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THE REV. R. BINGHAM, JUN., M.A.

FORMERLY OF MAGDALENE HALL, OXFORD,

AND

FOR MANY YEARS CURATE OF TRINITY CHURCH, GOSPORT.

A NEW EDITION, IN TEN VOLUMES.

VOL. III.

OXFORD:

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

M. DCCC. LV.

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CHAPTER I.

Of the several names and first original of churches among Christians.

Sect. I. Of the name ecclesia, and Kino Laothplov, I.-II. Of the names

dominicum and Kuplakòv, whence comes kyrk and church, and domus

columbæ, 2.-III. Of the distinction between domus Dei, domus divina,

and domus ecclesiæ, 5.-IV. Churches called oratories, or houses of

prayer, 6.- V. Why called basilice and åváktopa, 8.- VI. When first

called temples, 9.–VII. Churches sometimes called synodi, concilia, con-

ciliabula, conventicula, 10.–VIII. Why some churches called martyria,

memoria, apostoleia, and propheteia, 13.-IX. Why called cæmeteria,

mense, and aree, 15.-X. Why case, tropæa, and tituli, 17.—XI. Of

tabernacles and minsters, and some other less usual names of churches,

20.-XII. Of the distinction between ecclesia matrix and diæcesana, 22.

-XIII. Proofs of churches in the first century, collected by Mr. Mede,

25.-Proofs in the second century, 28.-XV. Proofs in the third cen-

tury, 29.—XVI. The objection from Lactantius and Arnobius an-

swered, 32.—XVII. Some additional collections upon this head, 33.

CHAPTER II.

Of the difference between churches in the first ages and those that fol-

lowed. And of Heathen temples and Jewish synagogues converted into

Christian churches.

Sect. I. The first churches very simple and plain, 39.-II. Reasons for

enlarging and altering the state of ecclesiastical structures, 41.—III.

Particularly the munificence of Christian emperors contributed toward

this, 42.-IV. As also their orders for converting Heathen temples into

churches, 44.

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CHAPTER IV.
Of the interior narther, and the parts and uses of it.

Sect. I. Of the lesser apómula, or porches, before the doors of the church,

59.-11. Of the narther, apóvaos, or ferula, 60.—III. The use of it for

the catechumens and penitents of the second order, 61.-IV. Also for

Jews, Heathens, heretics, and schismatics to hear in, 62. –V. This not

the place of the font, or baptistery, as in our modern churches, 62.-

VI. Why called narthex, and of the different sorts of nartheces in several

churches, 63

CHAPTER V.

Of the naos, or nave of the church, and its parts and uses.

Sect. I. Of the beautiful and royal gates. Why so called, 64.—II. The

nave of the church usually a square building, called by some the oratory

of laymen, 65.—III. In the lowest part of which stood the substrati,

or penitents of the third order, 65.-IV. And the ambo or reading-desk,

66.–V. And above this the communicants and fourth order of peni-

tents, called consistentes, had their places, 69.–VI. The places of men

and women usually separate from each other, 70.–VII. Why these

places of the women were called κατηχούμενα and υπερώα, 73.-VIII.

Private cells for meditation, reading, and prayer, on the back of these,

74.—IX. The place of the virgins and widows distinguished from others,

74.—X. The owelov, or solea, that is, the magistrate's throne, in this

part of the church, 76.

CHAPTER VI.

Of the bema, or third part of the temple, called the altar and the sanctuary,

and the parts and uses of it.

Sect. I. The chancel, anciently called bema, or tribunal, 79.-11. Also

äylov, or ieparciov, and sacrarium, the holy, or the sanctuary, 80.-III.

And Avolaotýplov, the altar-part, 81.-IV. Presbyterium and diaconicum,

81.-V. Also chorus, or choir, 82.-VI. This place separated from the

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CHAPTER VII.

Of the baptistery, and other outer buildings, called the exedræ of the

church.

Sect. I. Baptisteries anciently buildings distinct from the church, 116.

-II. These very capacious, and why, 119.-III. Why called potiot

pla, places of illumination, 120.-IV. Of the difference between a

baptistery and a font. And why the font called piscina and kohvußnopa,

121.-V. How fonts and baptisteries were anciently adorned, 122.–VI.

Baptisteries anciently more peculiar to the mother-church, 123.–VII.

Of the secretarium, or diaconicum magnum, the vestry, 125.–VIII. Why

called receptorium, or salutatorium, 127.-IX. Of the decanica or prisons

of the church, 128.—X. Of the mitatorium or metatorium, 129.—XI. Of

the gazophylacium and pastophoria, 130.—XII. Of the schools and

libraries of the church, 133.—XIII. In what sense dwelling-houses,

gardens, and bath reckoned parts of the 136.-XIV. When

organs first came to be used in the church, 137.—XV. Of the original

of bells, and how church-assemblies were called before their invention,

141.

CHAPTER VIII.

Of the anathemata, and other ornaments of the ancient churches.

Sect. I. What the Ancients meant by their anathemata in churches, 147.

-11. One particular kind of these, called ÉKTUTÁ Mara, when first brought

into churches, 150.—III. Churches anciently adorned with portions of

Scripture written upon the walls, 152.—IV. And with other inscriptions

of human composition, 152.–V. Gilding and mosaic work used in the an-

cient churches, 154.–VI. No pictures or images allowed in churches for

the first three hundred years, 155.–VII. First brought in by Paulinus

and his contemporaries privately, and by degrees, in the latter end of the

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