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squeezing, might be capable of accommodating half a dozen persons. Beyond the pulpit was a space of about eight feet square, in which the altar was placed, between two small windows. The altar was merely a wooden press or cupboard, seemingly destined to serve many unhallowed purposes. It contained various household utensils. The farmer and his wife cleared away several articles on the top, and, placing some milk on the altar, invited us to eat."

“ Varying a little in size, all the houses of the Icelanders are constructed on nearly the same plan. An outer wall of turf, about four feet and a half high, often six feet thick, encloses all the apartments. On one side, generally that facing the south, are doors, for the most part painted red, surmounted with vanes. These are the entrances to the dwelling-house, the smithy, dairy, cow-house, &c. From the door of the house is a long, narrow, dark, and damp passage, into which, on each side, the different apartments open. Between each of these is a thick partition of turf, and every one has a separate roof, through which light is admitted by bits of glass or skin, four or five inches in diameter. The principal rooms of the better sort of houses have windows in front, consisting of from one to four panes of glass. The thick turf walls, the earthen floors kept continually damp and filthy, the personal uncleanliness of the inhabitants, all unite in causing a smell insupportable to a stranger. No article of furniture seems to have been cleaned since the day it was first used; and all is in disorder. The beds look like receptacles for dirty rags, and when wooden dishes, spinning wheels, and other articles are not seen upon them, these are confusedly piled up at one end of the room."

“ While I was engaged in examining these things, my friends went to a neighbouring church, attracted by the report of the singular character of the priest, and desirous of seeing the religious ceremonials in a country church.”

“ The church is at a place called Hyindarmulè. The people were assembled, all dressed in their best suits, and were waiting for their pastor at the time my friends reached the place. On entering the church, a little while after the service had begun, the priest, without interrupting his devotions, beckoned to them to take seats near him. He soon handed to them his snuff-box, and, still going on with the service, he invited them by signs and gestures to partake of its contents. A dram bottle stood upon the altar, to which he made frequent applications. Before the sermon, he left the church, and said that he was very desirous to accompany them to Hliderendè; that he had already shortened the service, and would abridge his sermon as much as possible, in order that they might not be detained. They then returned to the church, and sat quietly till their new friend had vociferated a sermon which occupied half an hour. The sacrament was then administered, and the service concluded. They had advanced a short space on the road to Hliderendè, when the priest drew from a side pocket a fresh bottle of spirits, which he offered to the party. On their declining his civility, he consoled himself by taking their share as well as his own, and, by the time they reached their place of destination, the bottle was almost empty."

“ The wages given to servants, male and female, amount to from four to six dollars a year, sometimes more, besides food and clothes. By these, and the other members of the family, every thing that is necessary for subsistence and clothing is prepared, and all business performed. During the winter season, the family rises about six or seven o'clock in the morning. One is sent out to look after the sheep; another attends the cattle; some are employed in making ropes of wool or horse hair; one is in the smithy making horse shoes and other articles. Spinning is performed with a spindle and distaff, and sometimes with a wheel; some, both men and women, knit and weave, and others prepare sheep-skins for fishing dresses. While so many are thus occupied, one generally reads aloud, in a singing tone, different tales and histories. Most farmhouses are supplied with books containing such tales; and the people exchange books with each other for the sake of variety. The only opportunity they have of making this exchange is when they meet at church, where, even during the most inclement part

of the season, a few always contrive to be present. The people sometimes amuse themselves with a game somewhat like drafts; with cards; and many play chess extremely well.

“ Sour whey, mixed with water, is a favourite beverage of the Icelanders, and they seldom travel without a supply of it. Butter, however, is the chief article among the products of the farm, and of this the Icelanders eat a surprising quantity. They value it most after it has been barrelled, without salt, and kept several years. It is wonderful how well butter keeps in this manner; it arrives at a certain degree of rancidity, beyond which it does not pass. The smell and taste of the sour butter are very disagreeable to English palates, though Icelanders delight in it. When there is a scarcity of butter, the

people eat tallow. The former was not very plentiful last summer, and consequently little tallow was brought to market; and I have seen children eating lumps of it with as much pleasure as our little ones express when sucking a piece of sugar candy. When people go to the northern districts for the purpose of cutting hay, they are paid for their work in butter, at the rate of 30lbs. per week.”

