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1779. it to Scotland, which was violently opposed. The oppo

fition originated in Gasgow, the inhabitants of which are almost all on the side of administration in the American conteft*. The general indignation against the defign showed itself in the different riots that happened at

Edinburgh and Glasgow in February. In the metroFeb. polis, an attack was made upon a new house, in which

the principal popish clergyman or bishop, with four
other families of the same persuasion dwelt, and in which
a room was laid out for a chapel, about 34 feet long.
The house was set on fire, and the fames continued
until noon of the following day. The inhabitants with
difficulty escaped alive. During the demolition of this
“ main pillar of popery,” as it was called, a detach-
ment from the main body of the people resorted to the
old chapel. The house containing it was inhabited by
several families (agreeable to custom, and the nature
of many buildings in that city) whose property and ef-
fects, as well as the inside of the house and chapel, were
totally destroyed, together with a considerable library
belonging to the popish bishop. The rioters afterward
directed their violence against the papists in other parts
of the town, and totally destroyed the stock in trade and
effects of two or three tradesmen of that profession.
One or two ladies of fashion of that communion were
obliged to take refuge in the castle. They at length
concluded upon the punishment or destruction of those
gentlemen, of whatever rank or religion, who had been
supposed to favor the late design of obtaining a relaxa-
tion of the laws against papists. Their first fury was
pointed against Dr. Robertson the celebrated historian,
* Dr. John Erikine's Confiderations on the Spirit of Popery, p. 31.


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and to that of Mr. Crosbie an eminent advocate. The 1779. mob found the houses of these gentlemen so well armed, and guarded with so determined a resolution by their numerous friends, that they proceeded not to extremities, but retired without any further outrage than the breaking of fome windows. The magiftrates did not exert themselves for the suppression of the riots, till the last day of the week. The conduct of the magistrates in Glasgow was widely different. The populace made their first and principal attack upon Mr. Bagnal, an ou English papist from Staffordshire, who had for several years established and conducted a considerable manufactory of stone ware. They burnt his house, totally destroyed all the works for carrying on his business, and obliged him and his family to fly to the fields for their lives. But the measures pursued by the magistrates and principal inhabitants foon restored order and security. Mr. Bagnal was also speedily acquainted, that he should be reimbursed for every part of his losses to the utmost farthing. Toward the end of March, the citizens of Edinburgh agreed to make full restitution to the sufferers in that city. Through this religious combustion, and the circumstances attending it, administration have lost that firm hold of the temper and difposition of the people in Scotland, which perhaps nothing else could have loosened.

The British cruisers seized and carried into port the Dutch vessels bound for France, when laden with either naval stores or supposed French property. The merchants, owners and insurers, complained to their high mightinesses, by whose order a memorial was presented to the Britih court, which was far from having the de



1778. sired effect. The answer proposed the purchasing of the

naval stores, the paying of the freight, and the indem-
nifying the proprietors; but expressed a determination
to prevent, as much as possible, all naval and military
stores being transported into the French ports, accom-
panied however with an assurance, that all possible regard
for the rights of their high mightinesses should be exer-
cised, and that the stipulations and spirit of the treaties
between the king and their high mightinesses would be
adhered to in the strongest manner as far as it should be
practicable of which the British court would be judges.
The merchants. of Dort, Rotterdam and Amsterdam,
not being satisfied with the answer, petitioned their high
mightinesses for redress against the British treatment of
their flag, and the violences committed against their pro-
perty. The States General concluded upon such mea-
fures as should meet the wishes of the petitioners, and
determined upon an augmentation of the fleet for their
protection. Sir Joseph Yorke after that, on the 22d of
last November, proposed in a memorial by his fove-
reign's order, a conference with their high mightinesses
upon what was most proper to be done respecting the
articles of complaint. The States General declined the -
offer, and insisted upon the literal and strict observance
of the treaty between them and Great Britain. The
French king had in a regulation of the preceding July,
concerning the navigation of neutral vessels, reserved to
himself the power of revoking the advantages granted
by the first article, in case the belligerent powers should
not grant the like within the space of six months. The
like not being granted on the part of Britain, the king
ordered such revocation, with respect to the subjects of



the Dutch republic; but excepted the cities of Amster- 1779. dam and Haerlem, because of their patriotic exertions to persuade the republic to procure from the court of London the security of unlimited liberty to their flag. This measure was considered by that court, as designed to cause the republic to quarrel with Great Britain, and occasioned the presentment of a memorial by Sir Joseph April Yorke, in the name of his sovereign, to the States Ge- 9. neral; in which the literal and strict observance of the treaty insisted upon by them is pronounced incompatible with the security of Britain, and contrary to the spirit and stipulations of all the future treaties between the two nations. His majesty also declares in it, that he cannot depart from the necessity he is under of excluding the transportation of naval stores to the ports of France, and particularly timber, even if they are escorted by men of war; but fatters himself, that he shall never be obliged to take other measures toward the republic, than those which friendship and good harmony may dictate.

The capture of the Dutch vessels occasioned a great dearth of naval stores at Brest, so that the repair of count d'Orvilliers’ fleet has been exceedingly hindered. The Ville de Paris, which suffered much in the engagement with admiral Keppel, will not be ready for sea, much before the time for the fleet's failing. Till April there was not a mast fit for her in all Breft *. A number of store ships however got in from Holland, so that about the beginning of the year, several small squadrons 'were prepared and Nipped out from different ports nearly at the same time; one under Mr. de Graffe for Marti• Advocate MI 's Political Memoirs,


1979. nico, to reinforce count d'Estaing. Another under the

marquis de Vaudreuil, with a land force, failed for Africa, and has taken the British forts, settlements, factories

and property, at Senegal and other parts of that coast. 1778. The English East India company, foreseeing actual

hoftilities, resolved, very soon after the delivery of the French rescript, on a bold and decisive measure, for the final reduction of the French power in India, and conducted the business with unusual secrecy. Their instructions were happily conveyed with uncommon expedition, and preparations were immediately made for be. fieging Pondicherry. Gen, Munro invested the fortrefs closely on the 21st of last August, with an army of 10,500 men, including 1500 Europeans. But before this had taken place, there was a warm engagement between Sir Edward Vernon, with a small squadron, and Monsieur Tronjolly commanding the like, in which the French were so roughly handled, that to escape a second action they abandoned the garrison to their fate on the day Pondicherry was invested. The garrison amounted to near 3000 men, of which 900 were Europeans. They were commanded by Mr. de Bellecombe, who disputed every point of his ground, and persevering to the last extremity in a determined and noble defence, held out to the 16th of October. An honorable capitulation was allowed in testimony of the garrison's gallantry, and every requisition that did not interfere with the public benefit was agreed to. The factories at Chandenagor, Yaman and Karical, with the settlement at Masulipatam, had

been reduced before the capitulation, 1779. The New York, Quebec, and Newfoundland fleets, way to the number of 300, under the convoy of adm. Ar



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