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white letters "Skimmed milk,” each and every letter being at least 1 inch high and
one-halí inch wide, said words to be on the die or top of the container in such a posi-
tion as to be most easily seen when such milk is sold or delivered.

Sec. 9. No person, firm, or corporation shall sell, or offer for sale, in the city of
Rockford, as pure milk, any milk to which any preservative has been added.

Sec. 10. No person, firm, or corporation shall sell, offer for sale, or expose for sale,
or distribute or deliver for sale or consumption any unclean, impure, unhealthy,
unwholesome, or adulterated milk.

Sec. 11. To determine the character of the milk sold, a chemical and bacteriological examination may be made or ordered made by the commissioner of health, and the sale of milk which does not conform with the following standards is hereby prohibited: Chemical analysis-Shall conform to the standards set forth in section 8. Bacteriological analysis--Milk, 250,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter; cream, 500,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter; and shall be kept at a temperature not exceeding 60° F.

Sec. 12. l'pon complaint in writing by any resident of the city of Rockford, filed with the commissioner of health, that any licensee sold or offered for sale milk or cream that is impure, unhealthy, or insanitary, or that the dairy or place in which cows are kept from which such milk is obtained is filthy or unhealthy, or that he has violated any of the provisions of this ordinance, the commissioner of health shall cause an examination of such premises and such milk or cream to be made, and, if conditions warrant it, the commissioner of health shall notify such licensee and report his finding to the mayor, and the mayor may, if in his judgment such complaint and facts warrant it, revoke the license of such licensee.

Sec. 13. Should scarlet fever, smallpox, diphtheria, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, or other dangerous or infectious diseases occur in the family or among the employees of any of his employees, or in any house in which milk is kept for sale, or in the family or among the employees of any person who ships milk into the city for sale, such dairymen, venders, or shippers of milk shall immediately notify the commissioner of health of the facts of the case, and the commissioner of health shall at once investigate and order the sale of such milk stopped or sold under such regulations as he thinks proper. Should dairymen, venders, or shippers of milk fail to notify the commissioner of health when contagious diseases exist in their families or in the families of their employees, or who, after such information is given the commissioner of health, fail to obey his directions, the milk and dairy inspector shall seize and destroy all milk sent into the city by such persons. In delivering milk to families in which there exists any of the above-named contagious or infectio s diseases, the dairyman shall not enter, neither shall he permit any of his milk bottles or vessels to be taken into such houses, but shall pour such milk as each family wishes into vessels to be furnished by such family.

Sec. 14. Pasteurized milk and cream, besides being subject to the foregoing regutations, shall also be subject to the following: All farms supplying milk to pasteurizing plants or creameries that sell pasteurized milk or cream or both shall be subject to the regulations already prescribed for all other farms. By pasteurized milk or cream is meant milk or cream which has been heated with a purpose of destroying the germ contents of the same. All pasteurized milk or cream shall be so labeled. Pasteurized milk or cream shall not contain more than 50,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter. All pasteurizing plants shall be subject to inspection and must be approved by the commissioner of health.

SEC. 15. Any person, firm, or corporation may be granted a special permit by the commissioner of health to sell milk as inspected milk and may advertise the same as such, provided all the said milk is produced by cows that have passed the tubercuin test within one year; that the farm and dairy in which said milk is produced shall have a score of at least 90 as scored by the city dairy inspector; that all such milk while in storage or transportation until delivered to the consumer shall be kept at a temperature below 50° F.; and that shall not contain more than 50,000 bacte

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ria per cubic centimeter, or contain less than 34 per cent butter fat. No animal shall be brought into the herd that have not passed the tuberculin test within one month. Any animals that react to the tuberculin test shall not be kept on farma producing inspected milk. All tuberculin tests made in compliance with the regulation shall be made by or under the direction of the State department of agriculture, and the records of the tests of each individual animal must be kept at the farm for reference. Farms or dairies producing inspected milk shall be inspected monthly by the dairy inspector, who shall make a written report of his findings to the commissioner of health, and any milk sold as inspected milk shall be examined monthly by the bacteriologist, who shall also report his findings in writing to the commissioner of health. The commissioner of health shall revoke any special permit granted 10 any party to sell inspected milk when the prescribed regulations for the same are not maintained. The production and sale of inspected milk shall also be subject 10 the regulations prescribed for ordinary milk. No milk shall be sold or offered for sale as sanitary or inspected milk except in compliance with or pursuant to the above prescribed regulations.

Sec. 16. Cream that is not separated from clean, pure milk, or to which any foreign substance whatsoever has been added, or that contains more than 500,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter, or that has been kept in storage for more than four days, shall be considered adulterated. Adulterated cream shall not be sold or offered for sale. Cream shall not be sold or offered for sale that contains less than 18 per cent butter fat. All creameries, dairies, and other premises used for separating cream from milk shall be open to the inspection of and shall meet with the approval of the health commissioner.

