Text-book on Geodesy and Least Squares: Prepared for the Use of Civil Engineering Students

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Wiley, 1906 - 329 pagina's
 

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Examples of Strength of Figure
19
Coast Survey Length of Line
22
Base Sites and Base Nets
23
Elevation of Signal
24
Hints in Selecting Stations
25
Reconnoissance
26
Npoint Problem
29
Twopoint Problem
31
Direction of Invisible Stations
32
Outfit for Reconnoissance
33
Pole Signals
34
Diameter and Height
36
Elevated Signals and Observingstands
37
Heliotropes
41
Night Signals
44
Station Reference
46
CHAPTER III
48
Normal Vision
50
The Astronomical Telescope
51
Magnifying Power
52
Measurement of Magnifying Power
55
Intensity and Brightness
57
Field of View
59
Spherical and Chromatic Aberration
61
Eyepieces
62
Cross Hairs
64
Tests of Telescope
65
Level Tubes
67
Graduated Circles
68
Micrometer Microscopes
71
The Run of the Micrometer
72
Errors of Graduated Circles
74
Repeating and Direction Instruments
76
Adjustments
78
Determination of Instrumental Constants
80
The Method of Direction Observations
82
4 Simple Angle Measurement
83
4 Repetitions
84
Conditions Favorable for Observing
85
Coast Survey Instruments and Observing
87
Vertical Measurements
90
Forms for Record
91
Phase
93
Eccentricity
94
CHAPTER IV
95
BacheWürdemann Apparatus
98
Porro Apparatus
99
Repsold Apparatus
100
Ibañez Apparatus
101
Coast Survey Secondary Apparatus
103
Duplex Apparatus
104
Iced Bar
105
Standards of Length
106
Comparators
107
Mercurial Thermometers
109
TABLES
111
Length of Apparatus
112
Defects and Difficulties
114
Field Work
116
Tape Measurements
120
Correction Formulas
122
Reduction to Sealevel
125
TRIGoNoMETRIC AND PRECISE LEVELING 7893
126
Reduction for Difference in Height of Telescope and Object above Station Mark
128
Difference of Height from Observed Zenith Distances
129
Coefficient of Refraction
131
Observed Angle of Elevation in Seconds
132
Instruments
134
Rods
139
United States Corps Engineers Method
142
French Government Method
143
U S Geological Survey Method
145
Inequality of Pivots
149
Rod Correction
150
Accuracy and Cost of Results
152
Triangle Side Computations
170
CHAPTER VII
173
Longitude
177
Convergence of Meridians
178
Form of Computation
179
Polyconic Map Projection
181
Mercators
182
Location of Great Arcs
183
Parallels
184
Parallels by Solar Compass
186
Rectangular Spherical Coordinates
187
Mapping Spherical Coordinates
190
CHAPTER VIII
192
Reduction of a Measured Are to the Meridian
193
The Ellipsoid from a Degree Measurement Oblique to the Meridian
198
Results of Degree Measurements
202
Local Deflections of the Vertical
203
PART II
205
Classes of Errors
206
Mean Square Error
207
Law of Propagation of Error a
208
4 b
210
The Simple Arithmetic Mean
211
The Weighted Arithmetic Mean
213
126 Controls Arithmetic Mean
215
127 Closeness of Computation
216
Independent Observations upon Independent Quantities
218
Control Normal Equations
220
Mean Square Errors of the Unknowns
222
131 Error of an Observation
225
Solution of Normal Equations
226
Indirect Observations Problem
231
Methods of Solution
235
Independent Observations upon Dependent Quantities
237
Control
239
Example
241
S E of a Function of the Required Quantities for Independent Observations
243
S E of a Function of Dependent Quantities
247
CHAPTER X
250
Form of f4
252
Constant C
254
Value of Probability Integral by Series
256
Degree of Precision
259
Average Error
260
Graphic Representation
261
Principle of Least Squares
262
Relation between Average Mean Square and Probable Errors
263
Limit of Accuracy
265
Rejection of Doubtful Observations
266
CHAPTER XI
268
Weighting
270
Figure Adjustment
272
Adjustment of a Quadrilateral Method of Angles
274
4 4 4 Directions
277
Number and Formation of Side Equations
281
Adjustment of Secondary to Primary Work
282
Probable Error of any Side
283
Approximate Adjustment for Azimuth
284
a between Bases
285
Adjustment for Latitude and Longitude e e e
287
of Levels
288
of a Compass Survey
289
of a Transit Survey
292
Formulas and Constants
299
Logarithms of Factors A B C D E F for Latitude Longitude and Azimuth Computations
301
Corrections to Longitude for Difference in Arc and Sine
306
Values at Various Latitudes of 1 of Parallel Log N and Log R
307
Lengths at Various Latitudes of 1 of Meridian
310
Values at Various Latitudes of Log Ra
311
of Logarithm m
312
For Plotting Maps in Polyconic Projection
313
Corrections for Run of the Micrometer
317
Rectangular Spherical Coordinates 3 18
318
For Determining Relative Strength of Figures in Triangulation
319

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