Government, a fourth part only being in the hands of private individuals.

"In most Protestant states, the Catholic and the Established churches are placed upon the same footing. But as the ministers of the former persuasion are more numerous than those of the latter, and as, owing to the practice of celibacy, their wants are fewer, their incomes are generally less. On the other hand, the Catholic dignitaries are much better paid than the Protestant ones. In Rhenish Prussia, the Catholic archbishops have an annual income of 12,000 dollars, the bishops of 8,000, the deans of 1,800, or 2,000, the canons of 1,000 or 1,200. This money is now paid out of the Treasury; the estates from which these dignitaries formerly derived their incones having all been secularized. In Saxony, where the ruling family is of the Catholic religion, though the great mass of the population is Protestant, the clergy of the former persuasion are so well paid, as to cause great jealousy amongst those who are followers of the latter. In Hanover, and in Hesse-Cassel, the Catholic clergy are equally well paid with the Protestant, though this is not the case in Wurtemberg and Baden.

“In Austria, the Protestant clergy are provided for by their congregations, which have also to pay the jura stolæ to the Catholic priests. In Bavaria, the expenses of the Protestant church are defrayed by the government.

"We believe that the Jews throughout Germany are obliged, themselves, to defray the expenses of worship.

"There exist no general rules respecting the support of the clergy. Only the incomes of the higher Catholic clergy are fixed by the bull De salute animarum, namely, for the archbishop and prince-bishop of Breslau at 12,000 Prussian dollars; (about 1,7507.); for the other bishops 8,000 Prussian dollars, for the dignitaries of cathedral chapters respectively, 2,000, 1,800, 1,400 Prussian dollars; and for canons or prebends, respectively, 1,200, 1,000 and 800 Prussian dollars, besides house-room. The incomes of all other livings, either of the Protestant or Catholic church, are very different. The clergyman receives his income either in kind or in money, It is paid in kind when it arises from a real estate belonging to his benefice, which he manages himself, or when it is rendered to him by landed proprietors. Of the same kind are tithes, rents, and other payments from land. The money-income of the clergy arises partly out of the public revenues of the crown, or of the parishes, either as a salary or compensation for appropriated lands or ground-rents, or as rents from private estates, or from endowments laid out at interest. The crown has undertaken the above-mentioned payment of the Catholic dignitaries, since their landed property had been appropriated to the public revenue. In the Trans-Rhenane part of the kingdom, where, during the French sway, the church property was seized and chiefly alienated, the crown pays a salary to the clergy, as a compensation, according to a concordat entered into by the French consular government with Pope Pius VII.”

In the matter of education no country presents a subject of such

interesting investigation as Germany. In no country is there to be found so ample a provision for the instruction of the people in all sciences and arts. Hence, there it is that the results of education may be most advantageously weighed. The inferences drawn by Mr. Hawkins are not so very favourable to the predictions of our propagandists.

"The facility with which the highest education may be obtained in Germany, naturally introduces into the arena of life an immense proportion of candidates for its higher prizes, too many of whom finally obtain disappointment, if not entire destitution, while not a few bury their obscure heartburnings in the chance pittance afforded by foreign countries, already overstocked with aspirants of indigenous origin. Thus, in the course of ten recent years, the number of Protestant clergymen has doubled in Prussia, and the Roman Catholic priesthood has tripled; the lawyers have increased one-fourth, but the doctors in medicine only one-seventh. At the beginning of this period there was one lawyer in 12,600 inhabitants, at the end there was one in 8,562; there was one doctor of medicine, at the beginning, in 27,000 souls, and at last one in 25,205. In consequence of the increase of students in the late years, there was recently in Prussia so many as One student of theology in 442 inhabitants.

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One doctor of medicine for 3,516 66 66

How many of those now employed must accordingly die or retreat, in order to make room for the forthcoming! In the smaller states of Germany the prospect is still more disheartening. In the duchy of Baden, only eight vacancies annually occur of offices in the law, enjoying a fixed salary, while so many as forty-six candidates present themselves annually for examination; and there are already so many as two hundred and fifty-one candidates examined and approved, and awaiting the long-deferred turn."

