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themselves peaceably and quietly, and not using this liberty to licentiousness and prosaneness, nor to the civil injury or outward disturbance of others, any law, statute or clause therein contained, or to be contained, usage, or custom of this realm, to the contrary hereof, in any wise notwithstanding. And that they may be in the better Rapacity to desend themselves in their just rights and liberties, against all the enemies of the Christian saith, and others, in all respects, we have surther thought fit, and at the humble petition of the persons aforesaid, are graciously pleased to declare, That they shall have and enjoy the benefit of our late act of indemnity, and free pardon, as the rest of our subjects in other our dominions and territories have; and to create and make them a body politic or corporate, with the powers or privileges herein after-mentioned: And accordingly, our will and pleasure is, and of our especial grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion, we have ordained, constituted and declared, and by these presents for us, our heirs and successors, do ordain, constitute, and declare, That they the said William Brenton, William Codington, Nicholas Easton, Benedict Arnold, William Boulston, John Porter, Samuel Gorton, John Smith, John Weekes, Roger Williams, Thomas Olney, Gregory Dexter, John Cogeshall, Joseph Clarke, Randall Houlden, John Greene, John Roome, William Dyre, Samuel Wildbore, Richard Tew, William Field, Thomas Harris James Barker, Rainsborrow, Williams,

and John Nickson, and all such others as are now, or hereafter shall be admitted, free of the company and society of our colony of Providence Plantations, in the Narragansct Bay, in NewEngland, shall be, from time to time, and for ever hereafter, a body corporate and politic, in sact and name, by the name of the Governor and Company of the English Colony of Rhode. island, and Providence Plantations, in New-England, in America; and that by the same name, they and their successors shall and may have perpetual succeffion, and shall and may be persons able and capable in the law to sue and be sued, to plead and be impleaded, to answer and to be answered unto, to desend and to be desended, in all and singular suits, causes, quarrels, matters, actions, and things, of what kind or nature soever; and also to have, take, possess, acquire, and purchase lands, tenements, or hereditaments, or any goods or chattels, and the same to lease, grant, demise, alien, bargain, sell, and dispose of, at their own will and pleasure, as other our liege people of this our realm of England, or any corporation or body politic within the same,may lawsully do: and further, That they the said governor and company, and their successors, shall and may, for ever hereafter, have a common s:al, t< serve and use for all matters, causes, things, and affairs what soever, of them and their successors, and the same scaL

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change, break, and make new from time to time, at their will and pleasure, as they shall think sit. And surther, we will and ordain, and bv these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, do declare and appoint, That for the better ordering and managing of the affairs and business of the said company and their successors, there fiiall be one governor, one deputy-governor, and ten affistants, to be from time to time constituted, elected, and chosen, out of the freemen of the said company, for the time being, in such manner and form as is hereafter in these presents expressed; which said officers shall.apply themselves to take care for the best disposing and ordering of the general business and affairs of and concerning the lands and henditaments herein aftermentioned to be granted, and the plantation thereof, and the government of the people there. And for the better execution of our royal pleasure herein, we do for us, our heirs and successors, assign, name, constitute and appoint, the aforesaid Benedict Arnold to be the first and present governor of the said company, and the said WiHiam Brenton to be the deputy-governor, and the said William Bouiston, John Porter, Roger Williams, Thomas Olney, John Smith, John Greene, John Cogeshall, James Barker, William Field, and Joseph Clarke, to be the ten present affistants of the said company, to coniinue in the said several offices respectively, until the first Wednesday which shall be in the month of May now next coming. And surther, we will, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, do ordain and grant, That the governor of the said company, for the time being, or in his absence, by occasion of sickness, or otherwise, by his leave or permiffion, the deputygovernor, for the time being, shall and may, from time to lyme, upon all occasions, give order for the assembling of the said company, and calling them together, to consult and advise of the business and affairs of the said company; and that for ever hereafter, twice in every year, that is to say, on every first Wednesday in the month of May, and on every last Wednesday in October, or oftener, in case it shall be requisite, the affistants, and such of the freemen of the said company, not exceeding six persons for Newport, four persons for each of the respective towns of Providence, Portsmouth, and Warwick, and two persons sor each other place, town or city, who shall be from time to time thereunto elected or Deputed by the major part of the frtemen of the respective towns' or places, for which they stialrbe so elected or deputed, shall have a general meeting or assembly, then and there to consult, advise and determine, in and about the affairs and business of the said company and plantations. And surther, we do of our especial grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion, give and grant unio the said governor and company of the Englisli colony of RhodeIsland and Providence Plantations, in New-England in America, and their successors, That the governor, or in his absence, or by his permiffion, the deputy governor, of the said company for thi time being, tha assistants, and such of the freemen of the said

