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the 8th November following. Heminge and Condell were then no longera restrained, and they edited the works for their own profits. We reads nothing in their Dedication or Preface; we have beard nothing of any part: of the profits being for the daughters."

The subjects and the notions to which Mr. Brown invités our attention, afford room for a vast deal of speculation; but we must conclude by expressing it as our opinion, that the talent and spirit which have throughout rendered his work not only readable but interesting, might have been far more advantageously applied than in the present case ; although, at the same time, it is but justice to declare, that of the thousand and one volumes of which Shakspeare has been the topic and the prompter, the one before us is neither the least ingenious, satisfactory, nor useful.

Art. XIV. 1.- The Life of Edward Jenner, M.D. By John BARON, M.D. 2 Vols.

London: Colburn. 1838. 2.--Medical Portrait Gallery. By JOSEPH PETTIGREW, F.R.S., &c.

London: Fisher and Son. 1838. Of all the learned professions, or those termed polite and genteel, the Medical, we believe, has furnished, considering the number of its students and practitioners the fewest subjects of popular biobraphy. Lawyers, divines, artists, gentlemen of the army and navy, have in countless numbers been made the heroes and the themes of books ; but owing, perhaps in part, to the unceasing and uniform duties of those persons who prescribe for our bodily ills, or brandish the lancet,

or dose us with drugs, and partly perhaps to the unromantic and repulsive character of these ills and of their treatment, exciting only a professional interest, the histories of medical men seldom occupy the pens of the litterateur, or the ears of fashionable and fasti. duous readers. It is quite certain, however, that few of our race are allowed to remain very long unconcerned regarding the character and skill of some one of the Faculty. His visits to the sick-chamber, bis instrumentality in the saving of life, or services in allaying pain, and in restoring to the blessings of health, are never forgotten or thought ofwith indifference. Why then does not the history of the physician or the surgeon whose eminent services are known to thousands, and who may have essentially benefited persons dear to us, be less an object of biographical interest, than that of the warrior who has led an army to battle, where thousands have fallen and been slain? Ah! it is by the glitter and pomp of pageantry, it is by the power of certain chivalrous and romantic associations that the mind is influenced far more than by the prosaic realities of every-day life; so that he who has been one of the most efficient instruments in behalf of humanity, who has brought comfort and happiness to multitudes of individuals

and family circles, may descend to the grave ingloriously, while the scourge of his race may have his exploits trumpeted forth by posterity.

What were the merits of a Bonaparte, a Cæsar, or an Alexander, when compared with the agencies and triumphs of such men as those whose names and portraits are now before us? In what country, in what age has there clung to either of them at their decease, or afterwards, a thousandth part of the gratitude which a Jenner has obtained and deserved? Why, there is not a quarter of the globe, there is scarcely a family in whole nations, there need never be an individual in this or any other country, we have reason to believe, who will not or ought not to pronounce the name with the warinth and affection due to a personal and universal benefactor, And yet what was the treatment he experienced, the opposition he encountered in his god-like career ? Ridicule, misrepresentation, envy, jealousy, abuse instead of argument, were what his marvellous discovery had to stand up against ; nor indeed were his opponents and impugners prompt to believe, even after facts, practice, and all but universal proof were on his side.

In the present work, Dr. Baron has traced and characterised the difficulties which Jenner had to combat in his noble enterprise for the well-being of our species, no matter of what grade in the artificial and conventional scale of life. The beggar and the prince owe him equal debts ; nor is there a saint in the calendar whose memory is half so worthy of homage.

It is only from the second volume of this Life, the first having formerly appeared, that we shall now take a few passages.

Though Jenner met with the return in his own country which proverbially is that allotted to true prophets, the great, and mighty, as well the humble of other lands appreciated his merits and warmly gave expression to their grateful feelings. But still it was the lowly rather than the lofty and powerful who rewarded him most willingly and affectionately. True, when the foreign crowned heads were in England in 1814, the Emperor of Russia received him graciously, and shook hands kindly with him at parting. The Autocrat also told the Doctor that "the consciousness of having so much benefited your race must be a never-failing source of pleasure, and I am happy to think that you have received the thanks, the applause, and the gratitude of the world.” Jenner's reply, though in such a presence, was characteristic and remarkable. As reported by himself, it was in these words, that “ I had received the thanks and the applause, but not the gratitude of the world.”