Sec. 17. No ice cream or other substances shall be sold, offered, or exposed for sale as ice cream or labeled or implied as such that does not comply with the provisions of this section or unless the milk and cream used in its manufacture complies with all the regulations prescribed for ordinary milk or cream. Ice cream must contain at least 10 per cent butter fat. Fruit creams must contain at least 8 per cent butter fat. It shall be maintained continuously at a temperature of 32° F. or below after it is írozen. It shall be free from all preservatives, including all forms of soda and formulin, 80chrin, artificial flavors, and coal-tar dyes. Ice cream that is refrozen shall be cotisidered as adulterated. Adulterated ice cream shall not be sold or offered for sale. Ice cream and all other frozen substances, ices, and soda-fountain drinks, sold, offered, or exposed for sale as food or beverage, shall be made from pure, clean, and wholesome materials, shall be sold or delivered in clean sanitary packages or containers, and the premises where such substances are made, prepared, or sold shall be open to the inspection of and shall meet with the approval of the commissioner of health.

Sec. 18. The score card recommended by the United States Government in scoring dairy farms shall be used at all times in scoring dairies.

Sec. 19. Any person, firm, or corporation violating any of the provisions of this ordinance shall be subject to a penalty of not less than $5 nor more than $25 for each offense, and a second conviction of any person violating the provisions of this ordinance shall cause his license to be forfeited.

SAGINAW, MICH.
Milk and Milk Products Production, Care, and Sale. (Ord. 150, June 3, 1912.)

Section 1. That an ordinance entitled “An ordinance to license the sale of milk in the city of Saginaw, and to provide for the inspection of dairy herds, dairies, and milk, and to regulate the care and sale of milk, cream, buttermilk, sour milk, skimmed milk, and separated milk in the city of Saginaw," be amended by striking out sertion 20, and amending sections 2, 6, 9, and 11, so as to read as follows:

“Sec. 2. Every person desiring to engage in the sale, delivery, or distribution of milk, cream, buttermilk, sour milk, skimmed milk, or separated milk within the corporate limits of the city of Saginaw before doing so shall make application in writing

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upon blanks provided by the board of health to the common council of the city of Saginaw for a license for that purpose, and in such application he shall state the number or location of the place where he proposes to conduct such business, the names of the person or persons from whom he proposes to obtain milk or cream, their location, the number of cows in such herds, the average quantity of milk which he expects to ibtain from each herd, and such written application shall also contain an agreement on the part of such applicant that he will accept a license, if granted to him, upon the cundition that it may be revoked at the will of the common council; and such appli. rant shall before receiving his license pay to the city treasurer the sum of $1 as an an annual license fee, and take therefor the treasurer’s receipt, which receipt he shall deliver to the city clerk with the application for the license. Such license, if issued, shall state the number or the location of the applicant's place of business, shall not be transferable, and shall not extend beyond the 30th day of April next after the date of issue of the same."

"Sec. 6. It shall be the duty of the board of health and the inspector of foods and measures to ascertain that the cows from which the applicant proposes to obtain milk for sale or distribution are free from tuberculosis and other infection or contagious diseases. No cow shall be considered free from tuberculosis except after showing no response to the tuberculin test as applied by a duly licensed veterinary. The cows com which the applicant proposes to obtain milk for sale and distribution shall be Pramined by a licensed veterinary before the common council shall grant the appli. cation for a license, and an examination of each of the cows in the herd from which milk is obtained for sale and distribution shall be made at least once a year thereafter, and each animal tagged in a manner to afford a permanent record of the examination, and no license shall be granted to any applicant until the cows from which he proprises to obtain milk for sale or distribution are shown to be free from tuberculosis and other infection and contagious diseases.

"No milk or cream shall be sold or offered for sale within the corporate limits of the city of Saginaw from any cow added to a herd until such cow has been examined by a licensed veterinary and upon such examination found free from tuberculosis and other infection or contagious disease, and such examination shall have taken place within 6 months from the time it is proposed to add said cow to the herd from which any milk dealer or vendor obtains milk sold or offered for sale within the corporate limits of the city of Saginaw: Provided, The same is made free of charge to the Aners of the cows to be tested by Federal, State, or other authorities. The assistant inspector of foods and measures, being a licensed veterinary surgeon, shall make such tests free of charge to the owners of the cows.”

"Sec. 9. No milk or cream shall be offered for sale in the city of Saginaw which (a) contains any preservatives whatever; (6) has had any part of the cream removed; (c) has had any water or foreign substance added; (d) has not been maintained at a temperature of 50° F. or less since one hour after time of milking; (e) has (if milk) less than 3 puer cent butter fat; () has (if cream) less than 16 per cent fat; (g) contains more than 110,000 bacteria to the cubic centimeter.”

"Sec. 11. The board of health shall devise the method of cleaning and sterilizing of all bottles and see that the same is carried into effect by the properly designated oficial. Milk or cream can be distributed in bottles or from cans as consumer directs: Prorides. If in bottles, said bottles shall be filled only at dairies and such other places 28 have been approved by the board of health.”