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company, as shall be so aforesaid elected or deputed, or so many ef them as shall be present at such meeting orassembly, as aforesaid,. shall be called the General Assembly; and that they, or the greatest part of them then present, whereof the governor, or deputygovernor, and six of the affistants at least, to be seven, shall have, and have hereby given and granted unto them, sull power and1 authority, from time to time, and at all times hereafter, to appoint, alter, and change such days, times and places of meeting, and general assembly, as they mail think fit, and to chuse, nominate, and appoint such and so many persons as they shall think fit, and shall be willing to accept the same, to be free of the said company and body politics and them into the same to admit, and to elect, and constitute such offices and officers, and to grant such needsul commiffions as they shall think fit and requisite, for ordering, managing, and dispatching of the affairs of the said governor and company, and their successors; and, from time to time, to make, ordain, constitute, or repeal, such laws, statutes, orders and ordinances, forms and ceremonies of government and magistracy, as to them shall seem meet, for the good and welfare of the said company, and for the government and ordering of the lands and hereditaments herein after mentioned'to be granted', and of the people that do, or at any time hereafter shall inhabit, or bs within the same; so as such laws, ordinances, and constitutions, so made, be not contrary and repugnant unto, but as near as may ber agreeable to the laws of this our realm of England, considering the nature and constitution of the place and people there ; and also, to appoint, order, and direct, erect and settle such places and courts of jurisdiction, for hearing and determining of all actions, cases, matters and things, happening within the said colony and plantation, and which shall be in dispute, and depending there, as they shall think fit; and also to distinguish and set forth Ctte several names and titles, duties, powers and limits, of each court, office and officer, superior and inserior; and also, to contrive and appoint such forms of oaths and attestations, not repugnant, but as near as may be agreeable, as aforesaid, to the laws and statutes of this our realm, as are convenient and requifite, with respect to the due administration of justice, and due execution and discharge of all offices and pfaces of trust, by the pei sons that shall be therein concerned; and also to regulate and order the way and manner of all elections to offices and places of trust, and to prescribe, limit and distinguish the number and bounds of all places, towns and cities, within the limits and bounds herein after mentioned, and not herein particularly named, who have or shall have the power of electing and sending of freemen to the said general assembly; and also to order, direct and authorise, the imposing of lawsul and reasonable fines, mulcts, imprisonments, and executing other punishments, pecuniary and corporal, upon offenders and-delinquents, according to the course of other corporations, within this our kingdom of England ; and again,

