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accompanied by a drum, and occasionally a little symphony by a beginner on the violin thrown in. If it goes on for more than three hours at a time it becomes trying to English ears. When the happy news is spread in the city, nobles, ministers and friends come to congratulate Maharaja, and their wives drive up to the Zenana part to congratulate the mother. Altogether there is an utter absence of the quiet which is supposed to be necessary here after such happy events. Later, poor women come from the town, who pour on the steps of the ladies' entrance milk or water, according to their means, shower blessings on mother and child, and go away rewarded by the present of a garment, leaving the steps in a condition which you may try to imagine.
These rejoicings go on for ten days, during which the father and near male relations are impure by caste regulations, that is to say, they may not eat with their castemen without defiling them, may not be shaved, and are unable to take part in certain religious ceremonies. At the end of the ten days they are shaved, and go through a purificatory ceremony, which involves drinking what we should consider utter abomination; and, to wind
durbar" is held, at which the great men present tribute. The birth of a daughter is a trivial affair, as she is no use for the funeral ceremonies, and costs money for dowry, etc. In the palace, the children from the first had their separate attendants, who did all in their power to keep them apart, and so perpetuate the need for separate staffs. If one child awoke before another his servants got him up, dressed him, got his early breakfast, and then his gentleman-in-waiting took him out for a drive. If the next child awoke half-an-hour later, or even less, it was of course necessary that another set of servants, carriage, and gentleman-in-waiting should be ready to attend to his wants. At night it was considered necessary to have four women and two men on duty for two little children sleeping in the same room, the idea being (according to the servants) that a woman must always be awake by the bedsides in case the children should roll out of their beds. The men were to run errands if anything was wanted at night.
Indian children, as a rule, seem to be very poor players. So much is this the case that, at some of the schools, regular hours were given to teach the youngsters how to play.
Imagination seems defective, and, as far as I could learn, it is quite exceptional for children to play at horses, or at being tigers, or wild animals, though they do sometimes play at being kings and courtiers. If a cart and horse were given to an Indian child he would not be likely to play at being a carter, with the corners of the rooms different places from which he had to cart goods. The chief games are simple running ones, such as our “prisoners' base,” “rounders,” etc., and marbles, played much in the same way as with us. One Indian gentleman explained the deficiency of games by the theory that nowa-days children have to begin to prepare for examinations so early. It may be so in a few cases, but I do not think such an explanation would hold good in many.
The funeral ceremonies mentioned above, as performed by the eldest son, are necessary for this reason. After the body has been burnt, the spirit hovers about the funeral pyre without any clothing, so to speak, and is restless and cold. For the ten days succeeding the burning, offerings in the shape of flowers, food stuffs, milk, etc., are made, and the spirit gradually gains an intermediate body, which clothes it till the next appearance in life. Having gained this body, offerings must be made from time to time for the comfort of the spirit, and if they are not made its prospect in the next life is not so good. Such offerings are to be made to ten degrees of relationship, which include step-mothers and fathers-in-law, but not mothers-in-law.
THE NEW WATER SUPPLY OF LIVERPOOL.
BY JOSEPH PARRY, M.INST.C.E. IF I had been free to select a subject upon which to address this Literary and Philosophical Society, my thoughts would have been directed as far away as possible from waterworks and their associations. But our esteemed President was of opinion that it would be of interest to the members if I would describe to them some of the special and distinctive features of the new Vyrnwy waterworks, concerning which so much has recently been heard, and which affect so closely the welfare of Liverpool. I felt it to be a duty as well as a pleasure to endeavour to comply with his wishes.
According to the constitution of this Society, one of its objects is the “study and promotion of Science and Fine Art.” Both from a scientific and artistic point of view, there is undoubtedly a great deal that is deserving of study and suggestive of discussion in connection with these works.
Singularly enough, and quite unexpectedly, I appear before you on the very day upon which the newspapers contain an account of the opening of the Thirlmere works of the Manchester corporation, which resemble very much the Vyrnwy works in the character of the watershed, the quantities of water provided, and the distance between the source of the supply and the point of delivery and distribution. Both schemes also afford striking evidence of the growth and enterprise of the great cities by which they have been carried out, and of the difficulty of procuring