The Prussian system is as everybody knows the most perfect in the world. Alluding to its operation on the mass of society, Mr. Hawkins says,

"I am the last person to attach much weight to my own observations, but, in default of the remarks of others, I have not succeeded in discovering that the Prussian peasant or artisan is better informed, or more moral than his neighbours; his manners are not superior, nor does he appear to solace his hours of leisure more than others, with study, or books. But the formation of character is so intimately blended in Prussia with the military system, which converts every man into a soldier, for a certain period of his life, that it is difficult to ascertain the respective share which is to be ascribed to the various elements which combine to mould the individual. The most intelligent and best informed peasant in Europe has appeared to me to be the Scotch, while the Austrian rustic is perhaps the happiest."

In the building and discipline of prisons, great improvement has taken place in Germany within the last half century. The prisons are conveniently constructed, well aired, and well regulated. The silent system is almost universally adopted and enforced by the bastinado. The latter infliction has been much complained of, but after all, it is not worse than forced labour. Mr. Hawkins gives a detailed account of the discipline and regulations peculiar to the prisons of every particular state; but to follow him in this subject, in which he seems quite at home, would be more than our limits would allow of. We shall merely notice the labour executed by culprits in the German prisons, as we consider it particularly deserving of


“The prisoners at Munich are employed in an excellent manufactory of cloth, and as tailors and shoemakers. The cloth alone, which is of the quality worn by the higher classes, produces a revenue to the government of more than 50,000 florins yearly. The prisoners in Holstein are still, for the most part, unemployed; but not so in Schleswig, particularly at Glüdkstadt, where each prisoner is bound to do a certain quantity of work, which if he neglects he is punished; if he does more than is required, he is paid for the surplus. The prisoners are employed in spinning, carding wool, knitting stockings, weaving, making pipes for fire-engines, and sail-cloth.

"At Dresden the prisoners are employed in cleaving wood, breaking stones down to sand, and dragging coals through the town. The inhabitants can obtain the prisoners to do any sort of work for them, by paying five groschen per day to the establishment.

"At Plessenburg there is a cloth manufactory and a bakehouse in the prison. The prisoners are allowed to work a little for themselves. The managers of the prison allow culprits who have been liberated to become the superintendents of the others when at work.

"At Mannheim the employments of the prisoners are dressing hemp, weaving, knitting, making cloths, shoes, and lately, manufacturing list. The superintendents of the different kinds of works receive four hundred florins a year. Some of the prisoners are employed in making the furniture of the establishment, and others are employed by the inhabitants, at their own houses, to cleave wood. At Frieburg the prisoners are employed in stone-cutting, weaving, carpenter's-work, and as masons, shoemakers, tailors, locksmiths, and clockmakers. At Cologne, a certain number of prisoners are without occupation, those, for instance, who are condemned to a short imprisonment, debtors, and those of the untried who are not likely to remain long. Trades of all sorts are carried on by the rest of the prisoners; amongst others, lithography.

"In Austria, the daily task allotted to each prisoner is such, that the very industrious have a little time to work for themselves. The half of what the prisoner earns for himself is set apart to be given him at his liberation; the other half he can spend in buying bread, beer, or broth. In order to appreciate this privilege, we must remember that the Austrian prison has, for three days of the week, only a pound of bread for all provision.

At Naugard, the prisoner has first to pay for his support by his labour, e he receives anything extra. What he saves, is placed in the Savings'

bank at Stettin, and should he die in confinement, it goes to his heirs. On his quitting the prison, he not only receives his extra earnings, but he is duly recommended where he is likely to obtain employment. In respect to their gains, all the prisoners are put as much as possible on the same footing; and half is at their disposal for the purchase of provisions, a little brandy, and, on Sundays, of tobacco for chewing.

"At Dresden, the sum accruing from surplus labour is never placed at the prisoner's disposal until his liberation.

"At Hamburg, the system of surplus labour has not been adopted; but a part of what the prisoners earn reverts to them.