Though the potentates did not either in their individual capacity when in England, or in congress at Vienna, confer any mark of distinction on the author of vaccination, Dr. Baron tells us that some of their subjects did bear him nobly in their memory. The following characteristic testimony by the inhabitants of Brünn will amuse by its half German and half Latin style of English, while its spirit and truths will come home forcibly to every well-informed and well-regulated mind. "To the Right Honourable Physician Edward Jenner, Discoverer of the

Cowpock, the greatest Benefactor of Mankind, at London. " Most Honourable Doctor,- At the most distant frontier of East Germany, in a country where the Roman's army two thousand years before triumphing, and 444 the Savages Huns under the command of Attila, and 791 the Emperor Charles, the Huns with success combatting, passed, and where the Swedes under Gustav the Great 1615 have made tremble the ground of the country by the thousands of cannons, and there wbere even 1740 the Prussians and 1805 the French warriors victorious appeared in that remarkable country had the vaccined youth from Brünn, with the most cordial sentiment of gratitude to thee, a constant monument with thine breast-piece in the 65th year of thine age erected, even in the same time as the great English nation, by her constancy and iutrepidity, rendered the liberty of the whole Europe, and as the greats regents Alexandre and William passed through that country. Accept generously, great man, that feeble sign of veneration and gratitude; and Heaven may conserve your life to the most remote time, and every year, in the presence of many thousand habitants, a great feast near that temple is celebrated for the discovery of vaccine. We will us estimate happy, if we can receive few lignes to prove us the sure réception of that letter. Most honourable doctor, yours most obedient servants,

“ Medicinæ Doctor RINCOLINI, physician.
CLAVIGER, {stitution at Brünn.

nd vacciner of Vaccine In« Brünn in Moravia, the 20th October. " A drawing of the monument,' as it is called, accompanied this letter. In the centre of the temple the bust of Jenner stands upon a pedestal, on which is the following inscription

* Divo Anglo
Eduardo Jenner,

LXV.
Ætatis ejus Anno
Vaccinata Brunensis

Juventus

MDCCCXIV.” By stringing together a few anecdotes, we will obtain an exceedingly agreeable impression of the character and the babits of Jenner.

During his residence at Berkeley he acted frequently as a magistrate. I found him one day sitting with a brother justice in a nárrow, dark, tobacco-flavoured room, listening to parish business of various sorts. The door was surrounded by a scolding, brawling mob. A fat overseer of the poor was endeavouring to moderate their noise; but they neither heeded his authority nor that of their worships. There were women swearing illegitimate children, others swearing the peace against drunken hus.

2

bands, and able-bodied men demanding parish relief to make up the deficiency in their wages. The scene altogether was really curious; and when I considered who was one of the chief actors, and saw the effect which the mal-administration of a well-intended statute produced, I experienced sensations which would have been altogether sorrowful had there not been something irresistibly ludicrous in many of the minor details of the picture. He said to me, . Is not this too bad ? I am the only acting magistrate in this place, and I am really harassed to death. I want the lord-lieutenant to give me an assistant; and I have applied for my nephew, but without success.' On this visit he shewed me the hide of the cow that afforded the matter which infected Sarah Nelmes : and from which source he derived the virus that produced the disease in his first patient, Phipps. The hide hung in the coach-house : he said, • What shall I do with it?' I replied, • Send it to the British Museum.' The cow had been turned out to end her days peaceably at Bradstone, a farm near Berkeley."

The first effects of Jenner's discovery on some of his sapient town folks, and their manner of treating it, may be learned from the following anecdotes.

“One lady, of no mean influence among them, met him soon after the publication of his • Inquiry.' She accosted him in this form, and in the true Gloucestershire dialect. “So, your book is out at last. Well! I can tell you that there be'ant a copy sold in our town; nor sha'n't neither, if I can help it. On another occasion, the same notable dame having heard some rumours of failures in vaccination, came up to the doctor with great eagerness, and said, "Sha'n't us have a general inoculation now?'* Both these anecdotes he used to relate in perfect good-humour."

