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porations engaged in or who shall sell fresh meats in the city of Raleigh or within its jurisdiction.

Sec. 7. On and after the 1st day of September, 1912, no person, firm, or corporation shall operate any slaughterhouse or pen for the dressing of meats for use in the city of Raleigh, unless the same shall be licensed by the board of health of the city of Raleigh, Application for license must be made in writing to the board of health, showing the name of the applicant, occupation, residence, location of the place of business, and his experience in operating such an establishment,

Sec. 8. No person, firm, or corporation shall sell, or offer for sale, any fresh meats in the city of Raleigh unless the same has been slaughtered and inspected as provided in this ordinance, nor keep or expose or offer for sale for food, nor keep the same for purposes of food within the city of Raleigh, any emaciated, tainted, putrid, decayed, or unwholesome or diseased meats. In case of keeping, exposing, or offering such for sale, the food inspector or his assistant shall have the power and authority to seizer condemn, and confiscate the same.

Sec. 9. The board of health shall prescribe and furnish forms for reports, tags, etc., necessary for use by the food inspector or his assistant, and shall receive and check all reports of said food inspector or assistant relative to meats, which said inspector shall file such reports as often as required by the board of health. The said board shall receive all complaints and adjust all differences arising between the inspector or bis assistant and those having property inspected, not otherwise hereinafter provided for

Sec. 10. That no fresh meats or carcasses of animals shall be offered or exposed for sale in the city of Raleigh for use in the city of Raleigh, unless the same shall be inspected by the food inspector or his assistant, and shall show the stamp of approval of the United States Government or the food inspector of the city of Raleigh. For every inspection of the carcass of an animal so made by said inspector or bis assistant, the owner thereof, the person, firm, or corporation, selling or offering same for sale, shall pay the said inspector the sum of 25 cents for each inspection of a carcass which weighs 100 pounds or over, and the sum of 10 cents for the inspection of each carcass which weighs less than 100 pounds, which said sum shall be collected at the time of inspection by said inspector or his assistant, and by them shall be paid to the city clerk, who shall keep a record of same.

Sec. 11. That the requirements of these ordinances shall not be applicable to farmers who are not engaged in the fresh-meat business, but they may bring their meatz into the city for sale and to the city market during the hours to be designated by the board of health, and there have the same inspected in accordance with the require · ments of this ordinance, and for the same fees and for the purpose of such inspection gaid meats shall have accompanying them, held by their natural attachments, all of the following organs of the animals, to wit, head, liver, heart, spleen, and lungs.

Sec. 12. Any person, firm, or corporation violating any of the provisions of this ordinance, or interfering in any manner with the food inspector or his assistant in the performance of their duty under this ordinance, shall upon conviction be subject to a penalty of $10, and his license may be revoked by the board of health.

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PUBLIC HEALTH REPORTS

VOL. XXVIII.

SEPTEMBER 26, 1913.

No. 39.

CHOLERA.

During the last three or four months cholera has been reported in various localities in southern Europe. In Austria-Hungary 93 cases with 43 deaths were reported up.to August 25. In Roumania cases have been reported in 25 different localities. In Servia up to August 23 there had been reported 1,460 cases, with 619 deaths. The disease was ako reported present in the Kherson district of southern Russia. In Turkey in Europe cases were reported in Constantinople, Kavak, and Saloniki. Cases were present August 25 among soldiers at Varna in Bulgaria. The spread of the disease in southern Europe has apparently been due largely to the demobilization of armies, which have brought the disease back from the front.

In China cholera broke out in Hongkong the early part of August, and on the 25th of the month 2 cases were reported at Manila, in the Philippine Islands.

AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION.

SIXTY-FIRST ANNUAL CONVENTION, HELD AT NASHVILLE, TENN., AUGUST 18-23, 1913. By MARTIN I. WILBERT, Technical Assistant, Hygienic Laboratory, United States Public Health

Service,

The total number of persons registered at the Sixty-first Annual Convention of the American Pharmaceutical Association, which was held at the Hotel Hermitage, Nashville, Tenn., August 18 to 23, 1913, was 397. Practically all parts of the country were represented, and the attendance at the several sessions of the association and of the different sections was unusually good. The meeting of the association was formally opened by President 1. S. Day on the afternoon of August 18. The address of the president contained a number of recommendations relating to publichealth matters, more particularly the manufacture and use of nostrums and the abuse of habit-forming drugs. The president pointed out that so-called patent medicines are secret in composition and that

secrecy in formula is frequently accompanied by extravagant esploitation. In some cases the patient is injured by the formation 143

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of drug habit and in others by the excessive or ill-advised use of powerful drugs, while, if no other ill effects are experienced, there is often a waste of valuable time devoted to "trying out” a muchvaunted cure, during which the opportunity for successfully combatting the disease is lost. He also expressed the opinion that at this time the American Pharmaceutical Association should do no less than emphatically restate the steadfast opposition of its members to nostrums of all descriptions.

At a subsequent meeting of the association the appointment of a commission on proprietary medicines was authorized. The duties of this commission will be to investigate and report on various socalled patent medicines sold in the United States and their percentage of alcohol and habit-forming drugs.

The scientific work of the association was largely done in connection with four of the seven sections of the association, and the communications presented in these sections aggregated upward of 125.