ST. JOSEPH, MO. Privies and Cesspools~-Prohibited Within Sanitary District. (Ord. 1426, Aug. 26,

1912.) Section 1. A sanitary district for the purposes in this ordinance hereinafter pro. ded is created and established within the following boundaries, that is to say: ComPsoring at the intersection of Main and Jule Streets, thence east along the center of

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Jule Street to the intersection of Jule and Twelfth Streets, thence south along the center of Twelfth Street to its intersection with Lafayette Street, thence west along the center of Lafayette Street to the Missouri River bank, thence north with the river bank to the center of Main Street, thence north along the center of Main Street to the place of beginning.

Sec. 2. It shall be unlawful for any person hereafter to build, make, maintain, dig, use, or permit to be used any privy vault or cesspool upon any land fronting, abutting upon, or adjacent to any street or alley in and along which a city sewer has been constructed, and where city water can be used, within the boundaries fixed by section 1 of this ordinance, and no person shall make or use or cause to made or permit to be used or maintain any privy within said district and under said conditions in. less the same is what is commonly known as an inside water-closet and connected with the city sewers and furnished with water for flushing and clearing the same.

Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of all owners or occupiers of property within the limits and conditions prescribed in section 1 of this ordinance, or their agents, within 60 0 days after the passage and approval of this ordinance, to remove from their premises the contents of all privy vaults and to abandon the use of such privy vaults, all to be done under the supervision of the board of health.

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the sanitary inspectors to see that the provisions of this ordinance are enforced.

Sec. 5. Any person violating any of the provisions of this ordinance, or failing to comply with any of the provisions thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not ex. ceeding $200.

ST. PAUL, MINN. Berries, etc.--Refilling of Boxes or Other Containers Prohibited. (Ord. Aug. 28,

1912.) SECTION 1. It shall be, and is hereby, declared to be unlawful for any person, persons, firm, or corporation within the corporate limits of the city of St. Paul to repack or refill with strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, currants, or with any other fragile fruit for purposes of sale any boxes, cartons, or other containers in which such berries or other fragile fruit have previously been put up, kept, or contained, unless such boxes, packages, cartons, or containers are thoroughly cleansed and made wholesome and sanitary.

Sec. 2. It shall be, and is hereby, declared to be unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation within the corporate limits of the city of St. Paul to refill or repack with any of the aforesaid berries or other fragile fruit for purposes of sale any boxes, cartons, packages, or other containers which have been previously used for holding fruit and which are afterwards allowed to lie around in the streets, sidewalks, alleys, or other places exposed to dust, dirt, or the elements,

Sec. 3. Any person violating any of the provisions of this ordinance shall be fined in a sum of not less than $10 nor more than $100, or by imprisonment for a period of not more than 90 days for each and every offense.

Public Baths--Regulations Governing Use of. (Ord. June 20, 1912.) That section 4 of ordinance No. 2066, entitled "An ordinance establishing public baths in the city of St. Paul, and providing ior the regulation and maintenance thereof." be amended so as to read as follows:

"Sec. 4. Contagious diseased persons prohibited. ---No person shall be permitted to use the baths who is afflicted with any contagious or loathsome disease, nor shall ans person be permitted to use loud, abusive, indecent, or profane language in, at or near the baths. No person while bathing at the public baths in said city shall swim or go beyond such limits as may be prescribed by the health department of suid city Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty oi a misdemeatur and shall be punished by a fine not exceeding $25."

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REPORT OF THE MEETING OF THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON SCHOOL

HYGIENE, BUFFALO, N. Y., AUGUST 25-30, 1913.
By J. W. SCHERESCHEWSKY, Surgeon, United States Public Health Service.

The Fourth International Congress on School Hygiene met in Buffalo from August 25 to August 30, 1913. Some 2,000 Americans, interested in various phases of school hygiene, were present at the section meetings. The

congress was divided into the following sections: Section 1. The hygiene of school buildings, grounds, material, equipment, and upkeep.

Section 2. The hygiene of school administration, curriculum, and schedule. Section 3. Medical, hygienic, and sanitary supervision in schools.

Mental Hygiene. There was one feature which aroused much interest. This was the discussion of the importance of mental hygiene and the necessity of ordering mental education in children, not only with a view to developing their mentality to the point of greatest working efficiency, but also to secure their perfect adjustment on the intellectual level determined by their respective innate capacities. There can be no question that we have laid too much emphasis in the past upon the influence of bodily defects only in the development of children, and have lost sight of the influence of imperfect states of mental adjustment of the organism to the environment conditions productive of mental instability and disease. At present our data are both incomplete and imperfect so far as they go. Much study will be required before we shall be able correctly to evaluate children, both in respect to their inherited mental capacity and their tendency to mental disease.

Moreover, the influence of environment and the ways it reacts adversely upon the mechanisms of mental adjustment require intensive study before useful data can be collected.

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