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will probably think that we have made better use of our space. We have endeavoured to describe those faults, and the causes of them; and not a few of them-or of those parts which should perhaps be regarded as characteristics, rather than absolute faults-will be found among the extracts now given. Those who wish for more may find them in almost every page of the writer's works. They may find the most far-fetched and fantastical allusions and illustrations brought to bear upon the thought or feeling in question, sometimes by the most quickeyed and subtle ingenuity, but oftener in a manner altogether forced and arbitrary; turns of thought that are utterly at variance with the sentiment and with each other; philosophical and scholastic differences and distinctions, that no sentiment could have suggested, and that nothing but searching for could have found; and, above all, paradoxical plays of words, antitheses of thought and expression, and purposed involutions of phrase, that nothing but the most painful attention can untwist. All this they may find, and more. But, in the midst of all, they not only may, but must find an unceasing activity and an overflowing fullness of mind, which seem never to fail or flag, and which would more than half redeem the worst faults (of mere style) that could be allied to them.
ART. III.-New England's Prospect. A true, lively, and experimental description of that part of America, commonly called New England: discovering the state of that Country, both as it stands to our new-come English Planters, and to the old native Inhabitants. Laying down that which may both enrich the knowledge of the mind-travelling Reader, or benefit the future Voyager. By William Wood. Printed at London, by Thomas Cotes, for John Bellamie, and are to be sold at his shop, at the Three Golden Lions in Cornhill, near the Royal Exchange. sm. 4to. 1634.
We have never looked upon the humorous picture of the dispersal of the ambitious builders of Babel, which is intended to ornament the title page of Verstegan's "Restitution of decayed intelligence," without musing upon the advantages and necessity of migration. The manifest cheerfulness of those lightlyequipped early colonists suggests so agreeable an issue to the embarrassments which before perplexed them, that the troubles usually attendant upon similar expeditions do not obtrude themselves on the imagination. Great as their confusion was, in consequence of the sudden multiplying of unknown tongues, the remedy was simple to those before whom the earth lay unoccupied. Many stories of antiquity may be remembered,
equally full of interesting associations, incident to the removal of their "stuff and their little ones" by the patriarchs of the world. In modern history the subject has been too often mixed up with military conquests; and bears too little the character. of pastoral migration, to partake of the comparative innocence and ease of similar expeditions in earlier days. The occupied condition of the world has long rendered it difficult to put an end to "strife," by having recourse to Abraham's appeal :
"Is not the whole land before thee? separate thyself, I pray thee, from me if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the right: or if thou depart to the right hand, then I will go to the left."
There has been, however, enough of enterprise performed in modern times to furnish important details, which ought to be collected for the guidance of individuals and of governments from error, in their future and better regulated attempts to fulfil the divine injunction to man, "to be fruitful and to multiply, and replenish the earth and subdue it." Vast regions remain to be peopled, which will be best accomplished by a consideration of the dangerous mistakes which heretofore have been committed; and although few parts of the world are now to be found without inhabitants, still are the scattered possessors of many countriest ready to receive more civilized visitors with cordiality and welcome. It is the interest of the Indian to admit his more cultivated brother to his cabin, when
* Genesis, 13 ch. 9 verse.
+ We were struck with Lord Byron's remarks upon this subject, in a letter recently published; from which it appears, that the importance of an accession of industry and skill, is duly appreciated by the less civilized nations of Europe itself. We know how wisely our own ancestors acted, in receiving kindly the refugees of Brabant, and the Hugonots of France, in the 16th and 17th centuries. Upon which occasions, self-interest, without doubt, concurred with humane feelings. Lord Byron's words are; “The resources even for an emigrant population in the Greek Islands alone, are rarely to be paralleled; and the cheapness of every kind of not only necessaries, but luxuries, (that is to say, luxuries of nature, fruit, wine, oil, &c.,) in a state of peace, are far beyond those of the Cape and Van Diemen's Land, and the other places of refuge which the English population are searching for over the waters."-Genoa, May 12, 1823. We cannot add another better illustration of our text than the very remarkable invitation given by the Prince of Persia to Europeans to settle near Tabriz, published in the newspapers as this sheet is passing through the press. With reference, however, to British colonization, although Persia and the Greek islands undoubtedly abound in physical resources, it deserves grave consideration whether the people of Great Britain, as a mass, and particularly the women, will not find British colonies more suited to their habits.
ever the latter brings with him the sound principles of justice, which are the true and permanent marks of pre-eminence in civil society. The unceasing departure also every year, of thousands of families from the res angusta domi, renders the subject one of national concern. Nothing in the power of government can dam the stream, and doubts may reasonably be entertained, whether it should be suffered to find its own way forth, as it now does; or whether it ought not to be so directed, as to fertilize the regions in which we are chiefly interested; and be so conducted thither, that it may be exposed the least that is possible to injury and waste. To aid the emigrant to settle where his establishment will equally benefit himself and his ancient home, cannot be an instance of that sort of meddling in political arrangements which sound opinions condemn.