Jenner gains upon our esteem and affection as we turn the leaves of Dr. Baron's book.

"On another occasion, when travelling with him towards Rockhampton, the residence of his nephew, Dr. Davies, he observed, 'It was among these shady and tangled lanes that I first got my taste for natural history. A short time afterwards we passed Phipps, his first vaccinated patient. *Oh! there is poor Phipps,' he exclaimed, 'I wish you could see him ; he has been very unwell lately, and I am afraid he has got tubercles in the lungs. He was recently inoculated for small-pox, 1 believe for the twentieth time, and all without effect. At a subsequent visit, (Oct. 1818) I found lying on his table a plan of a cottage. Oh,' said he, that is for poor Phipps ; you remember him : he has a miserable place to live in; I am about to give him another. He has been very ill, but is now materially better. This cottage was built, and its little garden laid out and stocked with roses from his own shrubbery, under his personal superintendence. I may now mention some incidents of a different character. The celebrated Charles James Fox, during a residence at Cheltenham,

*"1. e. Small-pox inoculation."

had frequent intercourse with Jenner. His mind had been a good deal poisoned as to the character of cow-pox by his family physician,

Moseley. İn his usual playful and engaging manner, he said one day to Jenner, Pray, Dr. Jenner, tell me of this cow-pox that we have heard so much about; What is it like?? Why, it is exactly like the section of a pearl on a rose-leaf.' This comparison, which is not less remarkable for its accuracy than for its poetic beauty,struck Mr. Fox very forcibly. He laughed heartily, and praised The simile. It has been seen that, notwithstanding the personal influence that Dr. Jenner had with foreign states, he bad next to none at home. He never succeeded in procuring an appointment for any of his relatives or friends. He nientioned that all his attempts to get a living for his nephew George had failed, though addressed to quarters where they might, without presumption, have been expected to have met with attention and success. This neglect hurt him deeply. He once said to me, • This ought to be known. You must give them a hard one; and I will find an eagle's quill and whet the nib for you.' I never saw him more happy than in spending some days with Dr. Baillie at Duntisbourne, near Cirencester, in the summer of 1820. He had much recovered from the impression left by the death of Mrs. Jenner; and all the recollections of his youth, his intercourse with Mr. Hunter, together with many of the remarkable incidents which were connected with his own life, formed animating themes for conversation. The scenes around them, also, in the vicinity of the place (Cirencester) where he had first gone to school, and where he used to grope for fossils in the colitic formation, supplied him with many associations of long-past years. I spent one of the days with them on this occasion: They passed their time in the free and unreserved interchange of their thoughts and their experience. It was cheering to see the great London physician mounted on his little white horse, riding up and down the precipitous banks in the vicinity of bis house, or trotting through the green lanes, and opening the gates, just after the manner of any Cotswold squire. Nothing could exceed the relish of Baillie for the ease, and liberty, and leisure of a country life, when he first escaped from the toil, and effort, and excitement of his professional duties in London."

Never did Lord Bacon's principles of patient and legitimate induction find a better illustrator and disciple than Dr. Jenner. "This will in part appear from the able and candid summary given by the present biographer, which we now cite.

"If we look at the origin of this discovery, from its first dawning in his youthful mind at Sodbury, and trace it through its subsequent stages--his meditations at Berkeley—his suggestions to his great master, Joho Hunter -bis conferences with his professional brethren in the country--his hopes and fears, as his inquiries and experiments encouraged or depressed his anticipations-and, at length, the triumphant conclusion of more than thirty years' reflection and study, by the successful vaccination of his first patient, Phipps ; we shall find a train of preparation never exceeded in any scientific enterprise; and, in some degree, commensurate with the great results by which it has been followed. In the space of a very few years, the fruit of This patient and persevering investigation was enjoyed in every quarter of the globe ; and the rapidity of its dissemination atfests alike the universality

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