ditionis Scoticæ, nec unquam sus austrum episcopatus tunc tem- Anglico juri subjectum. Ut igitur poris ultimum finem fuisse ad Cru- apud Britones primus Candidæ Cacem Regiam infra Stanemore, in sæ episcopus erat Ninianus, ita AnScoti Chronico traditum invenimus. glorum primus in ea sede antistes Quod autem Hector Boëthius Can- erat Pecthelmus: ad quem populadidam Casam sub Mordaci Scotorum ris sui Bonifacii Moguntini archiregis ditione fuisse vult, quem anno episcopi XI. data legitur epistola. 731, in quo Ecclesiasticam suam Hi- Pecthelmo, ut in Florentii Wigornistoriam terminavit Beda, defunctum ensis habetur Chronico, anno 735, fuisse notat; tam verum est, quam defuncto successit Frithwaldus; eiquod de Beda statim subdit: 'Beda que, anno 763, nonis Maii ex hac locum Pictiminiam vocat, Accamque vita decedenti, successor 16 Kalend. antistitem, qui sub id tempus sacræ Augusti datus est Pechtwinus; eo sedi Candida in Casa præfuit; eum- vero, anno 777, mortuo, sequente que virum primum post D. Ninia- anno Eboraci decimo septimo Canum ibidem gessisse episcopatum.' lendas Julii episcopus ordinatus est Nam neque ita locum hunc uspiam Æthelbertus : cui, anno 791, subvocavit Beda, neque illum loci ejus stitutus est Beadvulfus : Nec prænominavit antistitem : et in Anglo- terea,' inquit Guilielmus Malmesburum non in Scotorum potestate Can- riensis, 'plures alicubi reperio; quod didam Casam eo tempore fuisse, cla- cito defecerit episcopatus, qui extrerissime confirmat. Anno enim illo, ma Arglorum in ora est, et Scoto731, præsulatum tenuisse scribit : rum vel Pictorum depopulationi op* Accam in Hagustaldensi ecclesia, portuna. In antiquissimo tamen Pecthelmum in ea, quæ Candida Anglo-Saxonicorum episcoporuminCasa vocatur ; quæ nuper, inquit, diculo, huic etiam Heathoredum sucmultiplicatis fidelium plebibus, in se- cessisse invenio : post cujus tempora dem pontificatus addita, ipsum pri- regio illa, a Scotis sive Hibernis ocmum habet antistitem. Hanc vero cupata, Gallwalliæ et Gallovidiæ ab jam tunc Anglorum gentem obtinu- eis nomen accepit. Deinceps vero isse, et ad provinciam Berniciorum in Scotiis proditum habetur annalipertinuisse,' et ipse apertissimis ver- bus, Gallovidiam ac vicinas regiones bis antea scripserat, et Joannes Ma. Sodorensi episcopo, cui in Mona injor ingenue agnoscit ; “pro tempore sula sedes erat sacra, usque ad Malsuo et non futuro Bedam scripsisse' colmi tertii regis tempora in rebus simul admonens. Quo magis Thomæ paruisse divinis: a quo Gallovidiæ Dempsteri confidentiam et temerita- Candida Casa, ut hodie manet, epitem demirari liceat, tam audacter scopalis sedes est constituta. asseverantis, 'hoc certe liquere; Can

which continues to be so to this day. I cannot give any such particular account of any other diocese in the kingdom of Scotland for want of certain records ; but this is certain, that from the first conversion of it, first by Ninias and then by Columbanus, they had several bishops among the Picts; part of whose country being made tributary, as well as Valentia, to the Saxon kings of Northumberland, their bishops consequently became subject to the metropolitan of York, from whose hands they sometimes had their ordination.