“ The moral and religious habits of the people at large may be spoken of in terms of the most exalted commendation. In his domestic capacity, the Icelander performs all the duties which his situation requires, or renders possible; and while by the severe labour of his hands, he obtains a provision of food for his children, it is not less his care to convey to their minds the inheritance of knowledge and virtue. In his intercourse with those around him, his character displays the stamp of honour and integrity. His religious duties are performed with cheerfulness and punctuality; and this even amidst the numerous obstacles, which are afforded by the nature of the country, and the climate under which he lives. The Sabbath scene at an Icelandic church is indeed one of the most singular and interesting kind. The little edifice, constructed of wood and turf, is situated perhaps amid the rugged ruins of a stream of lava, or beneath mountains which are covered with never melting snows; in a spot where the mind almost sinks under the silence and desolation of surrounding nature. Here the Icelanders assemble to perform the duties of their religion. A groupe of male and female peasants may be seen gathered about the church, waiting the arrival of their pastor; all habited in their best attire, after the manner of the country; their children with them; and the horses, which brought them from their respective homes, grazing quietly around the little assembly. The arrival of a new comer is welcomed by every one with the kiss of salutation; and the pleasures of social intercourse, so rarely enjoyed by the Icelanders, are happily connected with the occasion which summons them to the discharge of their religious duties. The priest makes his appearance among them as a friend: he salutes individually each member of his flock, and stoops down to give his almost parental kiss to the little ones, who are to grow up under his pastoral charge. These offices of kindness performed, they all go together into the house of prayer.”

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An Inquiry into the various Systems of Political Economy;

their advantages and disadvantages; and the Theory most favourable to the increase of National Wealth. By CHARLES GANILH, Advocate. Translated from the French by D. Boileau, author of "An Introduction to the Study of Political Economy," &c.

From the moment, we first became acquainted with the contents of this volume, we cherished a strong desire to see it reprinted, and widely circulated, in this country. An enterprising bookseller of New York has accomplished the one point, and we would, on our part, heartily co-operate to the extent of our ability, in promoting the other. It'is rare that our press furnishes us with so valuable a gift as the present. What is generally, and in particular, what has been recently, selected from the European store, for republication here, is fitted to serve any purpose other than that of enlarge ing the knowledge, and refining the taste of the American reader. In the work of Mr. Ganilh, however, every man among us, endowed even with a moderate share of intelligence, has a rich fund of the most useful instruction. The legislator, and those who aspire at becoming legislators, the merchant who seeks to understand the real character, and vast importance of his profession, the student of political economy desirous of learning the true principles, and mastering the difficulties of the science, all should consider this production as indispensable for their object, and make it their manual. They can no where find a more lucid, learned, and enlightened teacher than Mr. Ganilh.

He has undertaken to analize, compare, and examine the various systems of political economy, and to determine the nature, and sources of public wealth. In the

prosecution of his enterprise, he appears to have studied, all the most celebrated writers in this department, of every nation, and to have collated their opinions and reasonings, with the greatest accuracy and minuteness. There is scarcely any problem of the science, which he does not, in the course of his Inquiry, attempt to solve, while his own par. ticular theory with respect to national wealth, is developed and supported with singular skill and success. Without meaning to compare him with Adam Smith in point of genius and depth, or to question the precedence, which the great father of political economy is entitled to claim, over all writers on the same subject, we must, however, confess, that we think this treatise of Mr. Ganilh better suited for popular instruction, than the “ Wealth of Nations.” It is preferable under all points of view, as a synopsis; it is not encumbered, like the other, with foreign and perplexing details, and it completes the structure of the “mercantile system,” of which Smith only laid the foundations and furnished some of the materials, putting them sometimes to a use, directly opposite indeed, to the true one, as our author satisfactorily proves.

We do not pretend to assert, that the present production is free from defects and errors. It is liable to a reproach, which may be extended, to nearly all the French books, of the present day; that of great diffusion in the style. Moreover, the author is frequently guilty of repetitions, and appears not to have examined some few, of the many important questions which he introduces, with all the attention and patience they deserve. On the whole, however, we deem his work superior to any other of his nation, on the same subject, not excepting that of Mr. Say, for which we entertain a high respect, and fitted to be more generally useful than any other extant. We are of opinion that our author pushes some of his favorite doctrines rather too far; but we shall content ourselves with merely nam. ing the instances, as the occasion may present itself

. The full discussion of what we suppose to be his mistakes, would not suit our present purpose, which is to recommend most earnestly, his work to public consideration, and by making known its contents, while we enrich our pages with some of his most interesting maxims and arguments, to incite our readers to a careful examination of the whole.

We mean to follow him through the different divisions, of his volume, indicating the tenor of each, and indulging ourselves in a few incidental remarks. When the extracts which we propose to make, are read, no apology will be thought necessary for the great space they may occupy. Although they will be found replete with instruction, on topics equally curious and important, they cannot fail to leave upon the mind of every inquirer, the impression, that he does justice neither to himself nor to the author, if he should remain satisfied, without drinking at the fountain head.

Mr. Ganilh has divided his work into six books, through which he carries the proof of his two fundamental propositions, --that wealth is the basis of national power and felicity, and that commerce is the most fruitful source of wealth. He com, mences with an outline of his plan, which he alleges to embrace an investigation of the various systems concerning, 1st, the sources of wealth,-2d, their several ramifications, such as ·labour, capitals, the circulation of commodities or commerce,

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