The character of emigration has, indeed, essentially changed with other things in modern times. Masses of all ranks do not quit their homes now, in the manner which was not unusual with some of the nations of antiquity. The golden dreams also which, in the 16th century, carried men of the highest consideration across the Atlantic, have passed away; and religious persecution no longer drives whole congregations into the wilderness for an asylum. Nothing, therefore, remains directly to induce the rich to encourage emigration, but the wish to be relieved from a disproportionate population, or the desire to give a British character to ceded colonies, which, like the Cape of Good Hope, may protect the remote parts of the empire; or, like Canada, may by some persons be thought useful only to curb a rival. These motives do not, however, appear to be sufficiently strong, to overrule the objections which are felt against the emigration of great masses of the people. Rents at home are increased by competitors, and the competition arising from the number of tenants will continue long after many of the ordinary comforts of life have fallen away from the rack-rent occupier of the soil;-taking a series of years together, little rent is lost, until after very great suffering on the part of the tenantry. It may happen, as in Ireland, that the only inconvenience which the rich can suffer, from the privations of a population disproportioned to the accessible means of subsistence, is the risk of personal violence to themselves. But if it happen, as the fact is there, that personally the great land owners may be out of contact with the people, there is less danger apprehended from their violence, than there is advantage derived from the high rents which they will continue to pay.
Undoubtedly, therefore, it is to benefit the people chiefly, that emigration should be encouraged. Wages would be raised to them and rent lowered, in consequence of the removal of a
considerable number of the poor; but it is not the immediate interest of the land owners, that they should quit their crowded homes. Principles of philanthropy then must be appealed to, when the rich are personally asked to aid such enterprises;-and when the government is called upon to act in them, the right of the people to be well governed, and consequently to have all means of benefiting them resorted to, should alone be relied upon.
In order, also, to render a great change in the poor laws possible, some arrangement advantageous to the people, as that of fitting out large bodies of emigrants would be, seems unavoidable. The very foundation of the argument against those laws, as at present administered, demands this. If the administration of them, by the rich, have multiplied labourers beyond the means of their being duly remunerated in the market for labour -if they have made the poor numerous in an undue proportion to the wants of well regulated society, it is impossible justly to deny relief, until the due proportion is again attained; and the most obviously prudent way to that happier state of things, is to alter the distribution of wealth, by placing competence within the reach of industrious men; and nothing will do this but enabling some of the poor to emigrate, or, which is less likely to be agreed to, distributing amongst them a certain property at home.
The difficulty of conducting emigration on a large scale with success, is, undoubtedly, a reason why a minister should pause before he sanctions such a project—and to lessen the difficulty, by pointing out the causes which have led former expeditions to a good or bad issue, will be useful. The Retrospective Review professes to contemplate what has been done in times past, only in order to improve the present, and what is to come. With the hope, therefore, of aiding future enterprises, by a consideration of the causes of former successes and failures, it will be the object of this and a few succeeding articles, to review what has been accomplished in North America, by some of the numerous colonists from England, within the last three hundred years.
Many interesting circumstances also, with regard to the Aborigines of the new world, will be noticed. Few adventurers have listened to Lord Bacon's precepts in behalf of that injured race, although his sentiments are merely those of ordinary justice:
"I like a plantation," says Lord Bacon, " in a pure soil; that is, where people are not displanted to the end to plant in others; if you plant where savages are, do not only entertain them with trifles and gingles; but use them justly and graciously, with sufficient guard nevertheless; and do not win their favour by helping them to invade their enemies, but for their defence it is not amiss; and send oft, of them
over to the country that plants, that they may see a better condition than their own, and commend it when they return."
With regard to the Indians of North America, it will be an important object with us to consider the evidence, which the early history of colonization presents, of the capacity and rights of the people, amongst whom our forefathers sought distinction, or riches, or (what they found without requiting) a refuge from oppression.
A better introduction to the general subject cannot, perhaps, be selected, than the following passages from the Essay of Lord Bacon, just referred to, on colonization: it is to be regretted, that his precepts have entered less into the practice of succeeding statesmen, than his contemplations into the views of projectors.
"Plantations," says Bacon, "are amongst ancient, primitive, and heroical works. When the world was young, it begat more children; but now it is old, it begets fewer; for I may justly account new plantations to be the children of former kingdoms It is a shameful and unblessed thing, to take the scum of people, and wicked condemned men, to be those with whom you plant. They ought to be gardeners, ploughmen, labourers, smiths, carpenters, joiners, fishermen, fowlers, with some few apothecaries, surgeons, cooks, and bakers. After looking about what kind of victual the country yields of itself to hand, consider what esculent things there are which grow speedily and within the year; as parsnips, carrots, turnips, onions, radishes, artichokes of Jerusalem, maiz, and the like. For wheat, barley, and oats, they ask too much labour: but with peas and beans you may begin; both because they ask less labour, and because they serve for meat, as well as for bread. And of rice likewise cometh a great increase, and it is a kind of meat. Above all, there ought to be brought store of biscuit, oatmeal, flour, meal, and the like, in the beginning, till bread may be had.
"For beasts or birds, take chiefly such as are least subject to diseases, and multiply fastest: as swine, goats, cocks, hens, turkeys, geese, house-doves, and the like. The victual in plantations ought to be expended almost as in a besieged town; that is with certain allowIf there be iron ore,* and streams whereupon to set the mills, iron is a brave commodity where wood aboundeth. Making of baysalt, if the climate be proper for it, should be put in experience. Grow
* It well illustrates how little practical politicians are guided by the "wisdom of the wise;" to observe, that till within a few years of the revolutionary war of 1776, the settlers of North America were forbidden to make iron. Happily, new principles are beginning to prevail; and iron furnaces are amongst the important, growing works in our remaining colonies.