20. There remains only one country more to be examined, of the Briwhich is our own part of the British nation ;—a country that tish Church

in England embraced the Christian faith as early as any of the western and Wales. parts of the world, and therefore may be presumed to have received the same form of government that we have found in all other Churches. It has been noted before, [at the sixth section of the first chapter of this Book, p. 227,] that the Britannic diocese was divided by the Romans at first into three provinces, and then into five: but by the injury of time we have no complete account of what bishoprics were erected in every province. They who speak of a precise number of flamens and archflamens, turned into so many archbishops and bishops, seem rather to deliver their own fancies, than relate true history. That which is certain in the case, is this :there were here in the beginning of the fourth century such episcopal Churches as were in all other nations; for the bishops of these Churches were summoned to Councils as others were. There were British bishops in the Council of Arles 34, Eborius de Civitate Eboracensi, Restitutus de Civitate Londinensi, Adelphus de Civitate Colonia Londinensium. The last of which Holstenius 35, following Camden and Selden in his Notes upon Eutychius, thinks ought rather to be read Colonia Camalodunensium, which some take to be Colchester, others Maldon,

34 C. Arelat. 1. an. 314. (t. 1. p. Colonia Camalodunum vocabatur, 1430 b.) Eborius episcopus, de ci- ut erudite docet Camdenus, qui eam vitate Eboracensi, provincia Britan- non Colchester, sed Maldon nunc nia. Restitutus episcopus, de civitate dici ostendit ; ut et Seldenus in Londinensi, provincia supra scripta. Notis ad Eutychium Alexandr. p. Adelphius episcopus, de civitate Co- 119, ubi recte conjicit in subscript. lonia Londinensium ; exinde sacer- Arelatensis Concilii pro Colonia dos presbyter, Arminius diaconus. Londinensium, legendum Colonia

35 Annot. in Car, a S. Paul. p. Camalodunensium. Hoc enim veris108. (ap. C. a S. P. p. 163. n. 1.) simum est.

others Walden in Essex. But a late learned antiquary 36, in his Posthumous Observations upon Antonine's Itinerary of Britain, has happily discovered that the true reading should in all probability be Colonia Lindi, which is the old Roman name for Lincoln, as he shows not only out of Antonine and Ptolemy who call it Lindum, but out of the anonymous geographer of Ravenna, who more expressly styles it Lindum Colonia; which with a little variation is the name that is given it also by Bede 37, who calls it Lindocolina, and the region thereabout

Provincia Lindissi, whence I presume comes the name of Lindsey Coast, which is the name of one part of that province to this day.

But to return to the ancient bishops of this nation. Some authors say, there were British bishops in the Council of Nice; but that does not so evidently appear from ancient history. It is more certain there were three bishops from Britain in the Council of Ariminum, as Sulpicius Severus 38 informs us. And Athanasius 39 also takes notice of British bishops in the Council of Sardica, anno 347. And Hilary inscribes his book, De Synodis 10, to the bishops of the British provinces among many others. Yet none of these authors tell us precisely the number

36 Gale, Not. in Antonin. Itiner. prima ad meridianam Humbræ fluBrit. ad voce Lindo, Lincolne, (p. minis ripam, pertingens usque ad 96.) Anonymus Ravennas habet ex- mare; præfectumque Lindocolinæ presse Lindum Colonia. Hoc uno civitatis, cui nomen erat Blaecca, vocabulo adjecto, quantum lucis af- primum cum domo sua convertit ad fudit historiæ antiquæ! Magnas pro- Dominum. fecto gratias ei debemus, quod tan- 38 Hist. Sacr. l. 2. p. 109. (p.419.) dem subscriptionem Concilii Arela- Ita Missis per Illyricum, Italiam, tensis intelligamus. Adelphius episco- Africam, Hispanias, Galliasque mapus, de civitate Colonia Londi, haud gistris officialibus, acciti numerative dubie pro Colonia Lindi: hoc ipsum quadringenti et aliquanto amplius Beda pene vidit, cum hanc urbem occidentales episcopi, Ariminum Lindi-colina nominaret. Ptolemæus [anno 359 ?] convenere... Tres tanquoque Lindum dixit. Romana nu- tum ex Britannia. mismata in campis ad boream hujus 39 Apol. 2. p. 720. (t. 1. part. 1. p. civitatis inveniri notat Lelandus. 97 b.)... Ev peyál, ovvóda tn [Ravennas, an assumed name. The ev sapdıký ouvaydeion Karà poctawork, entitled Geographic Libri V. ξιν των θεοφιλεστάτων βασιλέων Κωνcum Notis Placidi Porcheron, was σταντίου και Κωνσταντος έν ή και οι published at Paris, 1688. 8vo. and ka huôv yevóuevoi kaypédngay s by J. Gronovius at Leyden, 1696. συκοφάνται: τοις τε κριθείσιν υπέρ 8vo, as well as afterward by Abra- ημών συνεψηφίσαντο μεν επίσκοποι ham Gronovius again at Leyden, πλείους τριακοσίων, εξ επαρχιών Αι1722. 8vo. Ed.]

