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Glamorgan, relative to his commission to treat with the Irish
Catholies, 'the Editor hath taken occafion' to introduce a very
curious letter from that Earl to Lord Clarendon, soon after the
Restoration.
The Marquis of Worcester (late Earl of Glamorgan) to the Earl of

Clarendon. My Lord Chancellor, « Fór his Majesty's better information, through your favour, and by the channel of your Lordship's understanding things rightly, give me leave to acquaint you with one chief key, wherewith to open the fecret paffages between his late Majesty and myself in order to his service, which was no other than a' real expofing of myself to any expence or difficalty, rather than his just defignhould not také place; or, in taking effect, that his honour should suffer. An effect, you may justly say, relishing more of a passionate and blind affeetion to his Majesty's service, than of discretion and care of myself. This made me take a resolution that he should have feemed angry with me at my return out of Ireland, 'until I had brought him into a polture and power to own his commands, to make good his inftrucLions, and to reward my faithfulness and zcal therein.

“ Your Lordship may well wonder, and the King too, at the amplitude of my commiffion. But when you have understood the height of his Majesty's design, you will soon be satisfied that nothing less could have made me capable to effe&t it; being that one 'army of ten thoufand meo was to have come out of Ireland through North Wales; another, of a like number at least onder my command in chief, have expected my return in South Wales, which Sir nry Gage was to Have commanded as Lieutenant General; and a third fhould have confifted of a matter of fix thousand men, two thousand of which were to have been Liegois, commanded by Sir Francis Edmonds, tio thoufand' Lorrainers to have been commanded by Colonel Browne, and two thoufand of such French, English, Scots, and Irish, as could be drawn out of Flanders and Holland. And the fix thousand were to have been, by the Prince of Orange's assistance, in the associated counties: and the Governor of Lyne, cousin german to Major Bacon, Major of my own regiment, was to have delivered the town nn to them.

" The maintenance of this army of foreigners was to have come from the Pope, and such Catholick Princes as he should draw into it, having engaged to afford and procure 30,000 l. à month; out of which the foreign army was first to be provided for and the remainder to be divided among

other armies. And for this purpose had I power to treat with the Pope and Catholick Princes with particular advantages promised to Catholicks, for the quiet enjoying their religion, without the penalties which the statutes in force had power to inflict upon them. And my instructions for this purpose, and my powers to treat and conclude thereupon, were signed by the King under his pocket fignet, with blanks for me to put in the names of Pope or Princes, to the end the King might have a starting hole to deny the having given me such commillions, if excepted against by his own subjects ; leaving me as it were ao itake, who for his Mas jesty's fake was willing to undergo it, trusting to his word alone.

" In like manner did I not fick opon having this commission inrolled or assented unto by his Council, nor indecd the seal to be put unto it in an ordinary manner, but as Mr. Endymion Porter and I could perform it, with rollers and no screw.press.

"One thing 'I beseech your Lordship to observe, that though I had power by it to erect a mint any where, and to dispose of his Majesty's revenues and delinquents' estatés, yet I never did either to the value of a farthing, notwithstanding my own necessities, acknowledging that the intention of those powers given me, was to make use of them when the armies should be afoot ; which design being broken by my commitment in Ireland, I made no use of those powers ; and consequently, repaying now whatever was dilbursed by any for patents of honour, as now I am contented to do, it will evidently appeas that nothing hath ftuck to my fingers in order to benefit or fell-interest; which I humbly submit to his Majesty's princely confideration, and the management of my concerns therein to your Lordship's grave judgment, and to the care of me, which your Lord. taip was pleased to own was recommended unto you by the late King, my moft gracious Master, of glorious memory; and the continuance thereof is most humbly implored and begged by me who am really and freely at your Lordship's disposal, first, in order to his Majesty's fervice, aņd next to the approving myself,

My Lord,

Your Lordship's most really affectionate
June 11, 1660.

and most humble Servant,

WORCESTER. Dr. Scrope observes, in a note, that this letter is decisive of the dispute concerning the authenticity of the commission granted to the Earl of Glamorgan. But, in the preface, he retracts this affertion, as too inconsiderately expressed. The letter, he says, does not prove the commission to be authentic, the proof there refting solely upon the veracity of the writery a very interested person. The Doctor takes notice, however, that the authenticity of the commiffion is abundantly confirmed by two letters from Sir Edward Hyde to Secretary Nicholas, and by a letter of Monf. Montreuil's to the King, all of which are inserted in this volym The general fact, therefore, is now ascertained beyond contradiction, whatever credit be paid to some of the particular circumstances mentioned by the Earl of Glamorgan.