toto alter, revoke, annul or pardon, under their common seal, or otherwise, such fines, mulcts, imprisonments, sentences, judgments and condemnations, as shall be thought sit; and to direct, rule, order and dispose of all other matters and things, and particularly that which relates to the making of purchases of the native Indians, as to them shall seem meet; whereby our said people and inhabitants in the said plantations, may be so religiously, peaceably, and civilly governed, as that by their good lise and orderly conversation they may win and invite the native Indians of the country to the knowledge and obedience of the only true God and Saviour of mankind; willing, commanding, and requiring, and by these presents, for us, our heirs, and successors, ordaining and appointing, that all such laws, statutes, orders, and ordinances, instructions, impositions, and directions, as shall be so made by the governor, deputy, affistants, and freemen, or such number of them as aforesaid, and published in wriiing under their common seal, Jhall be carefully and duly observed, kept, prrformed, and put in execution, according to the true intent and meaning of the same. And these our letters patent, or the duplicate or exemplification thereof, shall be to all and every such officers, superior or inserior, from time to time, for the putting of the same orders, laws, statutes, ordinances, instructions, and directions, in due execution against us, our heirs, and successors, a sufficient warrant and discharge. And surther, our will and pleasure is, and we do hereby for us, our heirs, and successors, establish and ordain, that yearly, once in the year for ever hereafter, namely, the aforesaid Wednesday in May, and at the town of Newport or elsewhere, is urgent occasion do require, the governor, deputy.governor, and affistants of the said company, and other,officers of the said company, or such of them as the general assembly shall think fit, shall be in the said general court or assembly, to be held from that day or time, newly chosen for the year ensuing, by the greater part of the said company soothe time being as shall be'then and.there present. And is it shall happen that the present governor, deputy-governor, and affistants, by these presents appointed, or any such as shall hereafter be newly chosen into their rooms, or any of them, or any other the officers of the said company, shall die, or be removed from his or their several offices or places, before the said general day of election (whom we do hereby declare for any misdemeanour or desault to., be removable by the governor, affistants, and .company, or such greater part of them, in any of the said public courts to be assembled as aforesaid), that then, and in every such case, it ihall> and may be lawsul to and for the said governor, deputy-governor, affistants, and company aforesaid, or such greater part of them so to be assembled, as is aforesaid, in any of their assemblies, to proceed to a new election of one or more of their company, in the room or place, rooms or places, of such officer or officers so dying w removed, according to their directions. And immediately upon

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and after such election or elections made of such governor, deputy-governor, affistant, or affistant^, or any other officer of the said company, in manner and form aforesaid, the authority, office, and power before given to the former governor, deputygovernor, and other officer and officers so removed, in whose stead and place new (hall be chosen, shall, as to him and them, and every of them respectively, cease and determine: Provided always, and our will and pleasure is, That as well such as are by these presents appointed to be the present governor, deputygovernor, and affistants of the said company, as those which shall lucceed them, and all other officers to be appointed and chosen as aforesaid, shall, before the undertaking the execution of the said offices and places respectively, give their solemn engagement by oath or otherwise, for the due and saithful performance of their duties in their several offices and places, before such person or persons as are by these presents hereafter appointed to take and receive the seme; (that is to say) the said Benedict Arnold, who is herein before nominated and appointed the present governor of the said company, shall give the aforesaid engagement before William Brenton, or any two of the said affistants of the said company, unto whom we do, by these presents, give sull power and authority to require and receive the same; and the said William Brenton, who is hereby before nominated and appointed the present deputy-governor of the said company, shall give the aforesaid engagement before the said Benedict Arnold, or any two of the affistants of the said companyj unto whom we do, by these presents, give sull power and authority to require and receive the same j and the said William Boulston, John Porter, Roger Williams, Thomas Olney, John Smith, John Greene, John Cogeshall, James Barker, William Field, and Joseph Clarke, who are herein before nominated and appointed the present affistants of the company, shall give the said engagement to their offices and places respectively belonging, before the said Benedict Arnold and William Brenton, or one of them, to whom respectively we do hereby give sull power and authority to require, administer, or receive the lame. And surther, our will and pleasure is, that all and every other suture governor, or deputy-governor, to be elected and chosen by virtue of these presents, shull give the said engagement before two or more of the said affistants of the said company for the time being, unto whom we do, by these presents, give sull powerand authority to require, administer, or receive the same; and the said affistants, and every of them, and all and every other offices or officers, to be hereafter elected and chosen by virtue of these presents, from time to time, shall give the like engagements to their offices and places respectively belonging, before the governor or deputy-governor for the time being; unto which said governor or deputy-governor, we do by these presents give sull power and authority to require, administer, or receive the same accordingly. And we da likewise for us, aus heirs, and successors, give and

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