Language History, Language Change, and Language Relationship: An Introduction to Historical and Comparative Linguistics
Why does language change? Why can we speak to and understand our parents but have trouble reading Shakespeare? Why is Chaucer's English of the fourteenth century so different from Modern English of the late twentieth century that the two are essentially different languages? Why are Americans and English 'one people divided by a common language'? And how can the language of Chaucer and Modern English - or Modern British and American English - still be called the same language? The present book provides answers to questions like these in a straightforward way, aimed at the non-specialist, with ample illustrations from both familiar and more exotic languages.
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Appendix to Chapter
The discovery of IndoEuropean
Language dialect and standard
Dialectology beyond language boundaries
Its history and its decipherment
Analogy and change in word structure
Synonymy and homonymy
The study of words
adoption alphabet American English ancient argots Balkan borrowing British English calques century Chapter Chinese clitic common Compare connotations considered consonants context convergence derived dialects Dravidian earlier early effects Engl especially etymology European languages examples expressions fact foreign words Foreigner Talk four-part analogy French fricatives gender Germ German grammar Greek Grimm's Law guage Hindi historical linguistics Icelandic Illustration India indigenous Indo-Aryan Indo-European languages inflectional instance interlanguage jargon Latin lexical items linguistic change linguistic nationalism link language logographic meaning Modern English Moreover morphological names nasal native neogrammarians noted noun Old English Old High German onomatopoeia original pattern phonetic pidgins plural prestige pronounced pronunciation Proto-Indo-European reconstruction refer relationship result Roman Sanskrit scholars script semantic shift similar singular slang Slavic social sound change speakers speech spelling standard languages structure suffix syllables symbols syntactic traditional varieties verb vernacular Verner's Law vocabulary voiceless stops vowel writing system