γύπτου, Λιβύης... Βρεττανίων. 37 Hist. 1. 2. c. 16. (p. 97. 4.) 40 Ap. Oper. t. 2. (p. 458.) the Prædicabat autem Paulinus verbum title, Synodis Provinciarum Britanetiam provinciæ Lindissi, quæ est niarum Episcopis.

of the whole college, and therefore we can only conjecture from the remains of those British bishops which continued in Wales after the Saxon conquests, and were there at the coming of Austin into England. Bede 41 takes notice of seven of those, who came to the synod of Worcester, or Austin's Oak, to confer with Austin about the settlement of the Church. And over these was also a metropolitan, to whom they professed subjection in the Council, which was the archbishop of Menevia, or St. David's, or, as they term him, the archbishop of Caer-Leon upon Uske, because that was the ancient metropolitical see, before it was translated to St. David's. The names of the other suffragans, as some of the British historians 42 record them in Latin, were then Herefordensis, Tavensis, Paternensis, Banchorensis, Elviensis, Vicciensis, Morgarensis, that is, Hereford, Landaff, Lan-Patern, Bangor, St. Asaph, Worcester, and Morgan. Now if the number of bishops in other provinces were answerable to this, we may conclude, there were more bishops before the invasion of the Saxons than there are at this day. But when Austin came into England, he found none except the forementioned. However Gregory the Great gave him orders 43 to settle twenty-six bishops, twelve bishops suffragans to the bishop of London, and as many subject to the metropolitan of York, and reserve

41 Hist. 1. 2. c. 2. (p. 79. 12.)... sola missarum solemnia agenda conAugustinus, adjutorio usus Ædil. cedimus: ita ut per loca singula duobercti regis, convocavit ad suum colo decim episcopos ordines, qui tuæ loquium episcopos sive doctores subjaceant ditioni, quatenus Lundoproximæ Britonum provinciæ, in niensis civitatis episcopus semper in loco qui usque hodie lingua Anglo- posterum a synodo propria debeat rum Augustines Ac, id est, Robur consecrari, atque honoris pallium ab Augustini, in confinio Huicciorum hac sancta et apostolica, cui Deo et Occidentalium Saxonum, appella- auctore deservio, sede percipiat. Ad tur ... Venerunt, ut perhibent, sep- Eburacam vero civitatem te volumus tem Britonum episcopi et plures episcopum mittere, quem ipse judiviri doctissimi, &c.

caveris ordinare; ita duntaxat, ut si 42 Galfrid, Monument. Hist. 1. 8. eadem civitas cum finitimis locis verc. 4. ap. Powel. Annot. in Girald. bum Dei receperit, ipse quoque duoCambrens. Itinerar. Cambriæ. 1. 2. decim episcopos ordinet, et metroc. 1. (p. 179.) Quorum tunc erant politani honore perfruatur ... Tua nomina, Henfordensis [leg. Here- vero fraternitas non solum eos epifordensis ?] Tavensis, &c.

scopos quos ordinaverit, neque hos 43 Ibid. 1. 1. c. 29. (p. 70, 18.) Et tantummodo, qui per Eburacæ epiquia nova Anglorum ecclesia ad Om- scopum fuerint ordinati, sed etiam nipotentis Dei gratiam, eodem Do- omnes Britanniæ sacerdotes habeat, mino largiente, et te laborante per- Deo domino nostro, Jesu Christo ducta est, usum tibi pallii in ea ad auctore, subjectos.

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