"The other German prisons resemble more or less the above, in the arrangements they have introduced respecting the employment of prisoners."

In most of the prisons provision is made for the religious and elementary instruction of the prisoners, and a most praiseworthy care is taken of them by the respective governments after their liberation. At Hamburg it not unfrequently happens that the prisoner receives on his liberation a sum of from 200 to 300 marks as the produce of his labour. When a prisoner has conducted himself well, exertions are made to establish him honestly. In Nassau, if the prisoner's gains do not amount to a certain sum, the deficiency is supplied by the government, and care is always taken to replace him properly in the world, to prevent him from returning to his former courses. In this respect, their conduct is decidedly superior to that pursued in England, where a prisoner is turned forth upon society without any means of subsistence whatsoever, or any opportunity of earning an honest livelihood.

We come now to the social condition of Germany as expounded by Mr. Hawkins, and with this we shall close our observations on the subject. The partition of Germany into a number of small states, gives to individuals advantages of a higher degree than are enjoyed by those of any other European states. Thus the numerous states have their respective cabinet ministers, convoys, generals, and civil officers of various denominations. An office which in England is filled by a single person, gives employmeut to twenty in Germany. For instance, England sends out one ambassador to France, while Germany sends no less than thirteen. Then again in literature, there are thirty German universities to five British; and moreover a German university has double the number of professors of an English one, besides their Gymnasiums, Pedagogisms, and innumerable schools, with their quota of officers. Another advantage accruing from this system is, that every sovereign, how petty soever he may be, is anxious to embellish and distinguish his territory. Hence, museums, picture galleries, gardens, libraries, academies; and thus for one of such institutions in England, we shall find twenty in Germany, all open to the public; nor does it appear that the German is more heavily taxed for the procurement

of such privileges than his neighbours; besides, as every palace, garden, gallery, and park is open, the money which is received from the subject is returned to him in the form of mental and bodily amusement. The gracious and cordial familiarity which prevails between the higher and lower classes is also worthy of imitation. There is no shrinking from contamination, no shuddering at impure mixture as in England. The use of the Murchaum has been severely reprehended. All that can be said is, that it disposes the mind to serenity and quiet contemplation, and is much better than gin-drinking. "The German labourer," says Mr. Hawkins, seated at a table in a public garden, quietly smoking his pipe, listening to excellent music, and surrounded by his family, is no mean specimen of human happiness and respectability." The Germans are less the slaves of fashion and exclusiveness than any people in Europe, each considers his own means and inclinations, and pursues them without deference to others, and without offence. No one stares at a bad coat or negligent costume, and everybody is at liberty to do and dress just as he pleases. The chief gratification of the higher order in addition to the theatre, consists in a summer visit to some of the many watering-places, where they live almost entirely in public. In the smaller towns, the men of learning shut themselves up in their cabinets, and in the intenseness of their studies the extent of their acquirements and the simplicity of their manners are distinguishable at once from the rest of their European colleagues. The Cosmopolitan man of learning, says Mr Hawkins, who understands most of the European and some of the Oriental languages, while he is conversant with almost every science, is, perhaps, only to be found at the present moment in Germany. He differs from most other specimens of the same class, not only in his attainments, but in his scrupulous sanctitudein the concientious manner in which he weighs evidence and records every minute shade of fact, and also in his impartiality and that genial love for his calling which enables him to disregard pecuniary profit, and confines his anxiety to the noble ambition of instructing his brethren, of conciliating the suffrages of the wise, and of laying the foundations of a posthumous fame, which, alas, is too rarely completed into a lasting edifice. Frankness, honesty, simplicity, modesty, and diffidence, are the chief qualities of the national character of the Germans. They are the great assertors of a truth of invaluable importance, that all are to be treated with respect, and that no superiority of rank or fortune can warrant arrogance of demeanour or pride of speech.

In addition to the general view of Germany, each of the larger states has a chapter exclusively devoted to itself. There is not a single item which may claim connexion with the statistics of each state which is not noted down with an almost tiresome precision. I bus we have the number of lodging houses, and of arrivals and de

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