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AN ACCOUNT OF THE ANCIENT CHURCHES, AND THEIR
Of the several names and first original of churches among
Christians. 1. Having hitherto given an account of the persons, as of the well clergy as laity, that made up the great body of the name co
clesia, and Christian Church, I now proceed to speak of churches in an- KANCIAother sense: first, as taken for the material buildings, or
στήριον. places of assembly set apart for divine worship; and secondly, as taken for certain divisions or districts of dioceses, provinces, parishes, &c., into which the Church Catholic was divided. In speaking of the first, it will be proper to begin with their names, and make a little inquiry into the first original of churches among Christians.
. One of the most common names of churches, as taken for the structures or buildings, is that of ecclesia ; which yet among the ancient Greek writers often signifies the assembly or convocation of people met together, either upon sacred or civil affairs, and so it is sometimes used in Scripture, Acts 19, 40.
BINGHAM, VOL. III.
Matth. 18, 17. And so Isidore of Pelusium? uses it likewise, distinguishing thus between εκκλησιαστήριον and εκκλησία: “The εκκλησιαστήριον is the temple or building made of wood and stone, but the exkinola is the congregation of souls or people that meet therein. And in this sense, as St. Cyrila observes, there is a sort of pheronymy in the name čekinola which is so called åTÒ Toll ékkaleiv, because it is a convocation of men solemnly called together. But though this be a very ancient and common signification, yet it not less usually occurs in the other sense, denoting the place or building itself 3 where the congregation met together; and in this acceptation it is commonly opposed both to the synagogues of the Jews and the temples of the Gentiles: as appears from that noted passage in the Epistle of Aurelian, the heathen Emperor 4, where he chides the senate for demurring about the opening of the Sibylline Books, as if they had been upon a debate in a Christian church, and not in the temple of all the Gods.' And from another passage in St. Ambrose", where, pleading with Theodosius in behalf of a Christian bishop, who had caused a Jewish synagogue to be set on fire, he asks him, whether it was fitting that Christians should be so severely animadverted on for burning a synagogue, when Jews and Heathens had been spared, who had made havoc of the churches ?'
2. Another common name among the Latins is dominicum, names, do
or domus Dei, God's house, which answers to the Greek kuplaand Kupia. Kòv, whence with a little variation we have the Saxon name κον (whence
kyrik or kyrch, and the Scotch and English kirk and church, kyrk and
which are all words of the same import, denoting a place set church) and domus apart for the use and service of God. The name dominicum
is at least as old as Cyprian, but he applies it not only to the
! L. 2. ep. 246. (p. 236 c.)"Allo Ap. Vopisc. Vit. Aurelian. c. 20. totiv ekkintia kaì ärlo ekkinoia- (int. August. Hist. Scriptor. p. 852.) στήριον: η μεν γαρ εξ αμώμων ψυχών Miror vos, Patres Sancti, tamdiu de συνέστηκε το δε από λίθων και ξύλων aperiendis Sibyllinis dubitasse Liοικοδομείται.
bris; perinde quasi in Christiano2 Catech. 18. n. 11. [al. 24.] p. rum ecclesia, non in templo Deorum 270. (p. 296 c.) 'Ekkinoia 8è kaleitai omnium, tractaretis. φερωνύμως, διά τό πάντας εκκαλεί- 5 Ep. 29. [al. 40.] ad Theodos. (t. σθαι και ομου συνάγειν.
2. p.950 c. et p. 951 a.) Synagoga 3 Vid. Suicer. voce, 'Ekranoia. (t. incensa est, perfidiæ locus, impie1. p. 1049.) 'Ekkinoia dicitur áñò tatis domus . . . . ecclesia non vindiτου εκκαλείν.
cata est, vindicabitur synagoga?
church, but to the Lord's-supper6, and perhaps the Lord's-day. For, as the learned editor 7 and others have observed, the word dominicum signifies three things in ancient writers : 1. the Lord's-day ; 2. the Lord’s-supper; 3. the Lord's-house. And Cyprian's words may be construed to either sense; for he thus addresses himself to a rich matron: Do you think you rightly celebrate the dominicum, (the Lord's-day, or the Lord'ssupper,) who have no regard to the corban? who come into the Lord's house without any sacrifice, and eat part of the sacrifice which the poor have offered?' The same name occurs frequently in other Latin writers, as in Ruffin', who brings in the bishop who converted the philosopher in the Council of Nice, thus addressing himself to his new convert: 'Arise and follow me to the dominicum, and there receive the seal of your faith;' viz. baptism in the church. And St. Jerom 10 tells us that the famous church of Antioch, which was begun by Constantine, and finished and dedicated by Constantius, had the name of Dominicum Aureum, the Golden Dome, for its richness and beauty.
The Greek name kuplakòv is frequently to be met with in the Councils of Ancyrall and Neocæsarea 12 and Laodicea 13, and Eusebius , who says the persecuting Emperor Maximinus
6 De Oper. et Eleemos. p. 203. Dominicum celebrare te credis ? (p. 141.) Locuples et dives es, et do- 8 Bona, Rer. Liturg. 1. 1. c. 3. n. minicum celebrare te credis, quæ 11. (p. 179.) where the words of Cycorbonam omnino non respicis? quæ prian are cited. See the preceding in dominicum sine sacrificio venis; quæ partem de sacrificio, quod pau- 9 Hist. 1. 1. [al. 10.) c. 3. (p. 219 b. per obtulit, sumis?
5.) Si hæc ita esse credis, surge et 7 Fell, in loc. (p. 141. n. 1.) Ob sequere me ad dominicum, et hujus servandum venit, dominici voce tria fidei signaculum suscipe. significari apud veteres: 1. Diem 10 Chron. Olymp. 276. an. 3. [Ed. ipsam ; ita habetur Apoc. 1, 9, et Vallars. "Olymp. 277.] (t. 8. p. 785.) Ignat. Ep. ad Trallian. 2. Eccle- In Antiochia Dominicum, quod apsiam; ita Concil. Neocæs. can. 5. ju- pellatur Aureum, ædificari cæptum. bet catechumenum ingredientem és n C. 15. (t. 1. p. 1461 b.) Tlepi το κυριακών, in loco catechume- των διαφερόντων τώ κυριακώ, όσα έnorum subsistere. Et Hieron. in TOKÓTOV un Övros a peoBútepou étáChronico sic voce dominici uti- λησαν, άναβαλείσθαι το κυριακόν. tur. Et in vernaculis nostris lin- 12 C. 5. (ibid. p. 1481 c.) Karnguis, nostratium church, et Ger- xoúuevos càv cloepxóuevos eis kuplamanorum dohm, ex hoc fonte liquido Kòv, k.7.1. deducuntur. 3. Ponitur pro myste- 13 C. 28. (ibid. p. 1501 c.) "Otı où riis loco et tempore predictis cele- δεί εν τοις κυριακοίς, ή εν ταις εκκληbrari solitis; ita κυριακόν τελεϊν, est σίαις, τας λεγομένας αγάπας ποιείν, sacris Christianis operari. Et fortasse huc facit, quod hic dicitur, 14 L. 9. c. 10. (v. I. p. 457. 36.)
κ. τ. λ.