We Thall close the presenç, article, with a spirited letter of Lord Culpeper's, concerning the state of his Majesty's affairs in 1645-6.

The Lord Culpeper to Mr. John Alhburnham. “ This is again moft earnestly to intreat you to bend all your witş 80 advance the Scotch treaty. It is the only way left to save the crown and three kingdoms; all other tricks will deceive you. This is to age for miracles; and certainly the King's condition is such, that less than a miracle cannot save him without a treaty, nor any treaty (probably) but that. If this take, the King will be in London in peace before Chriftmas.. Therefore, if the opportunity I left in

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your power be loft, give not over till you find another; and if you find it not, make it. It is no time to dally upon distinctions and criticisms. All the world will laugh at them when a crown is in question. If you can make the Scots your friends

upon any honeft terms, do it.. Remember, that kingdom united, and the North, and the King's friends at London, will quickly master any opposition which the independents can make. The question ought not to be, Whether, but how, you should do it. If you can engage a treaty, get a pass for me; I will quickly be with you. Whether the King take my advice, or i not, he will believe it to be the best counsel that ever was given him. The best you can hope for in the West is a reprieve; Midlammer-day will not leave the King one town in it: Ireland will be a broken reed; neither can I believe much in Scotland without a treaty. As fof foreign force, it is a vain dream. As soon as FairFax advanceth, all the horse here are in a net, without possibility ei. ther to break through, or to save themselves in our garrisons. The horse loft, it will be impossible ever to get up an army again : and if you faw'us, you would believe we are not in condition to fight. The daily venture of the King's person will be great; so will the bazard be of the Prince's escaping beyond sea, if he should be put to it: and if he were there, it would be a sad condition; and if he were to fall into the rebels' hands, the King were undone, undone. If half your Scots news be true, the intereit of that nation is clearly of your lide ; and you may gain them, and thereby certainly save the crown, if you will. But you must not fick upon circumstances, nor past unwillingly with what you cannot keep. Your treaty muft not be an underhand one, (that will deceive you) but an avowed one with LefJey and Calander. As foon as they have promised to protect the King's person and his prerogative, he is later with them than in Newcale. All that they can ak, or the king part with, is a trifle in sefpect of the price of a crown, : Dispute not whilft_you. Nould refolve; nor spend in debate that precious time which is only fit for action. This opportunity loft is not to be recovered. l'le this bearer kindly. If there be a Scotch treacy, his Lord must be at one end of it, and will be very useful. He believeth this letter is wholly concerning his Lord. Send hiin speedily back; and write at large by him and all other ways to, &c. February.

[To be concluded in our next. )

K.

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ART. VII. Philosophical Transactions. Vol. LXII. 40. 145. fewed,

Davies. 1773.
E find, by an advertisement prefixed to this volume,

that, in consequence of a resolution, at a council of the Royal Society, Jan. 28, 1773, the Philosophical Transactions will be publithed twice in each year. Accordingly the volume before us, and the ift part * of vol. Ixiii. have appeared

• The volume for each year is for the future, to be publied in two parts, under the distinct titles of “ First Part," and " Second Part, of the volume.

within the space of a few months past. The sixty-second vo-
lume, however, has the first claim to a place in our Review;
and we shall begin with those articles which relate to

ASTRONOMY.
Article 4. Extraal of a Letter from Mr. George Witchell, F.R.S.

and Mafter of the Royal Academy at Portsmouth, to Charles Mor-
ton, M. D. Sec. R. S. inclofeng fome Account of a Solar Eclipse
ebserved at George's Island, by Captain Wallis ; and several aftro-
nomical Observations made at Portsmouth.

