« ForrigeFortsett »
From the part broken off at CD, cut out the piece Dsno, say 7 feet long; then from the lower part CDB, cut out the piece stcD, 18 feet long, and slip it to the left till sD meets no, and it will break the joint, or splice the break; and the piece noDs will fill the vacancy itce, and make the mast complete.
See gauge points for gallons, bushels, &c. 58; for the weight of bodies, ¶ 69; for rectangular and triangular prisms, 34 and 35; for mill logs, 37; and for levelling, ¶ 62. GAUGE POINTS for the Engineer's Sliding Rule may be found under the description of the said rule, ¶ 1, and under Machinery, 79.
To gauge the weight of a pipe of cast-iron by the engineer's rule:-Set the length on B under 489 on A, and over the bore of the pipe found on D will be found the weight of the bore, supposing it were solid iron; then add twice the thickness of the pipe to the diameter of the bore, and the sum will be the outside diameter of the pipe; then over this diameter found on D, will be found the weight of the pipe, supposing it were all solid iron; from this weight subtract that previously found, and the remainder will be the weight of the pipe.
EXAMPLE. What will be the weight of a pipe, 12 inches long, 8 inches bore, and inch thick? Ans. 64 pounds.
Set 12 on B to 489 on A, and against 8 on D are 157 lbs. on C; then twice added to 8-9.5 inches, the external diameter; then over 9.5, found on D, will be found 221 lbs. on C; and 221-157-64, the answer.
When pipes have flanges on the ends, every two flanges may be reckoned equal to one foot of pipe.
MANDEVILLE'S READING BOOKS.
I. PRIMARY, OR FIRST READER.
II. SECOND READER.
These two Readers are formed substantially on the same plan; and the second is a continuation of the first. The design of both is, to combine a knowledge of the meaning and pronunciation of words, with a knowledge of their grammatical functions. The parts of speech are introduced successively, beginning with the articles, these are followed by the demonstrative pronouns; and these again by others, class after class, until all that are requisite to form a sentence have been separately considered; when the common reading lesson begins.
The Second Reader reviews the ground passed over in the Primary, but adds largely to the amount of information. The child is here also taught to read writing as well as printed matter; and in the reading lessons, attention is constantly directed to the different ways in which sentences are formed and connected, and to the peculiar manner in which each of them is delivered. All who have examined these books, have pronounced them a decided and important advance on every other of the same class,
III. THIRD READER.
IV. FOURTH READER.
In the first two Readers, the main object is to make the pupil acquainted with the meaning and functions of words and to impart facility in pronouncing them in sentential connection: the leading design of these, is to form a natural, flexible, and varied delivery. Accordingly, the Third Reader opens with a series of exercises on articulation and modulation, containing numerous examples for practice on the elementary sounds (including errors to be corrected) and on the different movements of the voice produced by sentential structure, by emphasis, and by the passions. The habits formed by these exercises, which should be thoroughly, as they can be easily mastered, under intelligent intruction, find scope for improvement and confirmation in the reading lessons which follow, in the same book and that which succeeds.
These lessons have been selected with special reference to the following peculiarities:
1. Colloquial character;
2. Variety of sentential structure;
3. Variety of subject matter;
4. Adaptation to the progressive development of the pupil's mind; and
as far as possible,
5. Tendency, to excite moral and religious emotions.
Great pains have been taken to make the books in these respects, which are, in fact, characteristic of the whole series, superior to any of
with what success, a brief comparison will readily show.
Prof. Mandeville's Series of Reading Books.
V. THE FIFTH READER; OR, COURSE OF READING.
These books are designed to cultivate the literary taste, as well as the understanding and vocal powers of the pupil.
The COURSE OF READING comprises three parts: the first part containing a more elaborate description of elementary sounds and of the parts of speech grammatically considered, than was deemed necessary in the preceding works; here indispensable: part second, a complete classification and description of every sentence to be found in the English, or in any other, language; examples of which in every degree of expansion, from a few words to the half of an octavo page in length, are adduced, and arranged to be read; and as each species has its peculiar delivery as well as structure, both are learned at the same time: part third, paragraphs; or sentences in their connection unfolding general thoughts, as in the common reading books.
It may be observed that the selections of sentences in part second, and of paragraphs in part third, comprise some of the finest gems in the language: distinguished alike for beauty of thought and felicity of diction. If not found in a school book, they might be appropriately called "elegant extracts."
The ELEMENTS OF READING AND ORATORY closes the series with an exhibition of the whole theory and art of Elocution exclusive of gesture. It contains, beside the classification of sentences already referred to, but here presented with fuller statement and illustration, the laws of punctuation and delivery deduced from it: the whole followed by carefully selected pieces for sentential analysis and vocal practice.
THE RESULT. The student who acquaints himself thoroughly with the contents of this book, will, as numerous experiments have proved
1. Acquire complete knowledge of the structure of language;
2. Be able to designate any sentence of any book by name at a glance ; 3. Be able to declare with equal rapidity its proper punctuation;
4. Be able to declare, and with sufficient practice to give, its proper delivery.
Such are a few of the general characteristics of the series of school books which the publishers now offer to the friends and patrons of a sound common school and academic education. For more particular information, reference is respectfully made to the "Hints" which may be found at the beginning of each volume.
N. B. The Punctuation in all these books conforms, in the main, to the sense and proper delivery of every sentence, and is a guide to both. When a departure from the proper punctuation occurs, the proper delivery is indicated. As reading books are usually punctuated, it is a matter of surprise that children should learn to read at all.
D. APPLETON & CO.