The section on scientific papers presented the most extended program. This program was largely devoted to technical subjects of a chemical or of a pharmacognostic nature, although work along the line of experimental pharmacology was reported on in connection with communications on digitalis, ergot, ouabain, and in a paper describing an improved kymograph, which permits the simultaneous use of four animals in connection with ore piece of apparatus.

The members attending the section on practical pharmacy and dispensing discussed 31 communications, mostly of a practical nature, and also had the privilege of listening to an illustrated lecture on the flora of central Tennessee.

In the section devoted to the discussion of pharmacopæias and formularies the chairman of the committee on revision of the Pharmacopæia of the United States presented a comprehensive report on proposed changes in the Pharmacopeia, and also ventured the statement that the new Pharmacopæia was now 90 per cent complete and that printing would probably begin in the very near future.

The chairman of the committee on National Formulary reported that the members of the committee present at Nashville had held several meetings and that the work of revision was practically completed so far as formulas were concerned. He also presented a copy of the completed draft of the Formulary.

The chairman of the committee on unofficial standards reported that monographs for many of the drugs needed in the formulas of the National Formulary and not included in the Pharmacopæis had been prepared and that the few remaining monographs would be ready in the very near future, thus practically completing the work of revision.

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The section on education and legislation of the American Pharmaceutical Association devoted the greater portion of the available time to the discussion of laws relating to poisons and habit-forming drugs. A lengthy paper on the nature of poisons elicited considerable discussion, and the suggestion was made that it might be possible to define poisons in the form of toxic units per gram of animal.

The reports of the representatives of the American Pharmaceutical Association to the American Drug Trade Conference elicited considerable discussion on the desirability, practicability, and need for Federal legislation to control the sale of narcotic drugs, and apprecia

tion was expressed of the work done by the Public Health Service 1 in the compilation of laws relating to the manufacture, sale, and use

of poisons and habit-forming drugs.

A communication on the need for uniformity in laws relating to the manufacture and sale of poisons and habit-forming drugs elicited much discussion and evidenced considerable uniformity of opinion in regard to the desirability of correlating the laws relating to these several subjects. The members of the association at the final session indorsed resolutions advanced by the house of delegates and previously adopted by the council of the American Pharmaceutical Association, favoring greater uniformity in laws relating to the manufacture and sale of narcotic drugs; a detail plan for the lessening of poison cases from the use of poison tablets intended for external use; a better law against illegal trade in habit-forming drugs; a law further restricting the sale of methyl alcohol, and a recommendation that the committees of revision of the Pharmacopeia and of the National Formulary indicate toxic drugs. The association also indorsed a recommendation that the revision committees include synonyms in the United States Pharmacopæia and National Formulary and adopted a resolution to the effect that the association is in favor of greater uniformity in connection with pharmacopæial nomenclature, particularly of potent drugs, and advocates the establishment of a commission to bring about this uniformity.

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A NOTE REGARDING CERTAIN PAPERS OF PUBLIC-HEALTH INTEREST PRESENTED

AT THE MEETING AT ROCHESTER, N. Y., SEPTEMBER 9-13, 1913.

Hy A THYRTON SEIDELL, Technical Assistant, Hygienic Laboratory, United States Public Health Service,

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At the meeting of the American Chemical Society 17 papers were presented before the section on water, sewage, and sanitation. Of these, the papers presented by Prof. Chamot, of Cornell University, and his assistant, Dr. Redfield, upon the value and best conditions for testing for hydrogen-sulphide production in the bacteriological

examination of potable waters, were of much interest from a publichealth standpoint. These authors found that in al undoubtedly polluted waters, showing the colon group, a positive test for hydrogensulphide-producing bacteria was obtained, thus furnishing a valuable corroborative test for polluted waters. Although colon bacilli in a sample might not condemn the water, a positive test for the hydrogen-sulphide-producing bacteria would show conclusively that the sample was polluted. In 11 per cent of the samples examined the pollution could be positively diagnosed only by the corroborative evidence obtained by the test for the hydrogen-sulphide-producing bacteria.

A paper which appeared of general interest was that upon the “Ventilation of the schools of New York City," presented by Dr. Charles Baskerville. The investigation was undertaken for the board of estimates and awards by a committee. The humidity, temperature, carbon-dioxide content, direction of air currents, number of dust particles, and number of bacteria were determined in several thousand samples of air of typical schools over a period of about six months.

Comparisons were made between artificial ventilating systems and ventilation by way of the windows of the room. Nothing was found which would warrant the recommendation of the installation of the very costly mechanical ventilating systems in the public schools of New York. The results indicated that the question of ventilation is almost entirely one of proper control of temperature and humidity, and, therefore, almost entirely a janitorial problem. The committee recommended the purchase of automatic temperature and humidity recording instruments for use in accurately controlling the efficiency of the school janitors. In regard to the amount of dust it was found that a general parallelism existed between the amount of dust in the inside and outside air. On windy, dusty days the amount found in the schoolrooms was always higher than on quiet, clear days.

In a paper before the general meeting of the society it was pointed out by George A. Soper, of the public works department of New York City, that the profitable utilization of sewage has so far been a failure. The reasons therefor and the difficulties of the problem were discussed. Even a process for sewage disposal which would be self-supporting would be of immense value at the present time. No hopes of early solution of this important problem were expressed.

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