This eclipse was observed, on the 25th of July 1767, from a point of land, the latitude of which, deduced from the mean of many obfervations, is 17° 30' South ; and the longitude, determined, by various observations of the distance of the sun from the moon, between 149° 30' and 149° 50' West from London. Mr. Witchell compuies the longitude from the end of the eclipse, which seems to have been more exactly ascertained than the beginning, and finds it 9 h. 55' 55" Weft from Greenwich, or 148° 58', which is 41' less than the mean result of the lunar observations; a difference, all circumstances considered, not very great, as these were the first observations that were ever made on this island. · The other observations contained in this article are those of meridian transits for determining the solstices and the oppofitions of the three superior planets. They were partly made by Mr. Bradley, and partly by Mr. Witchell

. From a comparison of the former observations it appears that the true zenith distance of the sun's center At the winter solstice is

74° 16' 13.4 And at the summer solstice

27 19

19 51.6

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Hence the mean obliquity, Dec. 21,1770, is 23 28 II'. O

June 21,1771, 23 28 10.8
And from these observations the latitude of their observatory at
Portsmouth appears to be 50° 48' 2." 4 North. :
Article 6. Directions for using the common Micrometer, taken from

a Paper in the late Dr. Bradley's Hand-writing : Communicated
by Nevil Maskelyne, Aftronomer Royal, and F. R. S.

The first use of micrometers was only that of measuring small angles, such as the diameters of the sun and moon, and other planets, and taking the distance of such objects, as appeared within the aperture of the telescope at the same time, but they have since been contrived for more general use; and, in their 5

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later construction, answer the end of taking the difference of
right ascension and declination of those objects, which, in theit
apparent diurnal motion follow one another through the tele-
scope, provided it be kept in the same situation. This paper
contains very useful instructions for applying the micrometer
to every kind of observation, of which it is capable. It does
not admit of an abridgment, and our limits will not allow us to
insert the whole of it.
Article 9. A Deduction of the quantity of the sun's parallax from

the Comparison of the several Observations of the late Transit of
Venus, made in Europe, with those made in George Ifand in the
South Seas : Communicated by Mr. Euler, jun. Secretary of the
Imperial Academy at Petersourg ; in a Letter to Charles Martony
M. D, EC.
An abridgment of a dissertation on this subject written by
M, Lexell, a member of the imperial academy, and to be in
serted in the. 16th volume of their Commentaries. By com-
paring several observations and applying the necessary correc-
tions, he makes the sun's parallax 8." 55.
Article 14. A Letter from Mr. Peter Dollond to Neil Maskelyne,

F.R.S. and Apronomer Royal ; defcribing some. Additions and Alterations made to Hadley's Quadrant, to render it mare ferviceable at Sea.

The principal improvements introduced by Mr. Dollond in the construction of Hadley's quadrant, relate to the methods of adjusting the glasses for the back observation. For this purpose he applies an index to the back horizon glass, by wbich it may be moved into a parallel position to the index glass : and by moving this index exactly 90°, the glass is set at right angles to the index glass, and is properly adjusted for use. In order to fix the horizon glasses in a perpendicular position to the plane of the instrument, he has contrived to move each of them by a single screw, that goes through the frame of the quadrant, and which may be turned by means of a milled head at the back, while the observer is looking at the object. Mr. D. has likewise placed the darkening glasses, proposed by the: Aftronomer Royal, in such a manner, that they may be easily turned behind either of the two horizon glasses 3, and of these there are three different shades. Article 15. * Remarks on the Hadley's Quadrant, tending print isipally to remove the Difficulties which have bitharte attended the

Use of the Back-Obfervation, and to obviate the Errors that : might arise from a Want of Parallelifm in the two Surfaces of the

Index-Glafs. By Nevil Maskelyne, F. R.S.

See the Nautical Almanack for 1774.

Some

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